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an engrossment justified by her devotedness blow which struck at the cause to which to the interests of her husband, and to they had devoted all the energies of their those of every just cause. Free for the first minds. It made them again enter into time to work at her pleasure, and to choose that laborious state, from which Madame her own subject, she wrote an essay upon Guizot had appeared so happy to be re“ The Ideas of Right and Duty considered leased; but she made this sacrifice with as the Basis of Society," which will un- such ease and simplicity, that her most indoubtedly be found to throw great light timate friends were unable to perceive that upon a difficult question, which passion and it cost her any effort. prejudice have designedly obscured.
Literary labor now again became to her an It is much in the same style as an essay honorable necessity, and what had formerly upon Anarchy and Power, which, although enabled her to assist her mother, now afwritten at a much later date, connects itself forded her the means of educating her son. naturally with the former, which it com- In 1821 she published The Student, a pletes and elucidates. One cannot fail of novel on edueation, in every page of which, being struck with these two compositions, proof is given of the elevation of her mind, and with the vigor of mind of which they and the strictness of her judgment, amidst give proof. The first, full of original and the fictions of a lively, natural, and diverfertile views, is perhaps sometimes a little sified tale. This style presents many more ingenious than it need be; but the difficulties. It is now pretty well agreed second is distinguished by a perspicuity, a that the beauty of a work of imagination is justness of expression and of thought, which independent of its moral design ; and liteenforces conviction. Both belong in the rary criticism insists not upon such in its main point to ideas sufficiently modern, at composition : but, when a moral design is least in their application to politics. They the very motive of the book, the mind is show that Madame Guizot experienced the left free, and the imagination has less necessity, hitherto more felt than satisfied, scope. Nothing then is more difficult than of supporting them upon the same princi- the composition of a story which unites inples as morals. But she did not always terest, variety, and truth, with the purity guard herself from a kind of puritanism, and clearness of the moral idea, which otherwise sufficiently justified by the loose- should be always present and always appaness of principle which the civilians, mo- rent; nothing must be separated from it, narchical or democratical, have by turns everything must lead back to it, without, brought into these subjects. What she es- at the same time, the narrative ceasing to pecially prohibits herself is complacency delight our imagination, and to excite our for her own opinions; we feel that she is curiosity and our sympathy. distrustful of what flatters her, and that Madame Guizot, who has constantly sucshe chooses not her opinions for a purpose, ceeded in resolving this difficulty in the but for themselves. Besides, good is never composition of her stories, is far from havin opposition to good, and liberty has no-ing failed in The Student. It is however thing to lose by truth.
the moral sentiment, rather than the roPolitics form one of the best schools for mantic part, which appears to us the great the mind. They force it to search for the merit of this excellent book. Two general reason of everything, and at the same time ideas have inspired it, and we may observe do not permit it to search except in facts. that the recital is double. The history of It is not necessarily the most difficult Ralph is intended to establish the inviolastudy, but it is that which, well conducted, ble duties which result from our natural gives the greatest firmness and prudence to positions, and the legitimacy of the dethe mind; and even he who only occupies pendence in which children are placed with himself seriously in politics, when he turns respect to their parents, or to those who his attention to other subjects, cannot fail represent them. The history of Victor is of showing both originality and superiority. the development of an idea which will be Madame Guizot is herself an instance of found set forth in the Essays upon Educathe truth of this.
tion. It tends to show how an ingenuous About the middle of 1820, her husband mind can redeem itself from a first fault, retired from affairs in which his opinions and, by well sustained efforts, arrive at no longer found place. This change of discovering in the sense of its fall, a prinposition affected them but little: it was lost ciple of regeneration ; a true and great lesin the more important consideration of the son, and which accords with the opinion
which Madame Guizot made the rule of her ples were those of a philosopher. The own conduct, and the foundation of her moral of the book is indeed pure, elevated, works on education; that there is no moral and strict; it is supported neither by the evil past recovery, and that human nature, interest it excites, nor by dogmatism; it even under the weight of a serious error, relies only on itself, and claims not to hold ought to recover itself, and is always ena- its power, but by its justice; this is to say, bled to do so by divine assistance. it is philosophical. Let us repeat this word
An episode of this same novel, the his- in order that it may be understood. Morality tory of Marie, seems to take up the same is philosophical when it is rational, when it principle, as does also Nadir, a delightful does not lay claim to any authority foreign story, which forms a part of the collection to its nature: this supposes it to be neither which she published two years afterwards, a convention nor an emotion, and that it is and in which, perhaps, better than in any another thing than religion. other work, she has lent to her lessons of But in order to be philosophical it does morality the aid and the attraction of a not follow that it may not be religious. simple and agreeable fiction.
Even as it touches the heart that it binds These various publications, however, were itself to order without raising either feeling only, as it were, fragments.
or interest, it can form an alliance with respirit pervades them all, and in each of ligion without being dependent on it; to them the ideas of the author seemed to be say the truth, it is rather distinguished bound up, and people looked forward in ex- than separated from it, and both can by pectation of a work from Madame Guizot, common consent reign in the mind, and which should combine and corroborate them govern the conduct. Of this, Madame as a whole. Such a book soon appeared, Guizot's book affords more than one proof; which gave the theory of education that but she is herself a still more remarkable for a long time each of her writings seemed example of it. to promise, and placed her in the first rank At this period Madame Guizot was disof moralists. The Family Letters on Do- turbed by subtile uneasinesses, which yet atmestic Education are the best monument of test a mind endowed with faculties superior Madame Guizot's mind. In this work, un- to her opinions. But these gradually deder an easy form, which in appearance has clined, and a profound peace was establishnothing systematical, which freely admits ed in that mind which had been more easily of examples, details, and digressions, she disturbed than she was willing to believe. treats the greatest questions of moral phi- Such is the empire of reason and of happilosophy, and shows by applications how ness. Madame Guizot in a fixed position, general truths ought to regulate real life, governed by an affection which united the and penetrate into the young reason of ardor of love to the calmness of duty, was children. The excellence of the book con- led back by study and reflection, by serious sists in the union of great strictness of prin- and tender advice, to those pure and firm ciple with perfect liberty of mind; it is by principles which alone can appease the torthis that it presents a faithful image of her ments of the mind, and which formed in who composed it. Nothing is there con- her the indissoluble alliance of feelings and ceded to expediency; nothing to arbitrary opinions, of the wants of the heart and the conventions ; nor is there anything in it requirements of reason ; and without ever that has the stamp of that sentimental in- returning to the practical belief of the dulgence, which in our days too often pass- French established church, she raised for es from novels into morals. It is a book herself a faith no less lively and no less consisting entirely of truth. But, if the strict, which did not less touch her heart principles are those of a philosopher, who or govern her conscience, than the most but a woman would have been able to dis- powerful doctrines of sacred tradition. cover those particular views, so fine and so Such was the piety of Madame Guizot, varied; those nice observations, dictated and such was the state of mind in which by so true a knowledge of children, and of sickness and death overtook her. Her last the world; those strokes of feeling which work had been rapidly composed amid the betray and excite emotion? Who but a sufferings of a visibly declining state of woman, who but a mother, would have been health. On finishing it, she appeared to have able to express reason with so much tender-reached the limits of her strength. It is seldom ness, and have softened it without impair- that superior endowments are met with in a ing its force ? I have said that the princi- I woman, without her being oppressed by the had
load : the most distinguished woman still by incessantly comparing her destiny with remains a feeble being; and Madame Gui- her nature, we seem to be exhibiting a syszot was strong only in character and mind. tem; but we cannot reproduce the action However peaceable was her life, she enliven- and the harmony of the whole person; we ed it with the fire of her genius, and ex- cannot restore that unity of nature, which, pended it in the midst of happiness and re- in her, reconciled so many varieties, and alpose. Afflicted with a deep and slow dis- most contrasts. Thus, nothing was lost, ease, she daily became weaker, but not des- nothing was indifferent, in that noble life; ponding. För nearly a year she struggled in it everything had an aim, a value, a rule; against the malady, which she strove to ba- at the same time good principles had taken nish or to overcome; then, as ever, she plac- such possession of her mind, that she obeyed her duty and her hopes in opposition, ed them without effort, and in the fulfilment but at length she acknowledged the vanity of her duties she appeared to be following of her efforts, and perceived that her decree her own inclinations. Reason had not giv
gone she submitted to it with-en her either coldness or constraint. Strong out a murmur, and from that moment her in suffering, she was tender and almost weak resignation was complete. Surrounded by in happiness; she relished the real enjoythe most tender and devoted cares, affected ments of life, the most simple pleasures afand gratified by the love of which she was forded her a childish delight. Almost almost assured, equally supported by reason ways deprived of ease and leisure, chained and by faith, she gave herself up to the con- to study, confined in towns, she could not templation of her death. In the intervals breathe the country air without a kind of of her pains she continued to converse upon
intoxication. The enjoyment of the arts, the truths which had enlightened and guid- and those of nature, excited in her a real ed her life.
emotion. No one has better proved the On the 30th of July, 1827, she bid a ten- truth of those words, I believe, of Rousseau's: der and tranquil farewell to her husband, “Strict morals preserve the tender affecher son and her family; she told them that tions." she felt her end was approaching. On the The idea of duty was ever present to her 10th of August, at ten in the morning, she mind; she applied it with rigor to the sorequested her husband to read to her. He lution of moral inquiries; injustice inspired read a letter of Fenelon's, for a sick per- her with indignation, immorality with a disson; he then commenced a sermon of Bos.. gust which she knew not how to restrain; suet's, on the immortality of the soul; and to cause grief to any one was to her almost in the midst of the sermon she expired. an impossibility ; to witness even merited Thus was verified a prediction, or a hope, pain only excited her pity; and her kindof which she had delighted to converse. Al-ness disarmed her justice. But it was es. most always harassed with cares and la- pecially the sufferings of strong minds that bors, she neglected none, and gave herself excited her deepest compassion; in their up to them with ever increasing devoted- sorrows she recognised her own, and sufferness, as if an inexhaustible reserve of hap-ed with them. piness and peace had been insured to ber. There is so much mind in the works of # It is,” she says, “ on the necessity of an Madame Guizot, that it seems superfluous immutable futurity that I travel on inees- to speak of what she showed in conversasantly, and that I shall end by passing from tion. Her's was strikingly original; and one world to the other. But I expect a light she sometimes astonished to such a degree, and a clearness in my latter days, that will that it was necessary to be accustomed to it render this passage easy and certain." to find it pleasing. But with a little ex(Letter written in 1822.)
perience, it was soon discovered that al There remains little more to add ; I do though her language was different from that not think I have forgotten any of the traces of most people, she was quick in compreof that image, which time can never efface hending every one, and arrived by sure, from the remembrance of Madame Guizot's though, perhaps, circuitous means, at the friends; but in writing, it is necessary to knowledge of all that was true, at sympathy consider everything separately, and to make for all that was good. With her everything a person known, to analyse the whole that proceeded from herself; she repeated noconstitutes individuality in its full grace thing, she borrowed nothing, even from and freedom. In successively retracing the reading; no book pleased her that did not qualities and opinions of Madame Guizot, I make her think; she required a new effort to make her own of even common ideas ; discord, she yielded to it implicitly; her she never yielded to an opinion until after judgment governed her will, truth reigned sie had herself discovered its motives, or in her by right divine. adopted it, unless stamped with her seal. This excellence is rare; it is, perhaps, The reasons which determined her mind the highest ambition of the philosopher. were not always the most natural, but they This immutable harmony of the mind and were her own, like those of Montaigne. She the heart must in every case be loved and did not always take the most simple method admired, but can it ever be more worthy of of arriving at the truth, but she would at admiration and of love, than when it unites length attain it, and her mind knew no rest the wisdom of a sage to the heart of a wountil she did. Then all opposition was at man? an end; there was no struggle in her, no
From the Edinburgh Review,
BE A U MONT AND FLETCHER.
The Works of Beaumont and Fletcher ; the Tert formed from a new collation of the early
editions : with Notes and a Biographical Memoir. By the Rev. ALEXANDER Dyce. 11 yols. 8vo. London : 1843-1846.
Of the beautiful though faulty works which scene, situated about a mile from this mocompose these volumes, a considerable num-dern abbey of Saint Bernard. In the midst ber were the fruit of one of those singular of a little valley, on a meadow beside a literary Partnerships, which, hardly known dashing brook, is to be seen at the present in any department of poetical art except day a group of ivy-mantled ruins. There, the drama, have repeatedly been formed by in the thirteenth century, a pious lady dramatic poets both in our own country and founded an Augustinian nunnery, in honor elsewhere. The old English drama abounds of Saint Mary and the blessed Trinity. with examples. None of these alliances, Confiscated on the suppression of the relihowever, was so steadfast, none so success- gious houses at the Reformation, the priory ful, none so evidently prompted by “con- of Gracedieu and its demesne were acquirsimility of genius," as that which has, by ed by John Beaumont, a lawyer of old faa consent almost universal, elevated the mily. He afterwards became Master of inseparable names of the two friends, Fran- the Rolls; but was soon charged with corcis Beaumont and John Fletcher, to a ruption, disgraced, and deprived of his place in our dramatic literature second only estates. His widow recovered from the to that of the one unapproachable master wreck of his fortunes the manor of which of the art.
* he had dispossessed the nuns of Lady In regard to the personal history of the Roesia de Verdun. Her son Francis, distwo poets, all that is known scarcely suffi- tinguishing himself in his father's profesces to do more than excite a vain curiosity. sion, was appointed one of the Justices of But few facts have been collected which the Common Pleas, and received knighthave any interest in themselves, or any hood from the hands of Qeeen Elizabeth. value as the groundwork of critical specu- He is spoken of as a “grave, learned, and lation. The principal of these relate to reverend judge.” He married a lady of the the family history of both.
family of Pierrepoint in Nottinghamshire ; Among the western hills of Leicester- from which long afterwards came the shire, there has lately been erected a mo- sprightly Lady Mary Wortley Montague. nastery, which, inhabited by thirty or forty Of Judge Beaumont's three sons, the Cistercian monks, carries back our thoughts eldest died young. John, the second, infrom the busy world of manufactures by herited the estates, and obtained a baronwhich it is surrounded, to the antiquities etcy. Sir John Beaumont was a man of reand the poetry of the middle ages. Simi- flection, taste, and feeling. In right of his lar reflections are prompted by another “Bosworth Field," and other poems, he is remembered among our minor poets, and But the scenes, amid which his early youth among the carliest improvers of English was passed, were secretly nourishing the symheroic verse. The third son, Francis Beau- pathies which afterwards flowed out with mont, was born at Gracedieu, probably in imaginative fulness upon the world of huthe year 1585. The family of Gracedicu man action and passion : nor did those did not comprise the only men of genius of scenes pas away without leaving images the name. Among their kinsmen, the Beau- which were afterwards enlarged and colored monts of Coleorton, we find, in the seven-into richer landscapes in unfading verse. teenth century, Dr. Joseph Beaumont, a The “ Salmacis,'' and an equally free poet from whom Pope did not disdain to imitation of the “Remedy of Love,” are borrow wisely ; and, in our own time, this our chief or only means of estimating the branch of the ancient stock has been repre- influence eserted on his mind by his acadesented by one of the most accomplished mical education. He became a gentleman gentlemen of any age—the late Sir George commoner of Broadgates Hall in Oxford, Beaumont, himself a pleasing artist, and when he was about twelve years old : but the generous friend of artists and of poets. he seems to have resided there only a short
The birth-place of Francis Beaumont time; and he was certainly too young to was a fit nursery for the boyhood of a poet. have received from it any deep impression, The spot itself is still beautiful : the region in the classical studies of the place, in the in which it lies was then sylvan and roman- more home-sprung learning of Camden who tic. Charnwood Forest, on the edge of had lived within the same walls a generawhich Gracedieu stands, was in the six- tion before, or in the puritanism and patriteenth century a thickly wooded chase. otism of Pym, who was his college-contemDrayton indeed, not long afterwards, la-porary. The Inner Temple, where he entered mented that the high-palmed barts were while still a boy, introduced him to new fled, and the dryads dead with the oaks companionships of a nature more congenial they had inhabited. Even for him, how-to his own; and we now approach the ever, the scene was the ideal of a forest: sphere in which his brief existence was and about the very time when his “ Poly- destined to be spent. olbion” was composed, Bishop Corbet and Meanwhile the friend whose name has his fellow-travellers lost their way among become identified with his, was entering its rocky glades. Wordsworth, the intimate upon life under circumstances far less favorfriend of the late Sir George Beaumont, able. Richard Fletcher, the son of a vicar has since revived its poetical renown in an in Kent, had distinguished himself at inscription reminding us that
Cambridge, and been Master of Benet “There, on the margin of a streamlet wild,
College. He was also minister of Rye, Did Francis Beaumont sport, an eager child;
where, in December, 1579, was born his
third son, John Fletcher, the poet. John
With which his genius shook the buskin'd stage." insulting the unhappy Mary, Queen of
His zealous serthe poetic heart do not generally awaken a vices upon this occasion, his courtly mansound which is their own echo. "The young ners, his handsome person, and his intimacy poet is for a time a mocking-bird. Beau- with Burleigh, concurred in recommending mont's earliest known work, published when him to the favor of the maiden queen. Subhe was certainly less than seventeen years ject to certain simoniacal suspicions, he of age, was the “Salmacis and Herma- soon became Bisbop of Bristol. Elizabeth, phroditus,” a poem of nine hundred heroic delighting in the good looks of her comely lines.
In this boyish piece, the voluptu- bishop, had found fault with him for cutous sketch of the Metamorphoses is worked ting his beard too short : “ whereas, good up into a minutely touched and over-color- lady," wrote Harington, “although she ed picture. The fancy which it unques- knew it not, that which he had cut too tionably exhibits, is expended on mytholo- short was his bishopric, not his beard.” gical inventions, ingenious like those of He was made, successively, High Almoner, their prototype, and even more artificial. Bishop of Worcester, and in 1595, Bishop There emerges in it little, if anything, of of London. A widower at the time of this origina observation of external nature. last promotion, he immediately married the