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“On our return, dinner was served on “ So many flattering circumstances, some board the royal steamer, and afterwards, people argue, may spoil a man and make as we sailed in a glorious sunset through him vain. But no, they do not spoil him, this archipelago, the deck of the vessel was they make him, on the contrary, better; changed to a dancing hall; servants flew they purify his mind, and he thereby feels higher and thither with refreshments; sai- an impulse, a wish to deserve all that he lors stood upon the paddle-boxes and took enjoys.” soundings, and their deep tones might be Such are truly the feelings of a pure and heard giving the depth of the water. The noble nature. Andersen has stood the test moon rose round and large, and the pro- through every trial of poverty and advermontory of Amrom assumed the appear- sity; the harder trial, that of a sun-bright ance of a snow-covered chain of Alps.” prosperity, is now proving him, and so far,
The next day he visited the wild regions thank God, the sterling nature of the man about the promontory, but our space will has remained unspoiled. not admit of our giving any portions of wild and grand sea-landscape which he hére describes. In the evening he returned to the royal dinner-table. It was on the above-mentioned five-and-twentieth anni- A DISCOVERY IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY.-In make versary, on the 5th of September; he says, ing the alterations now in progress in Westminster
". The whole of my former life passed in Abbey Church, the supposed tomb of St. Edward review before my mind. I was obliged to some of the Abbey dignitaries. This tomb is situatsummon all my strength to prevent myself ed exactly in the centre of the cross. It is rectanbursting into tears. There are moments of gular,--eight feet long, east and west,-five feet gratitude, in which we feel, as it were, a deep. The bottom is formed of concrete, the sides
wide, north and south, -and two feet three inches desire to press God to our hearts ! How and ends rubbed stone; and it was originally deeply I felt at this time my own nothing- covered with a slab six inches thick, but the
coverness, and how all, all had come from him ! ing disappeared ages ago, and the tomb has remainAfter dinner the king, to whom Rantzau gine that this is the original tomb of the Confessor,
ed filed with rubbish. Let no one, however, imahad told how interesting the day was to me, it is stated by the oldest authorities, quoted by wished me happiness, and that most kindly. Widmore, thal St. Edward was buried' beneath the He wished me happiness, in that which I high altar, that his remains were afterwards removed had endured and won. He asked me about higher, while no doubt can possibly exist that his
to a higher place, and then again to another still my early struggling life, and I related to dust still reposes in the shrine prepared for it by him some traits of it.
King Henry III.-The Builder. " In the course of conversation he asked
THE HUMANIZING INFLUENCE OF CLEANLINESS. my annual income. I told him.
A neat, clean, fresh-aired, sweet, cheerful, wellThat is not much,' said he.
arranged, and well-situated house, exercises a moral, 66.But I do not need much,' I replied ; makes the members of a family peaceable and con
as well as a physical influence over its inmates, and my writings furnish something.'
siderate of the feelings and happiness of each other. 10. If I can any way be serviceable to you, The connexion is obvious between the state of mind come to me,' said the king in conclusion. thus produced and habits of respect for others, and “ In the evening, during the concert, laws can enforce. On the contrary, a filthy, squalid,
for those higher duties and obligations which no some of my friends
reproached me for not noxious dwelling, rendered still more wretched by making use of my opportunity.
its noisome site, and in which none of the decencies “The king,' said they, "put the words of life can be observed, contributes to make its uninto
fortunate inhabitants selfish, sensual, and regardless mouth." your
of the feelings of each other. The constant indul" I could not have done more,' said I ; gence of such passions renders them reckless and (if the king thought I required an addition brutal; and the transition is natural 10 propensities to my income, he would give it of his own and habits incompatible with a respect for the profree will.'
perty of others, or for the laws.-The Topic. “And I was right; in the following year Curious DISCOVERIES.—Count de Palmblad has the kind increased my annual stipend, so just discovered amongst the manuscripts of the Unithat with this and my writings I can live tween Count Philip de Konigsmark (brother of the honorably and free from care.
celebrated Countess of that name), and the Princess “ The 5th of September was to me a fes- Sophia Dorothea, the divorced wife of George I., of tival day. Even the German visitors at England, and who died, after thirty-two years' conthe baths honored me by drinking my Count was assassinated in 1694 for having attempt
finement, a prisoner in the fortress of Ahlen. The health in the pump-room.
ed to aid the Princess to escape.--Galignani.
From the North British Review.
HISTORY OF DISCOVERIES IN PHOTOGRAPHY.
[The following able article is from the pen of Sir David “Soon shall thine arm, unconquer'd Steam ! afar Brewster, the greatest living authority in the department of
Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car." science to which it belongs. It is an eloquent and comprehecsive history of the most remarkable discoreries of Talbot and
There are other inventions and discoveDaguerre, and though sufficiently minute in its scientific de- ries, on the contrary, on which are stamped scription, is written for the entertainment and instruction of imperishable names, or with which these the general reader.--Ed.)
names are inseparably associated. Kep
ler's laws are engraven on the planetary The history of science presents us with heavens. Newton will never cease to be very few instances in which great inven- named, while satellites revolve and terrestions or discoveries have burst upon the trial bodies fall; and while Neptune bears public view like meteors, or startled the his trident across the firmament, the fame of public mind by their novelty and grandeur. Adams and Le Verrier will endure. The The greatest feats of intellect have, like electro-magnetic power which speeds over the intellect itself, been of tardy growth. the globe the telegraphic message, will A suggestion from one mind and in one carry the name of Wheatstone to its most age, has become a fact in another; and distant terminus whether in space or time; some sickly embryo of thought, which has and the thunderbolt which Franklin drew preserved its vitality for å century, has from heaven, and which, when untaught often assumed the form and beauty of a and untamed, shattered in its course the living truth, when the public taste or the structures of organic and inorganic life, will wants of society have stimulated research, acknowledge its apprenticeship to Faraday, or created a demand for the productions of while it is imparting new organizations to genius. So slow, indeed, has been the matter, playing round the solar ray, and march of great ideas, and so obscure the guiding even the particles of light in their path by which they reached their gigantic fantastic gyrations. Other discoveries have consummation, that the historian of science associated themselves, even in their nomenhas often been unable to trace their steps, clature, with individual names; and in the and the arbiter of genius to discover the very terminology of the two great arts brow upon which he might plant the laurel which we are about to expound-the Dawhich they deserved. The astronomy guerreotype and Talbotype-a grateful age which in one century gave immortality to a has already embalmed the names of their priest, in the next immured a philosopher distinguished inventors. in prison; and geological truth passed
The two inventions which we have just through the phases of a presumptuous mentioned possess a character, and occupy speculation, and of an atheistical dogma, a place, essentially different from that of before it became the handmaid of piety and any of the sister arts. While the painter the creed of the Church. It is with much delineates on canvas, or the sculptor emdifficulty and some uncertainty that we can bodies in marble those images in their eye trace even the telescope and the microscope to which the law of vision gives an external to their humble origin. The steam-engine place, the photographer presents to Nature has not yet owned its obligations to a single an artificial eye, more powerful than his mind, and little more than half a century own, which receives the images of external has elapsed since an English court of law objects, and imprints on its sensitive tablet, came to the decision that James Watt had and with indelible lines, their precise forms, made no improvement on this mighty in- and the lights and shadows by which these strument of civilization. The steam-ship forms are modified. He thus gives permaand the railway-chariot—the locomotives nency to details which the eye itself is too on water and on iron-at once the benefac- dull to appreciate, and he represents Nators and the wonders of the age, will ture as she is-neither pruned by his taste, continue to be disputed or unclaimed nor decked by his imagination. From inventions till society has forgotten the among the countless images of surrounding prediction of the poet, or lamented its objects which are actually accumulated in fulfilment :
every part of space, he excludes, by means
of his darkened chamber, all but the one he face, the part concealed by it remains wishes to perpetuate, and he can thus ex- white, and the other parts speedily become hibit and fix in succession all those floating dark. For copying paintings on glass, the images and subtle forms which Epicurus solution should be applied on leather, and fancied, and Lucretius sang.
in this case it is more readily acted upon The art of Photography, or that of deli- than when paper is used. After the color neating objects by the agency of the light has been once fixed upon the leather or which they radiate or reflect, is substan- paper, it cannot be removed by the applitially a new invention, which we owe to cation of water, or water and soap, and it two individuals, Mr. Talbot and M. is in a high degree permanent." Daguerre, although, like all other arts, Mr. Wedgewood endeavored by repeated some approximation had been made to it washings, and by thin coatings of fine varby previous inquirers. So early as 1802, nish, to prevent the white parts of his picMr. Thomas Wedgewood, the celebrated tures from becoming dark when exposed to porcelain manufacturer, published in the light; but all his attempts were fruitless, Journals of the Royal institution, A me- and he was obliged therefore either to exthod of copying paintings upon glass, and hibit them in candle-light, or for a short of making profiles by the agency of light time in the shade. This process was apupon nitrate of silver, which was accompa- plied by its author to taking profiles, and nied with some observations by Sir Hum- " making delineations of all such objects as phry Davy. Having ascertained that are possessed of a texture partly opaque white paper or white leather, moistened and partly transparent, such as the woody with a solution of nitrate of silver, under- fibres of leaves and the wings of insects.” goes no change when kept in a dark place,” He tried also, but without much success, but "speedily changes color” when “ex- to copy prints; and he failed still more sigposed to the daylight,” Mr. Wedgewood nally in what was his leading object, to found “that the alterations of color took copy the images in the camera-obscura. In place more speedily in proportion as the following these processes, Sir H. Davy light was more intense ;' that the full ef- found“ that the images of small objects fect was produced by the sun's light in two produced by means of the solar microscope, or three minutes, whereas two or three may be copied without difficulty on prehours were required in the shade; that the pared paper-the paper being placed at red rays have little action upon it, the yel- but a small distance from the lens ;' and low and green more, and the blue and vio- he ascertained that about 1 part of nitrate let most of all. “Hence,” says Mr. to about ten of water, gave the best soluWedgewood," when a white surface cover- tion. Mr. Wedgewood likewise ascertained with a solution of nitrate of silver, is ed that the muriate was more susceptible placed behind a painting on glass exposed than the nitrate of silver, and that both to the solar light, the rays transmitted were most readily acted upon while wet. through the differently painted surfaces, He impregnated his paper with the muriproduce distinct tints of brown or black, ate, either by diffusing it through water, sensibly differing in intensity, according to and applying it in this form, or by imthe shades of the picture, and where the mersing paper moistened with the solution light is unaltered the color of the nitrate of the nitrate in very diluted muriatic acid. becomes deepest. When the shadow of The impossibility of removing the coloring any figure is thrown upon the prepared sur- froni the white parts of the pictures, sug
gested to Mr. Wedgewood the idea tha * Dico igitur, rerum effigias, tenuisque figuras Mittier ab rebus summo de corpore earum;
a portion of the metallic oxide abandons Quæ quasi membrana, vel cortex nominitanda'st?lits acid to enter into union with the aniQuod speciem, ac formam similem gerit ejus mal or vegetable substance, so as to form Imago,
with it an insoluble compound,” and he had Quojuscunque cluet de corpore fusa vagari.
experiments in view to discover some subNext, for 'tis time, my muse declares and sings
stance that could destroy this compound What those are we call images of things, Which like thin films from bodies rise in streams,
either by simple or complicated affinities. Play in the air and dance upon the beams.- “Nothing," he adds, but a method of A stream of forms from every surface flows, preventing the unshaded parts of the deliWhich may be called the film or shell of those, neation from being colored by exposure to Because they bear the shape, they show the frame And figure of the bodies whence they came. the day, is wanted to render the process as CREECH
useful as it is elegant."
This beautiful process, which, notwith- them with iodine of potassium greatly distanding its defects, it required neither luted with water ; but the method which he science nor skill to 'repeat, seems to have proposed, as being safer and simpler, was excited no interest whatever. The writer to immerse the picture in a strong solution of this Article gave a notice of it in a Scot- of common salt, and then to dry it after tish Journal, so early as 1803, but he has wiping off the superfluous moisture. not been able to learn that the experiment At this period Mr. Talbot's pictures of Mr. Wedgewood was repeated. With- were negative, like those of Mr. Wedgeout knowing what had been done_by wood, but yet he has distinctly shown how Mr. Wedgewood, Mr. Henry Fox Tal- positive pictures, or those in which the bot, of Lacock Abbey, was led by acciden- lights and shades are given as in nature, tal circumstances to turn his attention to may be obtained. the subject of giving a permanent existence to those beautiful but evanescent pic- “ In copying engravings,” says Mr. Talbot, tures, which the camera-obscura presents " by this method, the lights and shadows are to our view. Recollecting that nitrate of reversed, consequently the effect is wholly altered. silver was changed or decomposed by light, (fixed) so as to bear sunshine, it may be after
But if the picture so obtained is first preserved he began, early in 1834, that series of ex, wards itself employed as an object to be copied, periments which led him to the beautiful and by means of this second process the lights and art which now bears his name. Anxious shadows are brought back to their original disposi. to perfect the new art which he had disco- tion. In this way we have indeed to contend with vered, Mr. Talbot continued his experi- the imperfections arising from two processes inments till the year 1839, when he commu- stead of one; but I believe this will be found nicated to the Royal Society Some Ac- merely a difficulty of manipulation."* count of the Art of Photogenic Drawing, or the process by which natural objects may be
The communications of Mr. Talbot to made to delineate themselves without the aid the Royal Society could not fail to draw the of the artist's pencil. In this paper, which attention of philosophers to so curious an art, was read to the Society on the 31st Janu
and we accordingly find that the Rev. J. B. ary, 1839, several months before M. Da- Reade, F.R.S., a gentleman to whom the sciguerre had published his photogenic pro
ences owe valuable obligations, had made im. cesses, Mr. Talbot enumerates the various portant additions to the photogenic processpurposes to which the new art could be es, and had himself applied them to the deliapplied; but it was not till the 21st Feb- neation of objects of natural history, of ruary that he communicated to the Society which he took pictures by the solar microhis process for preparing the paper, and his scope. The following process was commumethod of fixing the images. A sheet of nicated by Mr. Reade, on the 9th of March, superfine writing paper (of a good firm 1839, to E. W. Brayley, Esq., who exquality and smooth surface) is dipped into plained the process and exhibited the a weak solution of common salt (muriate drawings referred to, at one of the soirées of soda) and wiped dry. A solution of of the London Institution on the 10th April,
1839. nitrate of silver, namely, a saturated solution six or eight times diluted with water, is spread with a brush over one surface bably different fro is any hitherto employed, con
“ The more important process, and one proonly, and the paper when dry is fit for use. sists in washing good writing paper with a strong When leaves of flowers, lace, engravings, solution of nitrate of silver, containing not less &c., are laid upon the nitrated surface of than 8 grs. to every drachm of distilled water. the paper and exposed to the sun, very The paper thus prepared is placed in the dark, and perfect images of them are obtained, the allowed to dry gradually. When perfectly dry, lights and shades being reversed, or, what sion of galls prepared according to the Pharmaco
and just before it is used, I wash it with an insuis the same thing, the pictures are deline- pæia, and immediately, even while it is yet wet, ated by white in place of black lines, or are ihrow upon it the image of microscopic objects by negative pictures. In like manner, the means of the solar microscope. pictures thrown upon the nitrated paper " It will be unnecessary for me to describe the placed in the focus of a camera-obscura are effect, as I am able to illustrate it by drawings thus negatively delineated. In order to fix produced. I will only add, with respect 10 the these pictures, or prevent the white lines time, that the drawing of the fiea was perfected in and portions from being blackened by ex
* London and Edin. Phil. Mag. March, 1839. posure to light, Mr. Talbot first washed No. 88, vol. xiv., p. 208.
less than five minutes, and the section of cane, and ture (and without the water-mark), and the spiral vessels of the stalk.of common rhubarb, wash one side of it, by means of a soft in about eight or, ten minutes. These draw. ings were fixed by hydrosulphite of soda. They
camel's-hair brush, with a solution commay also be fixed by immersing them for a few posed of 100 grains of crystallized nitrate minutes in weak sali and water, and then for the of silver dissolved in 6 oz. of distilled water, same time in a weak solution of hydriodate of po- having previously marked with a cross the tash. The drawing of the Trientalis Europea side which is to be washed. When the was fixed by the latter method : it was procured in paper has been dried cautiously at the fire, half a minute, and the difference in the color of or spontaneously in the dark, immerse it for the ground is due to this rapid and more powerful action of the solar rays. This paper may be suc
a few minutes (two minutes at a temperacessfully used in the camera obscura.
ture of 65°) in a solution of iodide of po“Further experiments must determine the na- tassium, consisting of 500 grains to one ture of this very sensitive argentine preparation. I pint of distilled water. The paper is then presume that it is a gallate or tannate of silver, and, to be dipped in water, and then dried' by if so, it will be interesting to you to know that applying blotting paper to it lightly, and what has hitherto been looked upon as a common afterwards exposing it to the heat of a fire, chemical compound is produced or suspended at or allowing it to dry spontaneously. The pleasure by our command over the rays of light.”
paper thus prepared is called iodized paper, This process cannot fail to be considered and may be kept for any length of time in as highly honorable to the ingenuity of Mr. a portfolio not exposed to light. When a Reade. The first public use of the infusion sheet of this paper is required for use, wash of nut-galls, which, as we shall see, is an it with the following solution, which we essential element in Mr. Talbot's patented shall call No. 1,--take 100 grains of nitrate process, appears to be due to Mr. Reade, of silver dissolved in two ounces of distilled and his process of fixing his pictures by water, and add to this one-third of its vohyposulphite of soda, which has since been lume of strong acetic acid. Make another universally used as the best, and was after-solution, No. 2, by dissolving crystallized wards suggested in 1840 by Sir John Her- gallic acid in cold distilled water, and then schel, must be regarded as an invaluable ad- mix the two solutions together in equal prodition to the photographic art.
portions, and in no greater quantity than is Notwithstanding the great beauty of the required for immediate use, as it will not drawings which Mr. Talbot obtained by the keep long without spoiling. This mixture, process which he published, the art was still called gallonitrate of silver by the patentee, far from being perfect
. The discovery of is then to be spread by a soft camel's-hair a paper highly sensitive to light was essen- brush on the marked side of the iodized tially necessary to the production of por- paper, and after allowing the paper to retraits from the life, and even of accurate main half a minute to absorb the solution, pictures of buildings and landscapes, in it should be dipped in distilled water and which the lights and shadows are constant- dried lightly, first with blotting paper, and ly changing both from the motion of the then by holding the paper at a considerable sun and of the clouds. Mr. Talbot accord- distance from a fire. When dry the paper ingly directed himself anew to this part of is fit for use, and it is advisable to use it his subject, and he succeeded beyond his within a few hours. most sanguine expectations. He discovered The paper thus prepared is highly sensia process by which paper could be made so tive to light, and it must now be placed in sensitive that it was darkened in five or six the camera-obscura in order to receive on seconds when held close to a wax candle, its marked surface a distinct image of the and gave impressions of leaves by the light landscape or person whose picture is reof the moon.
quired. After remaining in the camera To this most important invention Mr. from 10 seconds to several minutes, accordTalbot gave the name of Calotype, which ing to the intensity of the light, it is taken his friends have now changed into the more out of the camera in a dark room. If the appropriate name of Talbotype, and he se-object has been strongly iHuminated, or if cured the exclusive privilege of using it by the paper has been long in the camera, a : a patent for England, which was sealed on sensible picture will be seen on the paper; the 8th February, 1841. The following but if the time of exposure has been short, is the patent process for obtaining the nega- or the illumination feeble, the paper will tive picture :--Take a sheet of paper with appear entirely blank.” An invisible a smooth surface and a close and even tex-l image, however, is impressed on the paper,