mated, they reciprocally depict each other. The heat must on no account be so great as to by means of the invisible rays which they volatilize the mercury.”Phil. Mag., vol. xxi., p. emit.

467.-Researches, p. 237. Mr. Hunt, who dissents from this hypo

The plate is then placed in a mercury thesis, has described several experiments in box, the vapor of which attacks the white which the phenomena are produced by heat, parts of the copy, and gives a faithful but and he has given the name of Thermography indistinct image.' It is then exposed to the to this process of copying engravings on metallic plates," regarding the phenomena, free from mercury, and by blackening them

vapor, of iodine, which attacks the parts “ if not directly the effect of a disturbance gives a perfectly black picture. of the latent caloric, as at least materially

M. Knorr has shown that these images influenced by the action of heat.” Mr. Hunt placed on a well-polished

copper- of vapor, and simply by the action of heat.

may be produced without any condensation plate a sovereign, a shilling, a large silver The copper-plate is heated to the degree medal, and a penny, and when the plate had at which it begins to change color, and been gently warmed by a spirit-lamp, cool when the spirit-lamp is extinguished, and ed, and exposed to the vapor of mercury, the plates and medals withdrawn, distinct each piece left its impression, the sovereign impressions of them are found penetrating and the silver medal being most distinct, to a considerable depth into the surface of and the lettering in each copied. A bronze the metal. medal gave its picture, though placed th

Dr. Karsten of Berlin has obtained still of an inch above the plate. When the copper-plate was made too hot to be han- more interesting results by the agency of

common electricity. If a medal is placed dled, it gave impressions in the following order of intensity, gold, silver, bronze, cop- metallic one, and if the medal is subjected

upon a glass-plate, and this plate upon a per, the mass of the metal materially influ- to discharges of electricity, a perfect image encing the result, and the impressions from of the medal, capable of being developed the gold and silver being permanent. The by mercury or iodine, will be received upon heat of the sun's rays produced analogous the glass; and if several glass plates are effects, the calorific rays alone influencing interposed between the medal and the the result. In this way Mr. Hunt copied metallic-plate, an image of the medal will printed pages and engravings on iodized

be formed on the upper surface of each of paper, by mere contact and exposure to

the plates of glass. heat, and he found that this could be done even at considerable distances between the which we have been considering arise from

M. Fizeau is of opinion that the images object and its copy. By amalgamating the

a surface of the paper according to the fol- a slight layer of organic matter, volatile, or lowing process, he was at length enabled to

Professor Grove has copy from paper line-engravings, wood- adopted the same general view, and Sir euts, and lithographs, with surprising ac- David Brewster, having succeeded in formcuracy

ing very fine pictures upon glass, by the

entrance of nitrate of silver into its pores, A well polished plate of copper is rubbed regards all these images as the result of the over with the nitrate of mercury, and then well washed, to remove any nitrate of copper which body and received into the pores of another.

absorption of matter, emanating from one may be formed; when quite dry, a little mercury, taken upon soft leather or linen, is well rubbed Hence he has been led to the following over it, and the surface washed to a perfect mirror. general conclusions:-" That all bodies The sheet to be copied is placed smoothly over throw off emanations in greater or less abunthe mercurial surface, and a sheet or two of soft dance, in particles of greater or less size, clean paper being placed upon it, it is pressed into and with greater or less velocities--that equal contact with the metal by a piece of glass these particles enter more or less into the or flat board. In this state it is allowed to remain for an hour or two. The time may be consider pores of solid and fluid bodies, sometimes ably shortened by applying a very gentle heat for resting near their surface, sometimes effecta few minutes to the under surface of the plate. ing a deeper entrance, and sometimes per

meating them altogether—that the pro* See Transactions of the Cornwall Polytechnic Sojection of these emanations is aided by ciety, 1842. London and Edinburgh Philosophical differences of temperature—by great heat* Magazine, October, 1840, and December, 1812, vol. xxi., p. 462, and Researches, &c., p. 223.;

: * The colored films produced upon steel and

--by vibratory action—by friction-bytered by power, consecrated by piety, and electricity,-in short, by every cause which hallowed by affection, their choicest proaffects the forces of aggregation, by which ductions have been preserved by the libethe particles of bodies are held together; rality of individuals, and the munificence of and that these emanations, when feeble, kings while the palaces of sovereigns, the show themselves in the images of Fusinieri, edifices of social life, the temples of religion, Draper, Hunt, Moser, Fizeau, Knorr, Kar- the watch-towers of war, the obelisks of sten, and Zantedeschi*—when stronger, in fame, and the mausolea of domestic grief, certain chemical changes which they pro- remain under the blue cupola of nature's duce—when stronger still, in their action museum, to attest by their modern beauty, on the olfactory nerves, causing smell, and or their ruined grandeur, the genius and when thrown off most copiously and rapidly, taste of their founders. To the cultivation in heat, affecting the nerves of touch-in and patronage of such noble arts, the vanity, photogenic action, dissevering and re-com- the hopes, and the holiest affections of bining the elements of matter, and in phos- man stand irrevocably pledged ; and we phorescent and luminous emanations, ex-should deeply deplore any invention or disciting the retina and producing vision.” covery, or any tide in the nation's taste,

Before we conclude this part of our sub- which should paralyse the artist's pencil, or ject, we must give a brief notice of a very stay the sculptor's chisel, or divert into remarkable invention of M. Martens, by new channels the genius which wields them. which an extensive panoramic view, amount. Instead of superseding the arts of design, as ing even to an angle of 150°, may be taken some have feared, photography will but supby the Daguerreotype. The object-glass is ply them with new ideas-with collections fixed upon a pivot, and put in motion by an of costume, with studies of drapery and of endless screw, so as to present a' narrow figures, and with scenes in life and nature, aperture in front of it, in succession, to the which, if they possess at all, they possess landscape or group of figures to be copied. imperfectly, and without which art must be When the long iodized plate, curved cylin- stationary, if she does not languish and dedrically, is placed in the apparatus, the cline. Sentiments analogous to these have cover is taken from the object-glass, and the been more professionally expressed by M. Dehandle is turned slowly and steadily round, laroche, a distinguished French artist, and slowly when a dark object is in the field, we believe also by Mr. Eastlake, the highand quickly when a luminous object is est authority in England; and if a new there. By means of a common achromatic era be now seen in our horizon, with all the object-glass, one inch and four-tenths in dia- promise of an auroral dawn, in which the meter, views have been produced thirty-three sister arts shall simultaneously adeight centimetres long and twelve wide; vance to perfection, it will be by the agency and these views, one of which we have seen, of photography—importing nature herself are as perfect as if they had been taken by into the artist's studio, and furnishing to the common camera.

his imagination an exuberance of her riches.

In sculpture, advantage has not yet been Having thus given our readers a brief ac- taken of the peculiar help which is offered count of the history and processes of the to her by photography. All the elements two sister arts which constitute photogra- of statuary, and all the forms and proporphy, we must now endeavor to estimate the tions of a living figure, may be obtained advantages which they have conferred upon from a number of azimuthal representations, society, and which may yet be expected or sectional outlines, taken photographicalfrom their future progress. The arts of ly: and by means of a binocular camera, architecture, sculpture, and painting, have founded on the principle of Mr. Wheatin every age called into exercise the loftiest stone's beautiful stereoscope, two of these genius and the deepest reason of man. Fos- azimuthal sections may be combined into a

solid, with all the lights and shadows of the other metals by heat are obviously the material radi- original figure from which they are taken. ations from the metal uniting with the oxygen atmosphere.

Superficial forms will thus, at his com* Professor Zantedeschi, of Venice, has shown mand, stand before the sculptor in three that metals pass into a radiant state—are reflected dimensions, and he may

thus virtually carry, like light and heat, and return into a concrete state in his portfolio the Apollo Belvidere and in virtue of chemical affinity - Ricerche Fisico the gigantic Sphynx, and all the statuary chimico Fisiologiche sulla Luce, chap. iv. Venezia. 1846. Folio.

of the Louvre and the British Museum.

of the

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But while the artist is thus supplied with or the “ shepherd's fold."* But though it every material for his creative genius, the is only Palestine in desolation that a mopublic will derive a new and immediate ad-dern sun can delineate, yet the seas which vantage from the productions of the solar bore on their breast the divine Redeemer, pencil

. The homefaring man, whom fate and the everlasting hills which bounded or duty chains to his birth-place, or impri- his view, stand unchanged by time and the sons in his fatherland, will, without the fa elements, and, delineated on the faithful tigues and dangers of travel, scan the beau- tablet, still appeal to us with an immortal ties and wonders of the globe, not in the interest † fantastic or deceitful images of a hurried But the scenes which are thus presented pencil, but in the very picture which would to us by the photographer have not merely have been painted on his own retina, were the interest of being truthful representahe magically transported to the scene. tions: they form, as it were, a record of The gigantic outline of the Himalaya and every visible event that takes place while the the Andes will stand self-depicted upon his picture is delineating. The dial-plate of borrowed retina—the Niagara will pour out the clock tells the hour and minute when it before him, in panoramic grandeur, her was drawn, and with the day of the month, mighty cataract of waters—while the flam- which we know, and the sun's altitude, ing volcano will toss into the air her clouds which the shadows on the picture often supof dust and her blazing fragments.* The ply, we may find the very latitude of the scene will change, and there will rise before place which is represented. All stationary him Egypt's colossal pyramids, the tem- life stands self-delineated on the photoples of Greece and Rome, and the gilded graph: The wind, if it blows, will exhibit mosques and towering minarets of Eastern its disturbing influence--the rain, if it falls, magnificence.† But with not less wonder, and will glisten on the housetop--the still with a more eager and affectionate gaze, will clouds will exhibit their ever-changing he survey those hallowed scenes which faith forms—and even the lightning's flash will has consecrated and love endeared. Paint- imprint its fire-streak on the sensitive taed in its cheerless tints Mount Zion will blet. stand before him a field that is To the physical sciences Photography has ploughed,"-Tyre, as a rock on which the already made valuable contributions. Mr. fisherman dry their nets--Gaza, in her pro- Ronalds, Mr. Collen, and Mr. Brooke phetic “ baldness”—Lebanon with her ce- have, with much ingenuity, employed it at dars prostrate among the “howling firs;" | Kew and at Greenwich to record the varia-Nineveh“ made as the grave,” and seen tions of meteorological and magnetical inonly in the turf that covers it ;--and Baby- struments in the absence of the observer, and lon the Great, the Golden City, with its Mr. Brunel has Daguerreotype pictures impregnable walls, its hundred gates of taken of the public works which he is carrybrass, now “sitting

sitting in the dust,” « cast up ing on, at stated times, so as to exhibit as an heap," covered with “pools of wa- their progress, and give him as it were a ter,” and without even the “ Arab's tent" power of superintendance without being

personally present. Sir John Herschel and An accomplished traveller, who ascended other philosophers have obtained from phoMount Etna in order to take Talbotype drawings of its scenery, placed his camera on the edge of the tography much important information recrater, in order to get a representation of that inte specting the properties of the solar specresting spot. No soones was the camera fixed, and trum, and Dr. Carpenter has applied it with the sensitive paper introduced, than a partial erup: singular success in executing beautiful tion took place, which drove the traveller from his camera in order to save his life. When the eruption ceased, he returned to collect the fragments of * Dr. Keith has brought home with him from the his instrument, when, to his great surprise and de- Holy Land, about thirty Daguerreotypes of its most light, he found that his camera was not only unin- interesting scenery, executed by his son, Dr. George jured, but contained an excellent picture of the cra. Keith, and which are now engraving for publicater and the eruption !

tion. Since this note was printed, we have received, + The drawings in the Excursions Daguerriennes, and now have before us, fourteen of these beautiful taken from the sun-pictures in the splendid gallery engravings, representing Mount Zion, Tyre, Petra, of M. Lerebours, contain 114 plates, representing Hebron, Askelon, Gerash, Cesaræa, Ashdod, and scenes and public buildings in America, Algeria, other interesting places. England, Egypt, France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Rus- † See Lond. and Edin. Phil. Magazine, Feb., sia, Sardinia, Sweden, Switzerland, Savoy, Nubia, 1846, vol. xxviii., p. 73; and Phil. Trans., 1847, pt. Syria, and Palestine.

1., pp. 59, 69, and 111.



drawings of objects of natural history, as likeness, which to the filial and parental exhibited in the solar microscope. heart must become a precious possession.

If the solar pencil fails in its delineations These observations, which apply princiof female beauty, or of the human counte- pally to the Talbotype, were at one time nance when lighted up with joy and glad- especially applicable to the Daguerreotype ness, or beaming with the expression of portraits, when the sitter sat long, and feeling or intelligence, it yet furnishes to when a pallid whiteness characterized all its the domestic circle one of its most valued productions. The improvement of the art, acquisitions. The flattering representa- however, in the shortness of the sitting, in tions of the portrait-painter, which delight the tone of light and shadow, and the prous for awhile, lose year after year their like- cess of coloring the picture, has been so ness to the living original, till time has ob- great that the Daguerreotype portraits literated the last fading trace of the resem- have all the beauty of the finest miniatures, blance. The actual view of the time-worn and are at least faithful if not flatterreality overbears the recollection of early ing representations of female beauty. beauty, and the work of the painter, though The Talbotype will, we doubt not, make it be a valuable production of art, has lost the same start towards perfection; and its domestic charm. In the faithful picture when a fine grained paper shall be made, by the sun, on the contrary, time adds but and a more sensitive process discovered, we to the resemblance. The hue of its cheek' shall have Talbotype portraits the size of never grows pale. Its unerring outline life, embodying the intellectual expression changes neither with age nor with grief, and as well as the physical form of the human the grave and sombre, and perchance un- countenance.f gainly, picture grows even into a flattering

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In selecting Mrs. Hemans as our first spe-, more? Secondly, because the premise is cimen of Female Authors, we did so avow- granted—that woman has not-does the edly, because she seemed to us the most conclusion follow, that woman cannot exfeminine writer of the day. We now select cogitate an argument as great as the “ PrinMrs. Browning for the opposite reason, that cipia,” or build up a rhyme as lofty as the she is, or at least is said by many to be, “Paradise Lost ” Would it not have the most masculine of our female writers. been as wise for one who knew Milton only

To settle the respective spheres and cali- as the Milton of “ Lycidas” and “ Arbres of the male and the female mind is cades,” to have contended that he was one of the most difficult of philosophical incapable of a great epic poem? And is problems. To argue, merely, that because there nothing in Madame De Stael, in the mind of woman has never hitherto pro- Rahel the Germaness, in Mary Somerville, duced a “ Paradise Lost,” or a “Principia,” it is therefore for ever incapable of * As examples of the perfection of Engravings producing similar masterpieces, seems to us from Daguerreotype portraits, we may mention unfair, for various reasons.

those of the Duke of Wellington and Dr. Chalmers,

In the first from Daguerreotypes executed by M. Claudet. place, how many ages elapsed e'er the male + Our scientific readers will tind a very interestmind realized such prodigies of intellectual ing section on the literature of the chemical rays, achievement? And do not they still stand Litterratur der chemischen lichtstrahlen, by Dr. Karunparalleled and almost unapproached ? Dargestellt von der physikalischen Gesellschaft zu Bero

sten, in the Fortschritt der Physik im Jahre 1845 : And were it not as reasonable to assert that lin. Redigirt von Dr. G. KARSTEN, pp. 226-298. man as that woman can renew them no Berlin, 1817.

Then may


and even in Mary Wollstonecraft, to sug-Ipeculiar weakness, are all but female. And gest the idea of heights, fronting the very whatever may be said of the effects of culpeaks of the Principia and the Paradise, to ture, in deadening the genius of man, we which woman may yet attain? Thirdly, are mistaken if it has not always had the has not woman understood and appreciated contrary effect upon that of woman (where the greatest works of genius as fully as man? do we find a female Bloomfield or Burns ?)

she in time equal them; for what so that, on entering on the far more highly is true appreciation but the sowing of a civilized periods which are manifestly apgerm in the mind, which shall ultimately proaching, she will but be breathing the bear similar fruit? There is nothing, says atmosphere calculated to nourish and inviGodwin, which the human mind can con- gorate, instead of weakening and chilling ceive, which it cannot execute ; we may her mental life. · Our admirable friend, add, there is nothing the human mind can Mr. De Quincey, has, we think, conceded understand which it cannot equal. Fourth- even more than we require, in granting ly, let us never forget that woman, as to (see his paper on Joan of Arc) that woman intellectual progress, is in a state of in- can die more nobly than man. For whether fancy. Changed as by malignant magic, is the writing or the doing of a great tranow into an article of furniture, and now gedy the higher achievement ? Poor the into the toy of pleasure, she is only as yet attitude even of Shakspeare, penning the undergoing a better transmigration, and fire-syllables of Macbeth, to that of Joan of timidly expanding into life.”

Arc, entering into the flames as into her Almost all that is valuable in Female wedding suit. What comparison between Authorship has been produced within the the face inflamed of a Mirabeau or a Challast half-century, that is, since the female mers, as they thundered ; and the blush on was generally recognised to be an intel- the cheek of Charlotte Corday, still extant, lectual creature ; and if she has, in such a as her head was presented to the people ? short period, so progressed, what demi- And who shall name the depicter of the Mahometan shall venture to set bounds to death of Beatrice Cenci; with Madame her future advancement? Even though we Roland, whose conduct on the scaffold should grant that woman, more from her might make one in “ love with death ?" If bodily constitution than her mental, is in- to die nobly demand the highest concentraferior to man, and that man, having got, tion of the moral, intellectual, and even shall probably keep, his start of centuries, artistic powers and if woman has par exwe see nothing to prevent woman overtak- cellence exemplified such a concentration, ing, and outstripping with ease, his present there follows a conclusion to which we furthest point of intellectual progress. We should be irresistibly led, were it not that do not look on such productions as“ Lear,” we question the minor proposition in the and the “ Prometheus Vinctus,” with the argument—we hold that man has often as despair wherewith the boy who has leaped fully as woman risen to the dignity of death, up in vain to seize, regards ever after the and met him, not as a vassal, but as a moon and the stars ; they are, after all, the superior. masonry of men, and not the architecture of. To say that Mrs. Browning has more of the gods; and if man may surpass, why the man than any female writer of the may not woman, “taken out of his side, period, may appear rather an equivocal his gentle alias, equal them?

compliment; and its truth even may be Of

of woman, we may say, at least, that questioned. We may, however, be perthere are already provinces where her power mitted to say, that she has more of the is incontested and supreme.

And in pro- heroine than her compeers. Hers is a high portion as civilization advances, and as the heroic nature, which adopts for the motto darker and fiercer passions which constitute at once of its life and its poetry, “ Perfect the fera natura subside, in the lull of that through suffering.” Shelley says :milder day, the voice of woman will become

"Most wretched men more audible, exert a wider magic, and be

Are cradled into poetry by wrong: as the voice of spring to the opening year. They learn in suffering what they teach in song." We stay not to prove that the sex of genius is feminine, and that those poets who are But

wrong is not always the stern schoolmost profoundly impressing our young Bri- mistress of song. There are sufferings tish minds, are those who, in tenderness springing from other sources—from intense and sensibility-in peculiar power, and in sensibility from bodily ailment—from the

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