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the purpose to which they are destined. slogue,* by which we trust that completion We hope that in the erection of the new will be followed ; the preparation of separate library this error will be avoided, and that catalogues of certain collections-such as provision will at once be made for the an- those of Grenville and of Thomason, ticipated requirements of at least a quarter which would be at once great boons to the of a century in advance.
student, and fitting tributes to the memory Several years ago it was said, that “No of public benefactors; the provision of a collection of printed books, worthy to rank public lending library, and of an evening as the first public library of Great Britain, reading-room ;--each and all of these are can be comprised, at the present time, measures involving large outlay ; but it will within a less number of volumes than 600,- be money well spent, and productive of an 000, which number must increase yearly.'
»* ample return. And this opinion is adopted by Mr. Panizzi,
Mr. Panizzi's closing words put this part in concluding his report. A building ought, of the question in a very just point of therefore, to be provided, capable of con- view: taining 250,000 volumes. Most of our readers, we suppose, are
The expense,” he says, “ requisite for accom
plishing what is here suggested ; that is, for formaware that the new buildings of the Muse-ing in a few years a public library containing from um form a quadrangle, one of the sides of 600,000 to 700,000 printed volumes, giving the which is prolonged by an additional build- necessary means of information on all branches ing, at its extremity, and another has vari- of human learning, from all countries, in all lanous irregular lateral additions of unequal guages, properly arranged, substantially and well extent. The outer dimensions of the main bound, minutely and fully catalogued, easily acquadrangle itself are about 550 ft. by years to come of keeping pace with the increase
cessible and yet safely preserved, capable for some 350 ft., and the inner dimensions, or those of human knowledge, will no doubt be great, but of the open space inclosed by the build- so is the nation which is to bear it. What might ings, 317 ft. by 238 ft. If this inner qua- be extravagant and preposterous to suggest in one drangle were divided by a central building, country, may be looked upon not only as moderate from east to west-extending from the but indispensable, in another.”[ centre of the Royal Library” to the The library of Sion College was founded centre of the “Gallery of Antiquities”- by the Rev. John Simpson, Rector of St. a room would be obtained, measuring 230 Olave, Hart-street (who was the executor ft. by 55 ft., and capable of containing of Dr. Thomas White, the founder of the 300,000 volumes, if constructed and fitted College), and was first opened to the clergy up on the same principle as the latest ad- of the city of London in the dition to the present library. Or a portion But it did not become a public library (free of this space might be separated from the to all persons producing a satisfactory rerest, and made somewhat more ornamental, commendation, as at the British Museum) for the special reception of the Grenville until after the commencement of the preLibrary, which is to be kept apart from sent century. It may therefore be ranked the other collections, in accordance with as the fourth library, for public use, in the the wish expressed by its munificent donor, metropolis, and it is the last to which that The space for the admission of light and description strictly applies. air which the execution of this plan would leave between the respective buildings, 1826 and 1834, Parliament voted the sum of 5355l.,
* It is to be remembered that between the years would still exceed 120 ft. in its narrowest expressly for the preparation of a classed catalogue dimensionst-about equal to the width of on the plan laid down in Mr. Hartwell Horne's Portland-place, from house to house, admirable " Outlines for the Classification of a Li
brary." And even were there no other reason, we
should agree with Mr. Panizzi (who avowedly preTo provide for the extension of the na- fers alphabetical to classed catalogues) when he said tional library, upon a scale like this, would (Second Report, 4966)," It may be a matter of condoubtless involve great expenditure. The sideration whether, after having spent so much, and completion of the catalogue now in pro-plete it."
having gone so far, it might not be better to com
When it was determined, on account gress; the compilation of the classed cata-1 of the wretched condition of the old reading-room
catalogue, to use the titles which had been prepared * Remarks on the Minutes of Evidence, &c., p. 69. for the classed in the compilation of a new alphaSee also those Minutes in Second Report, Q. 3497. vetical catalogue, it was expressly directed that they + See the plan of the buildings, in Second Report, should first be so marked, as that they might be
readily thrown into their former order.
† Panizzi, ut sup., p. 37.
The original collection scarcely amounted Paris possesses five public libraries, to to 4000 yolumes, but considerable additions which admission is absolutely free, indewere soon made by various benefactors, and pendently of those of the Institute, the many books are said to have been transfer-| University, and the two Chambers, to all red to it, in 1647, from old St. Paul's of which persons satisfactorily recommendCathedral. More than one-third of the ed may obtain admission. These five books were destroyed in the Great Fire of libraries contain at least 1,300,000 volumes 1666. In 1679, à considerable collection of printed books-viz. of books, which haď been seized from the Jesuits, were sent to Sion College, some of 1. Royal Library
800,000 volumes which are very curious, and are not to be 2. Arsenal Library
180,000 found in the Museum Library. George, 3. Saint Genevieve Library 165,000
100,000 first Earl of Berkeley, presented half of the 4. Mazarine Library
5. Town Library
55,000 library of his uncle, Sir Robert Cooke, towards the close of the seventeenth cen
1,300,000* tury; and in the beginning of the eighteenth-by the Act 8 of Anne, c. 19—the
The sum granted for the maintenance college acquired the right of receiving a and enlargement of the first four of these copy of every book printed in Great Bri- libraries, in the budget for 1846, was 23,tain, which right it retained until 1836, 1591. (555,823 francs.t) when so much of that Act was repealed as
About 12,000 volumes are stated, in a related to Sion College, the Advocates' recent French publication, I to be annually Library at Edinburgh, the Libraries of the added to the Royal library alone. As in four Scottish Universities, and the King's most of the great continental libraries, its Inns' Library in Dublin.
books are permitted to be borrowed, as well Sion College now receives 3001. a year as used in the reading-rooms. Of late, infrom the Treasury, as a compensation for deed, this practice has become matter of this loss, which sum is applied to the pur-complaint with some of the literary men of chase of books, chiefly in theology and Paris
. M. Paul Lacroix, especially, in his ecclesiastical history, and this money grant
clever and sarcastic—but somewhat inexproves far more advantageous to the library act-pamphlet, entitled, “ Réforme de la than was its former privilege, the abolition Bibliothèque du Roi,” waxes loud and inof which has also relieved literature from dignant in his denunciation of it. But we an unwise and oppressive tax.
think that his condemnation is far too sweepThis library contains an important col-ing, and that, in this instance, the reform relection of tracts on the Romanist contro-quired is by no means the abolition of the versy, formed by Bishop Gibson, and some lending system, but rather a better method minor collections. The total number of of managing it, and certain additional revolumes (including the tract volumes) is strictions to guard against its abuse. Several about 27,000. A complete catalogue of years ago, the officers of the library, in a them is in progress, both classed and joint letter to the then Minister of Public alphabetical, on the principle of that by Instruction, whilst admitting the former Reading, published in 1724, but modified, existence of great abuse in this matter, add as to the classification, in accordance with emphatically, “ The evil exists no longer. the excellent system drawn up by the Rev.
. . . If some persons have still beT. H. Horne, for the trustees of the British trayed our confidence, the mischief thence Museum.
resulting has been rendered almost null.” The four public libraries of London, the At all events, it is clear the mischief has origin and present condition of which we
been much diminished. have thus passed in review, contain in the
The average daily number of readers at aggregate about 397,000 volumes of printed the Royal Library is stated to be nearly books-viz.
400; and of those at the Arsenal, St. Ge
nevieve, and Mazarine Libraries together, 1. British Museum Library 350,000 volumes. * We give these numbers as the lowest estimate 2. Sion College Library 27,000
which can be formed of them, after a careful com3. Dr. Williams' Library 17,000
parison of various official returns with the most re4. Archbishop Tenison's Library 3,000
cent books of repute on the public establishments
and statistics of Paris, Total
+ Budget de l'Exercice, 1845, vol. i., p. 323. 397,000
Lazare, Dictionnaire des Rues de Paris, p. 71.
about 400 more. Of the great assiduity requisite in course of time, instead of deand urbanity of the librarians of the former, stroying it, and abandoning the site to the we can bear testimony from personal ex. speculators in new lines of shops. The perience. But we regret to add, that we letters of Count de Laborde are admirably cannot extend our praise to its catalogues written, and will repay perusal even to the In this most important point, it may be mere reader for amusement, abounding as asserted, without fear of contradiction, that they do with historical anecdote and felicithe Royal Library of Paris, although the tous illustration. greatest and finest library in the world, is far But, on the whole, it cannot be doubted, worse provided than the Library of the Bri- that far more ample provision is made for tish Museum. The very extent of the Paris the student in Paris than in London, even Library may, indeed, partly account for the were the Bibliothèque Royale the only pubinferiority; but, in this point of view, the lic library in the former capital. When to question is simply one of expense.
this are added four other extensive libra
ries, each possessing its distinctive recom“ The catalogue,” says M. Paul Lacroix, “ has mendation, and to each of which there is been for a century in preparation; it has been the the freest access, the comparison turns favorite dream of some librarians; the invariable greatly indeed to our disadvantage. We pretext of the greater number; everybody has bad a hand in it
, some doing, others doing over again, trust, however, that the liberality of Parliaand many undoing; it has cost enormous sums, ment will not be limited to the improve
and the only result, as yet, has been a mass ment and extension of the British Museum, of titles piled up in cases, in alphabetical order, but that at least two additional public
titles faulty, insignificant, and incomplete. libraries will be established in different
Yet as long as this catalogue, classed and parts of the metropolis, under thoroughly methodized, remains unaccomplished, and, what is responsible management. Experience jusmore, printed, the library will be like an ocean, tifies the belief, that if this were done, and without a compass and without a pilot."*
done well, private munificence would soon We learn, however, with pleasure, that come in aid of the grants which may be alzealous efforts are now being made to ac- therance of so truly public and national an
lotted from the public purse, for the furcomplish this task in a manner adequate to its importance. We believe that it will be object. accomplished, too, without having recourse to the extreme measure, advocated by M. Lacroix, of absolutely closing the library for two years, in addition to the total abolition of the loan of books.
AN AFFECTING AND ROMANTIC CASE.-An unThe administration of the Royal Library brought up before the Magistrates at Reading Po
fortunate young woman was on Thursday last of Paris has also had to contend with an- lice Office, having been found on the race-course at other great difficulty, in the shape of the six o'clock that morning by one of the police in a multitudinous projects which have been pitiable state. It was with some difficulty that his
worship could persuade her to answer any ques. formed-and, many of them, brought under tion, but from what was ultimately elicited," she discussion both in the government and in stated that she had been educated in a convent in the chambers—for building a new library, France, and placed there by the Viscountess Fitzand removing to it the vast collections of had found her way to the race-course, and, from her the present one. Architects, contractors, appearance, had been very badly treated, her eyes journalists, and meddlers of all kinds, have being swollen and her clothes torn and dirty. she given ample expression to their several had come from London, and had been in Reading ideas on this subject, until it has become had been vending small tracts, and a person in the
for the last few days, and we understand that she quite the fashion for the architectural tyro town had relieved her and told her she would ento make his debut in the exhibition with a deavor to place her in a situation. She also stated “ Plan for a New Royal Library ;” but only that she had known a young female that had former very lately has the energetic and authorita- they were both together in the convent in France. tive voice been raised to preserve the pre- The unfortunate girl had evidently received a good sent noble building, with its ample space, education, and appeared to feel deeply her deploraand its historical associations, and to show ble situation. His worship the Mayor directed Mr. the wisdom of making all needful repara- supply Ler with necessary comforts, in order that
Readings to take care of her for a few days, and to tions, and such additions as may become inquiries may be made, and the unfortunate young
creature, if possible, restored to her friends. -- Berk• Réforme, &c., p. 91.
shire Chronicle. Vol. XII. No. III.
from the English Review.
JEAN PAUL FRIEDRICH RICHTER.
1. Life of Jean Paul F. RICHTER, compiled from various sources; together with his
Autobiography, Translated from the German. 2 Vols. London, 1845. 2. Walt and Vult; or, The Twins : Translated from the Flegeljahre of JEAN PAUL, by
the author of “ The Life of Jean Paul.” 2 Vols. Boston and New York, 1846. 3. Flower, Fruit, and Thorn Pieces; or, The Married Life, Death, and Wedding of the
Advocate of the Poor, Firmian Stanislaus Siebenküs. By JEAN PAUL FRIEDRICH RICHTER. Translated from the German by Edward Henry NOEL. 2 Vols. London, 1845.
The conquests achieved by literary genius pieces, * Mr. Thomas Carlyle brought the over the impenetrable dulness which is, in English public acquainted with the name of the most enlightened, as well as in the dark- Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, and
them est ages, the portion of the general mass of some little “ taste of his quality.”
He was humankind, are, like other great conquests, followed by Kenney, from whose pen apnot the work of a moment: the day on peared at Dresden, 1839, a translation of which the victory is decided and proclaimed - The Death of an Angel," and of a large is preceded by many a conflict of doubtful number of short pieces, selected from the issue, and many a forlorn hope has to be works of Jean Paul, together with “A led on before a breach can be effected in the Sketch of his Life and Character;" and massive fortifications of intellectual impas- now we have before us from an American sibility. Such forlorn hopes are the various pen, in an English reprint, a “Life of attempts which have been made to intro- Jean Paul,” in two volumes, followed by a duce to the English reading public, by translation of his Flegeljahre, from the translations and biographies, one of the most same pen; and furthermore a translation distinguished literary characters of what of Siebenküs, from the pen of Mr. Noel. may well be termed our German brotherland. As we shall find opportunities of dropping
The first of these attempts proceeded, an obiter dictum on the merits of these prosome twenty years ago, from no mean pen, ductions, we shall not detain our readers that of the veteran of German criticism in by criticisms upon the copies from that furthe field of English literature. By two re-ther and fuller acquaintance with the origiviews of the two principal biographies of the nals to which we shall endeavor, as far as is author, the one authentic,* the other apo- possible within our limits, to introduce them. cryphal,tand by translations of several short Neither do we propose to enter into any
* Wahrheit aus Jean Paul's Leben, which contains details respecting the life of Jean Paul, of the autobiography of Jean Paul, in the form of which as much as can be compressed into a humoristic lectures, extending, however, no further brief sketch has already been told, and than his boyhood; followed by the continuation of well told, by Mr. Carlyle:Ť The history of rary confidant, Otto, who himself, also, did not live genius working out its powers under the to complete it, having died a few months after Jean pressure of worldly disadvantages, and Paul, from grief, it is said, for the loss of his friend. struggling into greatness and fame through The Conclusion is from the pen of Dr. Förster, Jean
of Dr. Förster, Jean a long continuance of overwhelming adverPaul's son-in-law, to whom, after Otto's death, the completion both of his biography, and of the com
sity, is indeed an interesting and a highlyplete edition of his works, was committed. The first instructive theme : but still more interestvolumes of this biography were reviewed by Mr. ing, and replete with instruction of a yet Carlyle, in No. IX. of the Foreign Review. The article is reprinted in the second volume of Carlyle's * A translation of Jean Paul's Review of Madame Critical and Miscellaneous Essays.
de Staël's Germany, was given by Mr. Carlyle in + Jean Paul Friedrich Richter's Leben, nebst Char- | Nos. I. and IV. of Fraser's Magazine, and is reacteristic seiner Werke, von Heinrich Döring, Gotha, printed in the second volume of his Critical and 1826. Of this production Mr. Carlyle gave an Miscellaneous Essays; and the third volume of his account in No. XCI. of the Edinburgh Review; “German Romances' contains a translation of reprinted in the first volume of his Miscellanies. "Army-Chaplain Schmelzle's Journey to Flätz," and Döring himself published, in 1830, a second and of the Life of Quintus Fixlein." enlarged, but scarcely improved edition of this bio- + In the article in No. IX. of the Foreign Review graphical compilation, against which Jean Paul's reprinted in vol. ii." of his Critical and Miscellanewidow cautioned the public by advertisement. ous Essays.
deeper sort, is the history of a mind grop- occasioned by the sorrow of his bereaveing through the darkness of human systems ment, is a touching attestation of the flame after the light of heaven's truth; endued of hope and faith which was glimmering in with an instinct of truth too powerful to be his soul, and which longed for the heavenly deceived by the false lights by which phi-oil that would have kindled it into dazzling losophic thought and poetic enthusiasm are brightness. As we behold the unfinished endeavouring among our German neighbors manuscript of that work laid upon Jean to supply the absence of the torch of God's Paul's bier by his mourning friends and adtruth, and yet kept back from seeking the mirers, we seem to see the soul, which in its light of that truth where alone it can be flight from its earthly tenement left behind found, by prejudices, the existence of which these fragments of its inward workings, is to be laid in a very great measure at the passing over the threshold of the unseen door of those who announce themselves to world with that mighty question on its lips, the world as its depositaries and heralds. there to receive a full and eternal answer.
Such a mind was that of Jean Paul. In As is not unfrequently the case with men, his earliest years, on the verge of boyhood, whom their high gifts and their singular a deep touch of religious sentiment accom- energy of character mark as chosen instrupanied his first communion ; but when the ments for the accomplishment of great moral luxuriant growth of his mind and heart in and intellectual reforms, Jean Paul's literary youth, and the full ripe power of all his and social career commenced with opposifaculties in manhood, would have required tion against the existing state of things. the strong meat of Christian grace and truth For it is the manner, the instinct, so to to sustain them, the leanness and dryness speak, of men of that stamp to chant forth of Lutheran orthodoxy failed to satisfy the into the world, forcibly and without discravings of his mind, while the cold and guise, whatever is for the time being the barren forms of Lutheran worship acted like key-note of their inner life; whence it hapthe negative pole of the magnet upon his pens that what in after years of moral and warm heart and his deeply poetic soul. intellectual maturity proves a sweet and Thus became he an easy prey to the seduc- salutary fruit of wisdom, is in earlier years tions of that idolatry of genius which was not unfrequently obtruded upon the public at its height in Germany when Jean Paul's with all the sourness and asperity which mind awoke to the great questions of life ; belongs to an unripe state. In few instanand which, when afterwards by his own lite- ces has this truth been more strikingly ilrary productions he rose into notice, placed lustrated that in that of our author; the himself also among the idols in the temple gentle mellowness of whose later works of literary fame. But although both a forms the most extraordinary contrast with worshipper and an idol in that temple, nei- the uncouth crabbedness of his youthful ther its worship nor the faith on which it productions ; while the position in which he was founded could quench his soul's deep found himself at the commencement of his thirst for a higher and more heavenly life; literary career, at the age of nineteen,“ at and we find him who had become a free- hand-grips with actual want,” was one thinker as soon as he began to think at all, which to an ordinary mind would have in the ripeness of his manhood, and when suggested any course in preference to that he was full of years, before the gates of of provoking the world's hostility by a sedeath and the portals of the invisible ries of keen and bitter satires. Such, neworld, struggling to give to that world re- vertheless, were the first-fruits of Jean ality within his breast. One of his most Paul's genius; and in the preface to them interesting works, written in the very acme in the edition of his collected works, which of his literary strength and fame, treats of he began to prepare after he had been an the great question of the immortality of the author for forty years, he frankly condemns soul; and a second and still maturer work them on this very account. He appears alon the same subject was commenced by most reluctant to reproduce them, yieldhim on the day on which he was bereaved ing in fact to the curiosity of the public as of his only son, a hopeful youth of nine- to the first lucubrations of a favorite auteen, whose premature end was accelerated thor; but even with this excuse he cannot by spiritual struggles surpassing his bodily make up his mind to republish them in strength. This latter work especially, which their original form; he says he found it was left incomplete, when, five years after, indispensably necessary to “reduce the death overtook the author in the blindness coarse-grained groy salt” of his wit“ to a