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believe their eyes when, in the bright sum-/ rounded off,—“ Look not upon the wine mer evening, they saw the mad-cap minis- when it is red, when it giveth his color in ter, as they were inclined to consider him, the cup," a shrill female voice, ascending whose peculiar gesticulations in black had from one of the extremities of the buildalready, a few hours before, sufficiently as- ing, interposed, in sharp and impatient actonished them, walking up and down about cents, with the exclamation,—“Red in the the village in a blaze of red.

cup! Troth it

may be ony o' the colors o' Even in those days, his preaching, merely the rainbow, for a' that the maist o' us moral as it was, was of far too uncommon see o't!" Poor Jane Pirie! Her bewila character for any audience not to be un- dered brain was seldom, either on weekday usually excited by it. Although the peo- or Sunday, free from the fumes of another ple did not run after him, or may even liquid as potent, if not as red, as wine; have been generally inclined to frown at but her natural shrewdness was never altothe manner as well as the matter of his gether extinguished, and on this occasion preaching, they could not help listening to her sense of the incongruous was no doubt it, and even being interested, and, for the quickened and exasperated by her natural moment, half carried away by it, while it indignation at so severe an attack upon her pealed in their ears. It was unlike any- favorite indulgence. Her readiness and thing to be heard from any other man. self-possession would sometimes flash out The force and fervor of the elocution in a very extraordinary way from the dark alone, aided, perhaps, rather than impaired, cloud in which whiskey and partial insanity by its uncouthness in all that belonged to together generally combined to involve her voice, pronunciation, and action, would faculties. She was a pretty regular attendhave compelled the attention of the dullest ant at church, whatever state she might audience. But the things that were ut- happen to be in; and one Sunday morntered, too, and the words in which they ing, deserting her usual post near the door, were uttered, bore no resemblance to either she had made her way forward, and seated the humdrum sobriety or the equally empty herself on the steps leading up to the pulrant and rumble of an ordinary sermon. pit, although manifestly far from being in There was more or less of true life in every a condition to occupy, with credit to hersentence. Espressions, arousing either self or edification to others, so conspicuous from their aptitude or their novelty,-illus- a position. The grave old beadle, theretrations striking now for their brilliancy, fore, advanced to remove her, and a slight now for their homeliness, were continually struggle ensued; when she suddenly petrioccurring. Notwithstanding the earnest- fied her assailant by turning round upon ness of the speaker, however, the feelings him, and calling out at the top of her voice, excited in the hearers by such unusual flash -“Ye auld shameless rascal! Would ye and splendor were, probably, not always kiss me before the haill congregation?” of the most reverential character. Upon Jane, though she had become a common one occasion, at least, the effect was unfor- beggar of the lowest order, was reported tunate. In the same village, the Sunday to have been originally a person of supeevening quiet of which he had so startled rior station ; and in all her degradation with his red coat, Chalmers appeared again she retained a look of gentle blood, and in -it may have been years afterwards—in her tall, slender, and upright form, somethe pulpit of the humble old parish church, thing of the bearing of a lady, even while and proceeded to preach from the text, - covered with rags and staggering along the “ Look not thou upon the wine when it is public way, with all the young idleness red, when it giveth his color in the cup.” and blackguardism of the village hooting As he proceeded, with an eloquence glow- at her heels. ing as the generous juice itself whose seduc- From the publication of his Treatise on tions and dangerous effects he described, the Evidences of Christianity, which was many of his simple hearers may possibly reprinted separately soon after its appearhave thought to themselves that he had not ance in the Encyclopedia, we may date the selected the precise kind of intoxication rise and first spread of Chalmers's general against which they most required to be fame. He had been recognised among his warned; but one, after some time, could acquaintances as a clever fellow, from his stand it no longer. On another of many youth upwards. We have heard the old repetitions of the emphatic words with lady in whose house he lodged while at colwhich every paragraph was wound up and lege tell with pride how, even in those days, his native superiority would shine out in tic. It must be four or five-and-thirty years talk and debate with his fellow-students; ago since two eager schoolboys, after a walk how a word of his would settle the matter of a couple of hours on a summer morning, which the rest had been wrangling about to found themselves at the entry to the churchno purpose for ever so long. Afterwards yard of the village of Markinch, in Fife, his name came to be familiar to all classes where Chalmers was to preach that Sunday of the people over the district where he forenoon. It was hardly yet nine o'clock, lived, and also to be well known through- and the gate was still unopened, and everyout the Church, while his various publica- thing quiet as usual. They were the first tions had also attracted some attention in who had arrived ; but they were soon jointhe literary world. But the excitemented by other strangers, in many cases, probawhich he now began to produce was some- bly, from greater distances than they had thing altogether national and universal, in travelled, first dropping in singly, or by as far as Scotland was concerned. The twos and threes, but ere long hurrying to the country had been stirred and aroused be- spot in dusty troops from every quarter, till fore, throughout its length and breadth, by at last a large multitude was collected long many a popular preacher ; but, in recent before the usual time of commencing sertimes at least, it had been only the chord of vice. As soon as admission was obtained, religious feeling that had been powerfully the ample church was filled to overflowing in struck. This had been done by the Ers- every part; but the two youthful firstkines and their associates when the first comers, as of right entitled, springing up Secession took place, by the conductors of to one of the galleries, secured excellent what was called the Outpouring at Cam- places there in the second or third pew buslang, by Whitefield, by Wesley, by from the front, whence they looked down Struthers (of the Relief communion), and upon the pulpit not many yards distant. by others. But the cultivated intellect of The pulpit, however, was not destined to the country had taken no part in the com- be occupied that day; when the preacher at motion which attended the career of any of last made his appearance, it was found that these preceding popular preachers. Chal- the congregation surrounding the church mers's preaching was the first that drew any was still greater than that which filled it general admiration for its mere eloquence. from floor to ceiling within; and it was Among those who had focked most eagerly quickly arranged that he should place himto hear him, were many persons who cared self where his voice might be heard by at nothing for his so-called evangelical theo- least a portion also of the throng collected logy—who, in truth, would have enjoyed his outside. A window by the side of the puloratory quite as much although his theme pit having been taken out, a temporary had not been a religious one at all. It is desk was attached to the railing of the pulunquestionable that in the end he gave to pit staircase, and there he took his station, a large portion of the rising talent of his directly in front of where we sat. native country a theological inspiration and seem to see and hear him still, bending fordirection ; but he was, perhaps, more in- ward, with his left hand on his manuscript, debted for his own celebrity in the first and his right clenched and elevated in eninstance, and for the high standing which he ergetic action, while the wildest expression early took in the general estimation, to of the eye mingles strangely with the solthose who did not think with him, than to emn and almost austere determination of those who did, upon the subject of religion. that large, firm upper lip, and broad, knotThe generous applause, for instance, ex- ty forehead; and what lies written before pressed by Francis Jeffrey, after hearing one him is enunciated in a voice husky, indeed, of his speeches in the General Assembly, and tuneless, but very distinct, and in the went like a trumpet before him; Jeffrey highest degree earnest and vehement, so as was said to have enthusiastically declared, to make you almost feel the words literally that he would walk twenty miles any day smiting your ear, and fixing themselves in for such another feast of eloquence. There your fesh as if with fangs. There was was, no doubt, much difference of opinion as something in Chalmers's more impassioned to the merits of a style of oratory which delivery that always reminded us of the was by no means constructed upon the prin- whizzing of steel upon a rapidly revolving ciples or precepts of Dr. Blair; but Young grindstone, with the sparks of fire flying Scotland was almost unanimous on the side off in showers. At all times there was a of the brilliant and daring rhetorical here- breadth and depth of cordiality in his utter

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ance, which sent it to the hearts of his tained possession for the afternoon, by makhearers at once. The gusto that he put ing our way into the church at one of the into it was immense. The sound is still in windows, during the interval between the our ear of the hurricane of denunciatory fer- two services, and then boldly scaling the vor with which, extending his arms aloft, undefended elevation ; after getting fairly and with his eyes shooting their fiercest (or unfairly) over the ridge of which we felt gleams, he spoke that day of the Lord quite secure, for nobody ever succeeded in sweeping the earth with the besom of de- ejecting B. out of anything which he had struction. We remember little besides of once appropriated, from the crown of the the sermon, except that the text was- causeway down to any perverse absurdity “ The kingdom of God cometh not within opinion or argument which he chose to observation.” Probably the words, as was take up. This may illustrate the spirit in his custom, were again and again repeated which Chalmers was still run after by some in the progress of the discourse. · We re- of his most enthusiastic admirers. Of symcollect too how, when soon after he had pathy with his evangelism, we fear there commenced, a slight disturbance arose was very little in that merry band, whose among some portion of the closely-packed tumultuous procession, some in gigs, some and struggling people, he repressed it at on horseback, so astonished the population once by a Hush ! uttered quickly as he went along the dozen miles of road between St. on, and without raising his eye from the Andrew's and Anstruther, as it awakened manuscript lying before him, in which his the echoes on that sunny Sabbath morn, whole soul seemed to be absorbed—its com- and still more, as their loud talk and pealmanding solemnity, nevertheless, nothing ing laughter startled the shades of night on could surpass. And it seems as if we had their return. Poor J. M., the pride of the listened to him but yesterday, as, after the university, the scholar, the wit, the poet, sermon, while he panted with exhaustion, was there, almost restoring the sunshine he read these verses from the noble old with his drolleries and brilliancies, none of Scotch metrical version of the Psalms :- us thinking how soon all that light was to

be suddenly and miserably quenched; oth“The floods, O Lord, have lifted up,

ers, too, may be silent enough now who They lifted up their voice; The floods have lifted up their waves,

were voluble enough then ; but some will And made a mighty noise.

still remember the hunting of that day,"

our gallant and open-hearted old friend, But yet the Lord that is on high,

W. M., now one of the foremost figures in
Is more of might by far
Than noise of many waters is,

his presbytery and synod, who propelled Or great sea billows are."

with such persevering gravity that ludicrous horse with the suppressed ears-

-J. A., now We could tell also, if space allowed, of also a renowned orator in the church courts, later adventures undertaken with a similar and a Doctor of Divinity to boot, besides object, especially of one never-to-be-forgot- being almost as great a geological as a theten expedition of a party of Andreapolitans ological luminary, the Buckland of the to hear Chalmers preach in his native town north-shrewd, quick-witted J. T., whom of Anstruther, whither he had come on a they likewise style the Reverend, and who, visit from Glasgow some time after his we doubt not, for all his merry eye and bis transference to that city, which took place, capital puns, makes as good a parish clerif we rightly remember, in 1815. This gyman as any of them all—and two or three Anstruther expedition must, we should more at least, we hope, who are still among think, have been an event of the year 1817. the en zbovl depxúue voi, though our desiring Chalmers preached both forenoon and after- eye knows not where to look for them. noon, in his highest style ; J. B., who, al- Chalmers's celebrity was by this time at though now transformed into á United its height, from which, however, it cannot be States republican, boasted of royal blood, said ever to have declined so long as he or at least of a royal name, and had a lofty lived. It was in this year, 1817, that he way of expressing simple enough things, gave to the world his famous Discourses exclaimed, that it was assuredly the zenith on the Christian Revelation, viewed in conof preaching, as we sat together over nexion with the Modern Astronomy, of which against the pulpit in the comfortable front five large impressions were carried off in the pew of somebody's private gallery, of which, first three months. It was in this same as the most eligible position, we had ob-1 year that his first contributions to the Edin

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burgh Review appeared—the article on “The about, instead of keeping as far out of its Causes and Cure of Pauperism,” which way as they could, had deliberately set stands first in the number for March. It about towing it into the midst of them was followed by another more elaborate There may, indeed, have been some subtle paper on the same subject, which stands at and profound intention in the proceeding; the head of the number of the Review for still its boldness was astounding. With February, 1818; and also by a short no- most of us at the moment, however, there tice at the end of the same number on some was little disposition to inquire too curiousrecently printed “Reports on the State of ly into reasons and motives ; we were only the Poor," which is memorable for a singu- not a little surprised, but immensely delar piece of precipitation--a calculation by lighted. We well remember the sudden which the number of persons then annually lighting up of faces produced by the unexrelieved from the poor's rates in England pected announcement, when it was made and Wales is made to appear to have been one night to a large party assembled at sup“9 1-4 in each 10 of the population !per round his hospitable board, by the late The 10 here might have been supposed to Dr. James Hunter, Professor of Logicbe a misprint for 100, if the excited writer man who, if it had been desired to make had not unfortunately proceeded with his the incident more piquant by force of concomment as follows:-"Such is the extra- trast, might have been selected from all his ordinary picture exhibited, on the highest colleagues for the strong dissimilitude, we authority, of the richest, the most industri- might almost say opposition, of nature beous, and most moral population that pro- tween him and Chalmers in many promibably ever existed. More than nine-tenths nent points, and yet who neither in trueof its whole amount occasionally subsisting heartedness and warm-heartedness, nor in on public charity!" The nine-tenths should real manliness of character, was a whit the have been written one-tenth. Chalmers, inferior of the two. Astonishment and behowever, though apt to be carried away by wilderment, however, were, probably, the extreme and one-sided views, was not in the feelings that were first called up in every habit of making such blunders as this. The one present on that occasion, when we were notice must have been prepared in great asked to fill our glasses and drink to the haste. In 1823, after eight years of inces- health of the new Professor of Moral Philosant exertion, and almost preternatural ex-sophy, Dr. CHALMERS. citement, in Glasgow, he once more, much Into the history of Chalmers's five years' to the surprise and perplexity of the mob tenure of his professorship at St. Andrew's of his admirers, who could not compre- we cannot enter. From the day when he hend why he should think anything else on delivered his introductory lecture in the earth equal to his pulpit popularity, or Parliament Hall, as the lower room of the should ever get tired of them and their University Library is designated, to an austeaming incense, took refuge in the acade-dience which, standing closely wedged tomic quiet of St. Andrew's, by accepting the gether, occupied the whole floor of the spaprofessorship of Moral Philosophy in the cious apartment, up to the period of his United College. It was not Chalmers's ac- removal to another sphere of usefulness, the ceptance of the chair that was to be won-excitement which he kept up was such as dered at, but its having been offered to him. certainly had been unknown in the old city The right of appointment was with the re- since the Reformation. The number of maining professors of the United College, students in the Moral Philosophy class rose, eight in number ; and their election of during the first year, from something under Chalmers was certainly the most dashing forty to above sixty, and in the second to and eccentric movement that had been ven- nearly eighty. Chalmers's lectures were tured upon by the Senatus Academicus also regularly attended by many persons since it has had an existence. We believe who had already finished their academic that people, when they heard of it, were curriculum, and who were not enrolled as generally inclined to conjecture that the students; while strangers from all parts of thing must have been gone into when the the island were occasional auditors. These learned body were hardly in their sober sen- lectures had all the eloquence of his serses ; but too much learning, perhaps, must mons, with a brilliancy of a kind not admishave driven them suddenly all mad. It was sible in a sermon, that of a rich narrativo as if a fleet of merchantmen, with highly com- humor. All who have ever known Chalbustible cargoes, seeing a fire-ship drifting mers as anything else than a great preacher VOL. XII. No. II.

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all who have either had an opportunity of , Hunter, the Professor of Latin, by his old hearing much of his oratory out of the pul- pupils, on the completion of the fiftieth pit, or who enjoyed any intercouse with him year that he had held the professorshipin private life, will admit that humor was having been, it may be added, all that one of his strongest propensities and richest while the chief ornament of the university ? gifts. He was far from abounding in anec- There was no want of enthusiasın in any dote; but he told a story, when he did in- individual, old or young, eminent or obtroduce one, to admiration. And his elo- scure, who made one at that great gatherquence nowhere shone more than in an af- ing ; but Chalmers was the most enthusiter-dinner speech. Who will ever forget the astic of us all, and nothing could go beeffect of one which he delivered at the din- yond the spirit and fire with which he spoke, ner given in 1824 to the venerable Dr. John making his hearers wild with delight.

From Sharpe's Magazine.

THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF MADAME GUIZOT.*

ness.

The history of a woman, and especially But, however valuable virtue and happithat of a happy woman, is soon told. Na- ness may be, there seems but little to say ture and society have alike combined to about them. It might satisfy the expectaestablish an indissoluble connexion between tion of the public were we to relate in a the happiness of woman and domestic pri- few words the principal circumstances of a vacy, and to fix her lot within the calm very private life, and pay a cursory homage region of her duties, her affections, and her to the qualities which have cnnobled it, domestic avocations. Even when impe- all our attention bearing upon the works rious circumstances, or a no less powerful and the talents which have alone hitherto vocation, have forced her to extend the given it an interest. Such an account sphere of her activity and influence, would reduce us to a page of biography, when a superiority has been bestowed which followed by a critical and literary dissertagives some celebrity to her name, it al- tion; but should we thus have made her most invariably occurs that family ties and known of whose writings only we could affections, the cares and occupations of judge? Should we have said of her more domestic life, still absorb the greater por- than any one else could say? Should we tion of her time and of her energies, by have done justice to the dearest as to the constituting the chief part of her happi- most revered memorials she has left us ?

We must pity rather than envy her Is it, in short, of her that we should have who has made the cultivation of her talents spoken? the principal business of life; the highest Facts have little interest if she to whom mental endowments could be to her but a they relate is unknown. Works belong to poor and perhaps a miserable compensa- the public, and they can judge of them tion.

better than we can. It is of the author, it The remembrance which Madame Guizot is of the person herself, that we would has left to her friends is happily exempt speak; thus only can we learn something from any such regret; and to those who of her, and in some degree satisfy the faithhave known and loved her, the extraordi- fulness of our regrets, above all the wishes nary powers of her mind are but the se- of that tender and sorrowing devotion which cond considerations which her memory has confided, for a little, to our charge a awakens. Before they can think of her memory so dear. claims to public regret, her friends love to A more general and no less important recall the excellent qualities of her mind; reason has likewise determined us. Silence they reckon the invaluable benefits which could easily be imposed upon feelings which her short and sometimes troubled life con- could not be published without some sacriferred; with an emotion at once pleasing fice; but thought owes allegiance to virtue; and painful, they first speak ber virtues, great instruction always results from the and afterwards of her talents.

life of a person equally superior in characFrom the French.*

ter as in mind; her example is a lesson ;

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