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towards him. A cheerful mind is not only disposed to be affable and obliging, but raises the same good humour in those who come within its influence.
A man finds himself pleased, he does not know why, with the cheer'fulness of his companion ; it is like a sudden sunthine that awakens a secret delight in the mind, without her: attending to it. The heart rejoices of its own accord, and naturally flows out into friendship and benevolence towards the person who has fo kindly an effect upon it.
When I consider this cheerful state of mind in its third relation, I cannot but look upon it as a constant habitual gratitude to the: Author of Nature. An inward.cheerafulness is an implicit praise and thanksgiving to Providence under all its dispensations. It is a kind of acquiescence in the state wherein we are placed, and a secret approba-. tion of the Divine Will in his conduct towards
Aman, who uses his best endeavours to live according to the dictates of; virtue and right reason, has two perpe. tual sources of cheerfulness, in the confideration of his own nature, and of that being on whom he has a depende ence. If he looks into himself, he cannot but rejoice in that existence, which is so lately bestowed upon him, and which, after millions of ages, will be still new, and still in its beginning. How many self-congratulations naturally rise in the mind, when it reflects on this its entrance into eternity :: when it takes a view of those improvable faculties, which in a few years, and even at its first fitting out, have made so considerable a progress, and which will be still receiving an increase of happiness? The conscioufness of such a being spreads a perpetual diffusion of joy through the soul of a virtuous man, and makes him look upon himfelf every moment as more happy than he knows how to conceive.
The second source of cheerfulnefs to a good mind, is its confideration of that being on whom we have our de.
pendence, and in whom, though we behold him as yet but in the firft faint discoveries of his perfections, we see every thing that we can imagine as great, glorious, or amiable. We find ourselves every where upheld by his goodness, and surrounded with an immensity of love and mercy. In short we depend upon a Being, whose power qualifies him to make us happy by an infinity of means, whose goodness and truth engage him to make those happy who desire it of him, and whose unchangeableness will secure us in this happiness to all eternity.
Such considerations, which every one should perpetually cherish in his thoughts, will banish from us all that secret heaviness of heart which unthinking men are subject to when they lie under no real affliction; all that anguish which we may feel from any evil that actually oppresses us ; to which I may likewise add those little cracklinys of mirth and folly that are apter to betray virtue than support it; and establish in us such an even and cheerful témper, as niakes us pleasing to ourselves, to those with wlioiñ we converse, and to him whom we are made to please.
ON SINCERITY. Tauth and Sincerity have all the advantages of appearmany inore.
If the show of any thing be good for any thing, I am sure the reality is better; for why does any man diffemble, or seem to be that which he is not, but because he thinks it good to have the qualities he pretends to? For to counterfeit and diffemble, is to put on the appearance of some real excellency. Now the belt way for a man to seem to be any thing, is really to he what he would seem to be. Besides, it is often as troublefome to support the pretence of a good quality as to have
it; and if a man have it not, it is most likely he will be discovered to want it, and then all his labour to seem to have it is loft. There is something unnatural in painting, which a skilful eye will easily difcern from native beauty and complexion.
It is hard to perfonate and act a part long; for where truth is not at the bottom, nature will always be endeavouring to return, and will betray herself at one time or other. Therefore, if any man think it convenient to seem good, let him be fo indeed, and then his goodness will appear to every one's satisfaction ; for truth is convincing, and carries its own light and evidence along with it, and will not only commend us to every man's conscience, but, which is much more, to God, who searcheth our hearts. So that, upon all accounts, sincerity is true wisdom. Particularly as to the affairs of this world, integrity hath many advantages over all the artificial modes of dillimulation and deceit. It is much the plainer and easier; much the safer and more secure way of dealing in! the world; it hath less of trouble and difficulty, of entanglement and perplexity, of danger and hazard in it: it is the shortest and nearest way to our end, carrying us thither in a straight line, and will holl out and last longeft. The arts of deceit and cunning continually grow weaker and less effèctual and serviceable to those that practice thern; whereas integrity gains strength by use, and the 'more and longer any man practiseth it, the greater service it does hiin, by confirining his reputation and encourag-‘ing those with whom he has to do, to repose the greatest confidence in him, which is an unspeakable advantage in business and the affairs of life..
A diffembler must always be on his guard, and watch himself carefully, that he do not contradict his own pres. tensions ; for he acts an unnatural part, and therefore mult put a continual force and restraint upon himself..
Whereas he that acls fincerely hath the easiest talk in the world; because 'he follows nature, and so is put to no trouble and care about his words and actions; he needs not invent any pretences beforehand, nor make excuses afterwards, for any thing he hath said or done.
But insincerity is very troublesome to manage; a hypocritè has so many things to attend.to, as make his life a
perplexed and intricate thing. A liar hath need of a good - memory, lest he contradict at one time what he said at -another ; but truth is always consistent with itself, and -needs nothing to help it out; it is always near at hand, --and fits upon our lips; whereas' a lie is troublesome, and (needs a great many more to make it finindo
Add to this, that sincerity is the most compendiouo. wisdom, and an excellent instrument for the speedy dispatch of business : it creates confidence in those we have to deal with, faves the labour of many inquiries, and - brings things to an issue in a few words. It is like travelling in a plain beaten road, which commonly brings a man sooner to his journey's end, than bye-ways, in which men often lofe themselves. In a word, whatsoever cona venience 'may be thought to be in fallehood and disliinulation, it is foon over ; but the inconvenience of it is perpetual, because it brings a man under an everlasting jealousy and fufpicion, so that he is not believed when he "speaks truth, nor trusted when perhaps he means honestly. When a man hath once forfeited the reputation of his integrity, nothing will then serve his turn-neither truth nor falsehood.
Indeed, if a man were only to deal in the world for a day, and should never have occasion to converse more with mankind, never more need their good opinion or good ed, it were then no great matter (as far as respects the affairs of this world) if he spent his reputation all at once, and ventured it at one throw. But if he be to continue in the world, and would have the advantage of reputation whilst he is in it, let him make use of truth and fincerity in all his words and actions, for nothing but this will hold out to the end, All other arts may, fail, but truth and integrity will carry a man through, and bear him out to the last.
ON HONOUR. EVERY, principle that is a motive to good actions ought to be encouraged, since men are of so different a make, that the same principle does not work equally, upon all minds. What some men are prompted to by conscience, duty, or religion, which are only different names for the same thing, others are prompted to by honour.
The sense of honour is of so fine and delicate a nature, that įt is only to be met with in minds which are naturally noble, or in such as have been cultivated by great examples, or a refined education. This essay, therefore, is chiefly designed for those who by means of any of thefe advantages are, or ought to be actuated by this glorious principle.
But as nothing is more pernicious than a principle of action, when it is misunderstood, I shall consider honour iv with respect to three sorts of men.-- First of all with regard to those who have a right notion of it. Secondly, with regard to those who have a mistakeri notion of it. Agd, thirdly, with regard to those who treat it as chime-ix rical, and turn it into ridicule..
In the first place true honour, though it be a different principle from religion, is that which produces the same effects. The lines of action, though dịawn from different parts, terminate in the farne point. Religion embraces : virtue, as it is enjoined by the laws of God; honour, as