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they had tendered me the oath at the sessions?”, me in guilty. Whereupon I told them,' that both They said, “They had.” Then he bid, “Give the justices and they had forsworn themselves, them the book," that they might be sworn they and therefore they had small cause to laugh as had tendered me the oath at the sessions. They they did a little before.' Oh, the envy, rage, and said, They had.” The judge bid them again malice, that appeared against me, and the lightness; "take the book and swear they had tendered the but the Lord confounded them, and they were oath according to the indictment.” Some of the wonderfully stopped. So they set me aside, and justices refused to be sworn ; but the judge said, he called up Margaret Fell.'—p. 227. would have it done to take away all occasion of exception. When the jury were sworn, and the We learn that Fox on this occasion very justices had sworn, " that they tendered me the properly complained of the badness of his oath according to the indictment,” the judge asked

prison; and in consequence several of the me, “ Whether I had not refused the oath at the last assizes ?”?

justices visited it; but the floor was in such "G. Fox. 'I never took an oath in my life, a bad state, and the room itself so comand Christ, the Saviour and Judge of the world, pletely open to wind and rain, that they saith, “ Swear not at all.” ,

were alınost afraid to enter. All of them • Judge (not heeling this answer). I ask declared that it was “a most shameful whether or no you did not refuse the oath at the place," and a better was promised. It is last assizes ?

needless to say the promise was never ful“G. Fox. The words that I then spoke to them

filled. were,“ That if they would prove, either judge, justice, priest, or teacher, that after Christ and the apos- “ The following day he was again brought up tles had forbidden swearing, they commanded that in company with his old friend and present fellowChristians should swear, I would swear.”' sufferer, Margarei Fell, who employing counsel to

“ Judge. I am not at this time tu dispute plead to the errors of her indiciment, the judge whether it is lawful to swear, but to inquire allowed them. George Fox was then called upon, whether you have refused to take the oath or but declined the assistance of any pleader. His no?

narrative of the proceedings continues thus :6 G. Fox. Those things mentioned in the Judge. What have you to say why I should oath, as plotting against the king, and owning the not pass sentence upon you ? Pope's, or any other foreign power, I utterly “G. Fox. 'I am no lawyer; but I have much ceny!

to say, if thou wilt have patience to hear.' At Judge. Well, you say well in that; but did that he laughed, and others also laughed; and he you deny to take the oath? What say you ?' said, . Come, what have you to say ?' and turning “ G. Fox. What wouldst thou have me to to the court, •He can say nothing.?

Yes; I have much to say, have • Judge. • Would you have these men to but patience to hear me. Should the oath be swear that you have taken an oath ?'

tendered to the king's subjects, or to the subjects of “ G. Fox. • Wouldest thou have these men to another realm ?! swear that I had refused the oath ? At which

“ Judge. • To the subjects of this realm.' the court burst out into laughter. "I was grieved,' " G. Fox. • Look into the indictment, ye may he says, ' to see so much lightness in the court, see ye have left out the word subject; so, not where such solemn matters were handled, and having named me in the indictment as a subject, therefore asked him, “ If this court was a play. ye cannot premunire me for not taking the oath.' house?" Where is gravity and sobriety? for this “ Then they looked over the statute and the behavior does not become you.'

indictment, and saw it was so; and the judge con“ The clerk then read the indictment, and I told fessed it was an error. the judge, • I had something to speak to it, for I “G. Fox. “I have something else to stop judghad informed myself of the errors that were in it.' ment-look what day the indictment says the He told me, he would hear afterwards any rea- oath was tendered to me, at the sessions there.' sons that I could allege why he should not give “ They looked, and said, . It was the 11th day judgment.' Then I spoke to the jury, and told of January.' them, they could not bring me in guilty according "G. Fox. • What day of the week was the to that indictment, for the indictment was wrong session held on? laid, and many gross errors in it.'

· On a Tuesday,' was the reply of some one • Judge. * You must not speak to the jury, but in court. I will speak to them; you have denied to take the “G. Fox. Look to your almanacks and see oath at the last assizes, and I can lender the oath whether there were held any sessions at Lancaster lo any man now, and premunire him for not on the 11th day of January, so called ?" So they taking it, and the jury must bring you in guilty, looked, and found that the 11th day was Monday, seeing you refused to take the oath.”

and that the sessions were held on the Tuesday, "G. Fox. • What do ye with a form ? you the 12th day of the month. “Look, now, ye have may throw away your form then.' To the jury. indicted me for refusing the oaih in the quarter-ses

It lies upon your conscience, as ye would answersions held at Lancaster on the 11th day of January it to the Lord God before his judgment-seat.' last, and the justices have sworn that they tenderThen the judge spoke again to the jury, and led me the oaih in open sessions here on that day, called to him to do me justice.' The jury brought I and the jury upon their oaths have found me guilty

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thereupon ; and yet ye see there was no session, the justices and jury; for I saw before mine eyes held in Lancaster that day.'

that both justices and jury had forsworn them“ Judge (to cover the matter) asked, "Whether selves.' the sessions did not begin on the 11th day.” Some Judge. Will you take the oath ? one in court answered, No; the sessions held “G. Fox. Do me justice for my false impribut one day, and that was the 12th.'

sonment all this while ; for what have I been im. “ Judge. • This is a great mistake and error.' prisoned so long for? I ought to be set at liberty.'

“ Some of the justices were in a great rage at “ Judge. You are at liberty, but I will put the this, and stamped and said, .Who hath done this? oath to you again.' Somebody hath done this on purpose ;' and a great “G. Fox then turned about and said, “ All peoheat was amongst them.

ple, take notice, this is a snare, for I ought to be “G. Fox. • Are not the justices here that have set free from the gaoler and from this court.' sworn to this indictment forsworn men in the face • Judge. “Give him the book.' of the country? But this is not all, I have more ". Then,' he continues, the power of darkness yet to offer why sentence should not be given rose in them like a mountain, and the clerk lifted against me. In what year of the king was the up a book to me. I stood still, and said, “If it last assize holden, which happened in the month be a Bible give it me into my hand.” Yes, of March last ?'

yes,” said both judge and justices, “give it him “ Judge. It was in the sixteenth year of the into his hand.” So I took it, and looked into it, king.'

and said, “I see it is a Bible, I am glad of it.” » « G. Fox. The indictment lays it in the fil- “. The judge caused the jury to be called, and teenth year.'

they stood hy; for after they had brought in their They looked and found it so, which was also former verdict, he would not discharge them, acknowledged to be another error. Then, he says, though they desired it; but told them " he could they were all in a fret again, and could not tell not dismiss them yet, he should have business what to say; for the judge had sworn the officers for them, therefore they must attend, and be ready of the court that the oath was tendered to me at when they were called.” When he said so I the assize mentioned in the indiciment.

felt his intent, that if I was freed he would come “G. Fox. Now, is not the court here for- on again. So I looked him in the face, and the sworn also, who have sworn that the oath was witness of God started up in him, and made him tendered to me at the assize holden here in the blush when he looked at me again; for he saw fifteenth

year of the king, when it was in his six- that I had discovered him. Nevertheless, harden. teenth year, and so they have sworn a year ing himself, he caused the oath to be read to me, false?

the jury standing by. When it was read, he The judge then bid them look whether Mar- asked me “ whether I would take the oath or garet Fell's indictment was the same, but found it not ?" not so.

“G. Fox. • Ye have given ine a book here to “G. Fox. •I have yet more to offer to stop kiss, and to swear on; and this book, which ye sentence; ought all the oath to be put into the have given me to kiss, says, “ kiss the Son,” and indictment or not?'

the Son says in this book, "swear not at all," and “ Judge. Yes, it ought to be all put in.' so says the apostle James. I say as the book

“ G. Fox. Then compare the indictment with says, yet ye imprison me. How chance ye do not the oath, and there thou may’st see these words imprison the book for saying so? How comes it (or by any authority derived, or pretended to be that the book is at liberty amongst you which derived from him, or his fee; left out of the indict. bids me not swear; and yet ye imprison me for ment, which is a principal part of the oath ; and doing as the book bids me.' in another place the words (heirs and successors) “I was speaking this to them, and held up the are left out.

Bible open in my hand to show them the place “ The judge acknowledged these also to be great where Christ forbade swearing. They plucked errors.

the book out of my hand, and the judge said, “G. Fox. But I have something further to Nay, but we will imprison George Fox.”' allege.

Yet this got about all over the country, as a "Judge. Nay, I have enough, you need say bye-word, “That they gave me a book to swear no more.'

on that commanded me not to swear at all, and “G. Fox. “If thou hast enough, I desire no- the Bible was at liberty, and I in prison for doing thing but law and justice at thy hands : for 1 what the Bible said." ; don't look for mercy.'

“ The judge still urged him to swear, and G. “ Judge. • You must have justice, and you Fox said, I never took oath, covenant, or enshall have law.'

gagement in my life ; but my yea and nay was “ G. Fox. Am I at liberty, and free from all more binding in me than an oath was to many that ever hath been done against me in this mat- others; for had they not had experience how ter?

little men regarded an oath ? and how they had Yes, you are free from all that hath sworn one way and then another ? and how the been done against you.' But starting op in a rage, justices and court had forsworn themselves now? he exclaimed, 'I can put the oath to any man I was a man of tender conscience, and if they had here, and I will tender you the oath again." any sense of a tender conscience they would con

"G. Fox. “Thou had'st example enough sider, that it was in obedience to Christ's command yesterday of swearing and false swearing, both in that I could not swear. But if any one of you

“ Judge.



can convince me, that, after Christ and the apostle “G. Fox. Ye have had sufficient experience had commanded me not to swear, they altered that of men's swearing, and thou hast seen how the command, and commanded Christians to swear, ye justices and jury had sworn wrong the other day; shall see I will swear. There being many priests and if thou had'st read in the Book of Martyrs, in the court, I said, “ If ye cannot do it, let your how many of them had refused to swear, both in priests stand up and do it.” But not one of the the time of the ten persecutions and in Bishop priests made answer.'

Bonner's days, thou mightest see, that to deny “ Judge. “Oh! all the world cannot convince swearing in obedience to Christ's command was

no new thing.' “ G. Fox. • No; how is it likely the world “ Judge. I wish the laws were otherwise.' should convince me? The whole world lies in “G. Fox. “Our yea is yea, and our nay is wickedness. Bring out your spiritual men, as ye nay; and if we transgress our yea or nay, let us call them, to convince me.'

suffer as they do, or should do, that swear falsely. “ Both the sheriff and the judge said, “ The This we have offered to the king, and the king angels swore in the Revelations,

said it was reasonable.'', “ G. Fox. “When God bringeth his first-begot- “ Instead of obtaining his liberty by this clear ten into the world, he saith, “ Let all the angels of exposure of the palpably gross errors of his inGod worship him ;” and the son saith, “ Swear dictment, he was re-conducted to prison, there to not at all.",

be immured till the ensuing assizes; and in order “ Judge. • Nay, I will not dispute.'

to make his case still harder, his sufferings were “G. Fox, to the jury. It is for Christ's sake increased tenfold, by a second interference of that I cannot swear, and therefore I warn you not Colonel Kirby, who gave particular orders to the to act contrary to the light of God in your con- gaoler “ to keep him close, and suffer no flesh alive sciences ; for before his judgment seat you must to come at him, for he was not fit to be discoursed all be brought. As for plots, and persecutions for with by men. In consequence of this order he religion, and popery, I deny them in my heart, for was removed into an upper chamber in an old and I am a Christian, and shall show forth Christiani- ruinous tower of the castle, so much more dilapity among you this day. It is for Christ I stand. dated than his former abode, that he was constant. More words I had, boih with the judge and jury, ly exposed to the inclemencies of the weather, and before the gaoler took me away.'

often had the greatest difficulty to preserve his bed " In the afternoon he was brought up again, and and clothing (which was always damp and cold) placed among the thieves for a considerable time, from being wet through. He was also so much where he stood with his hat on till the gaoler took distressed by smoke, which penetrated into his it off. The jury having found this new indictment room from other fires in the prison, that at times against him, ' for not taking the oath,' he was then he was nearly suffocated by it, and often could called to the bar.

scarcely discern the light of a candle from its “ Judge. "What can you say for yourself ?! density. In this inhuman place be was doomed

“G. Fox. •I request the indiciment 10 be to pass the whole winter (which was unusually read; for I cannot answer to that which I have long and severe) for no crime; and was at last so not heard.”

much affected by a continued exposure to the cold “ The clerk then read it, and, as he read it, the and wet, and the constant inhaling of such an imjudge said, • Take heed it be not false again ; but pure atmosphere, that he was reduced to a state of he read it in such a manner that George Fox could great suffering : his body became swollen, and his hardly understand what he read.

limbs so benumbed, that he could with difficulty “ When he had done, the judge said, “What do use them.”—p. 229. you say to the indictment?

After fifteen months' close imprisonment “G. Fox. • At once hearing so large a writing read, and that at such a distance that I could not at Lancaster, Fox was removed to Scarbodistinctly hear all the parts of it, I cannot tell rough, where he was confined twelve what to say ; but if thou wilt let me have a copy months, and this, it will be recollected, of it, and give me time to consider of it, I will an- without any act that would constitute a misswer it.

demeanor in the eye of the law; without “ This put them to a little stand; but, after a while, the judge asked, "What time I would

any proper charge being substantiated have?

against him ; without any fair committal ; “G. Fox. Till the next assize.'

without being found guilty, by a jury, of any Judge. But what plea will you now make ? crime ; but merely because it was the pleaAre you guilty or not guilty ?!

sure of a party to persecute and oppress him, “G. Fox. I am not guilty at all of denying partly from direct malice, and partly from the to swear obstinately and wilfully; and as for those mistaken idea that they were currying favor things mentioned in the oath, as jesuitical plots, with those in power. At last Fox appealed and foreign powers, I utterly deny them in my to the king himself, stating full particulars of heart

. If I could take any oath, I could take this; his treatment, and relating the whole transbut I never took any oath in my life.'

“ Judge. You say well, but the king is actions from beginning to end. His innosworn, the parliament is sworn, I am sworn, and cence, and the motives of his persecutors, the justices are sworn, and the law is preserved by were at once obvious to Ch es, who immeoaths.'

diately ordered his release. From the com

plete success of the previous application to will swear to a lie. Qur courts of justice the king on his account, it is remarkable that daily give us examples of witnesses who Fox should not have written earlier; for he swear to speak the whole truth, and yet go seems at all times to have had a kind and into the witness-box determined to suppress Christian feeling towards his sovereign, and such part of the truth as shall weaken the to have expected justice at his hands. cause of the party who has subpænaed

We cannot resist the temptation, in this them; a signal proof that the bad man is not place, of calling the reader's attention to the bound by an oath ; and every one knows that leading subject discussed between Fox and the good man requires no oath to induce his judges-the taking of an oath. Of the him to speak the truth. value of such an oath nothing can possibly Whatever opinions may be held by the speak more decidedly than the fact that ma- world concerning the Quakers of the present gistrates and jury, on the occasion in ques- day, and whatever judgment the Quakers tion, deliberately swore to false statements inay deserve at our hands, there can be no -not knowing them to be false, certainly, doubt that Fox and his followers were imbut not caring to inquire or know whether bued with the spirit of Christianity; that they they were true : certain statements, techni- were clear-headed, single-minded men, who cally false, are laid before them, and to the preached the gospel in all sincerity, influenctruth of these they unhesitatingly swear, ed solely by the idea that such preaching was as a matter of course. It is not for us to required at their hands; that they were simenforce the unlawfulness of swearing, in a re-ply yielding to that inward spiritual light ligious sense, as pointed out by Fox, and as spoken of by St. John as “the light which still maintained by the entire Quaker body ; lighteth every man that cometh into the we object to it as tending to narrow the world.” This light they regard as greater foundations of moral obligation; and we re-than the Scripture itself, because the source gard the maintenance of the law on this sub- whence those Scriptures flowed; and the ject at the present day, and the refusal to influence of this inward light is a fundamenreceive any evidence except on oath, how- tal doctrine of Quakerism. ever contrary to the conscientious feelings It must, however, be observed, that the of the witness, as a relic of barbarism which belief in this inward light is professed also by we shall rejoice to see destroyed. Quakers every sect of Christians; but Quakers seem and Moravians, by their successful appeals to to stand out from the rest in having real faith parliament, are exempt from a compulsory in its existence. Did not this difference disobedience to a Divine command; but all exist we should not find theological disputothers are compelled to disobey, or to have ants alluding in derision to the Quaker terms their evidence refused as unworthy of credit. of “being guided by the inward light,” or We are well aware that a difference of opi. being “moved by the Holy Spirit.” Much nion obtains as to the precise meaning of the misapprehension has occurred as to the Triwords, “Swear not at all,”—whether they nitarian views of the Society from the fact refer to profane or judicial swearing; but, in that the term Trinity is rarely if ever used the absence of any evidence that Christ refer- in the sermons or works of their teachred exclusively to either kind of oath, those ers. The omission appears not to result can hardly err who conscientiously take the from any disbelief in the celebrated and elawords as written, without attempting any borately discussed verse in St. John, * which explanation; and surely to such, whether is taken as the authority for the doctrine, Catholic, Protestant, or Dissenter, the right for concerning this verse, all Quaker writers should be given to take the affirmation in- agree in considering it explanatory of the stead of the oath. We would not enjoin on entire spirit of the New Testament. The any the observance of a command to which question of its authenticity is not discussed, they can conscientiously assign some other because if it be a true explanation or summeaning than the words appear to convey; mary of a doctrine already received as truth, but those who take the more obvious reading it matters but little whether the explanation of the passage ought not to rest until they are were given with the text, or subsequently. freed from a compulsory violation of the dic- They assert that the word Trinity is not of tates of conscience. On moral grounds we Scripture origin, and therefore has no Dicannot understand how any man who views vine authority for its use. The charge that this subject with unsophisticated eyes can the Quakers doubted or denied the Divinity take a view different from our own. There of Christ was met by Penn, Barclay, and all lives not the man whose oath corroborates his assertion. If a man is determined to lie he

* John V., 7.

the more able writers of the sect. No sect , Fox as a man of inflexible integrity, of is less liable to such a charge, and there is invincible courage, of perfect sincerity, of none which makes implicit faith in Christ a indomitable perseverance, of real piety, and more constant and important theme of ex- of unquestionable loyalty: an unflinching hortation,

friend, a forgiving enemy, a true subject, and A few words as to the mode in which above all, a perfect Christian. Imagination, Mr. Marsh has acquitted himself of his task. in all its vagaries, had rarely succeeded in It was no ordinary undertaking to compile drawing so spotless a character. There is such a life of Fox as should be readable to one point, and only one, in which we would the public. What had previously been venture to differ from our author, and that written concerning this remarkable man ap- is the tone in which he speaks of the Romish pears to have been designed more for the use church: the frequent allusion to the memof the Society itself than for the world at bers of this church, as “papists,” is uncalled large ; and is rendered so prolix, if we may for; it answers no good purpose, and must use the term, by detailed accounts of meet. be offensive to many. Mr. Marsh is, we ings, that many who began the task of believe, a member of the Church of Engperusal in the spirit of fair inquiry, would land: he writes with perfect candor of relinquish it from a distaste to the almost Quakerism: why should he seek to dispaunintelligible repetitions. Mr. Marsh's rage a faith so much more nearly allied to volume is the reverse of prolix; it has no his own, and one which at the present morepetitions to render it distasteful, and gives ment seems spreading her arms to receive just so much of the history of Fox as is his own, through the friendly portals of essential to the understanding and just ap- Puseyism?

K. preciation of his character. He represents

From the London Quarterly.


The little visited and less known strip of tract the essential sweet, and then away to country to the West of the Peninsula, which beauties new? Even so in these slim tomes rejoices in the title of an independent king- there is no tedious twice-told tale. Here dom, produces other matters besides Por- is “ pleasant reading," as Scott says of tugal onions, Port wine, and periodical re- some earlier rara aris, “with no botheravolutions: of which the two former are bet- tion about statistics and geology”—the dry ter to be discussed elsewhere, and the latter daily bread of our critical treadmill

. may be dismissed as tempests in a teacup. In For the poetical and picturesque features a recent number(clvii.) we paid our homage of Portugal, our fair tourist came well preto the drama of Lusitania : and we now in- pared : a keen perception of the beautiful vite the attention of our readers to its sce- could not but be hereditary in the blood nery and social life, as sketched for us in which rumor assigns her : cradled in the the Journal of an accomplished artist : her bosom of beauty at Grasmere, reared at the pen light and ready, her pencil true and knees of the genius loci, her memory ever facile, and both equally obedient to the recurs to the scenes of her youth; and mistress mind. What eye, indeed, like whether she climbs the wild sierra, or fords bright woman's can see the nice shades of the arrowy torrents of a foreign land, the differences, the infinite details which consti- scaurs and streams of Cumberland reappear, tute character in the aggregate, whether in clad in a southern garb: thus the enjoythe works of the creation or in its so-called ment of the present is heightened by the lords? What appliance of art can fix cha- poetry of the past, and Cintra itself becomes meleon impressions as they arise, better doubly delicious, because associated with than crowquill guided by taper fingers, the sweetest of English homes. which skim over gilt-edged paper like but- We hope we may be pardoned these alluterflies busied with flowers, now lured by sions to a popular report, which certainly color, now by perfume, pausing but to ex-I seems to derive confirmation from the inter

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