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Instead of fifty, I will give her five hundred, if you please. God grant a long life to Sultan Mahmoud; whilft he reigns over us, we shall never want ruined villages.

The story says, the sultan was so touched with the fable, that he rebuilt the towns and villages which had been destroyed, and from that tiine forward consulted the good of his people.

SPECTATOR.

CHAPTER III.

AVARICE AND LUXURY. THERE were two very powerful tyrants engaged in a perpetual war against each other: the name of the first was Luxury, and of the second Avarice. The aim of each of them was no less than universal monarchy over the hearts of mankind. Luxury had many generals under him, who did him great service, as Pleasure, Mirth, Pomp, and Fashion. Avarice was also very strong in his officers, being faithfully served by Hunger, Industry, Care, and Watchfulness. He had likewise a privy-counsellor, who who was always at his elbow, and whispering something or other into his ear; the name of this privy-counsellor was Poverty. As Avarice conducted himself by the counsels of Poverty, his antagonist was entirely guided by the dictates and advice of Plenty, who was his firft counsellor and minister of state, that concerted all his measures for him, and never departed out of his fight. While these two great rivals were thus contending for empire, their conquets were very various. Luxury got pofleflion of one heart, and Avarice of another. The father of a family would often range himself under the banners of Avarice, and the fon under those of Luxury. The wife and the husband would often declare themselves on the two different parties : nay, the same person would very

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often side with one in his youth, and revolt to the other in his old age.

Indeed the wife men of the world stood neuter : but alas, their numbers were not considerable. At length, when these two potentates had wearied themselves with waging war upon one another, they agreed upon an interview, at which neither of their counsellors were to be present. It is said that Luxury began the para ley, and after having represented the endless ftate of war in which they were engaged, told his enemy, with a frankness of heart which is natural to him, that he believed they two should be very good friends were it not for the instigation of Poverty, that pernicious counsellor, who made an ill use of his ear, and filled him with groundless apprehensions and prejudices. To this Avarice replied, that he looked upon Plenty (the first minister of his antagonist) to be a much more destructive counfellor than Poverty, for that he was perpetually suggesting pleasures, banishing all the neceffary cautions against want, and consequently undermining those principles on which the government of Avarice was founded. At last, in order to an accommodation, they agreed upon this preliminary, that each of them should immediately dismiss his privy counsellor. When things were thus far adjusted towards a peace, all other differences were soon accommodated, insomuch that for the future they resolved to live as good friends and confederates, and to share between them whatever conquests were made on every side. For this reason we now find Luxury and Avarice taking poffeffion of the fame heart, and dividing the same person between them. To which I shall only add, that fince the discarding of the counsellors above mentioned, Avarice supplies Luxury in the room of Plentý, as Luxury prompts Avarice in the place of Poverty.

SPECTATOR.

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There were two families, which from the beginning of the world were as opposite to each other as light and darka nefs. The one of them lived in heaven and the other in hell. The youngest descendant of the first family was Pleasure, who was the daughter of Happiness, who was the child of Virtue, who was the offspring of the gods.These, as I said before, had their habitation in heaven. The youngest of the opposite family was Pain, who was the son of Misery, who was the child of Vice, who was the offspring of the furies.-The habitation of this race of beings was in hell.

The middle station of nature between these two'opposite extremes was the earth, which was inhabited by creatures of a middle kind, neither fo virtuous as the one, nor lo vicious as the other, but partaking of the good and bad qualities of these two opposite families. Jupiter considering that this species, commonly called man, was too virtuous to be miserable, and too vicious to be happy; that he might make a distinction between the good and the bad, ordered the two-youngest of the above mentioned families, Pleasure, who was the daughter of Happiness, and Pain, who was the son of Misery, to meet one another upon this part of nature which lay in the half

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be. tween them, having promised to settle it upon them both, provided they could agree. upon the division of it, fo as to share mankind between them.

Pleasure and Pain were no sooner met in their new habitation, but they immediately agreed upon this point, that pleasure should take poffeffion of the virtuous, and pain of the vicious part of that species which was given up

to them. But upon examining to which of them any individual they met with belonged, they found each of them had a right to him ; for that, contrary to what they had seen in their old places of residence, there was no person

vicious who had not some good in him ; nor any pera fon so virtuous, who had not in him some evil. The truth of it is, they generally found upon search, that in the most vicious man, Pleasure might lay claim to an hundreth part; and that in the most virtuous man, Pain might come in for at least two-thirds. This they saw would occasion endless disputes between them, unless they could come to some accommodation. To this end there was a marriage proposed between them, and at length concluded: by this means it is that we find Pleasure and Pain are fuch constant yoke-fellows, and that they either make their visits together, or are never far asunder. If Pain comes into a heart, he is quickly followed by Pleasure; and if Pleasure enters, you may be sure Pain is not far off.

But notwithstanding this marriage was very convenient for the two parties, it did not seem to answer the intention of Jupiter in sending them among mankind. To remedy therefore this inconvenience, it was stipulated between them by article, and confirmed by the consent of each fac mily, that notwithstanding they here possessed the species indifferently, upon the death of every single person, if he was found to have in him a certain proportion of evil, he should be dispatched into the infernal regions by a passport from Pain, there to dwell with Misery, Vice, and the furies. On the contrary, if he had in him a certain proportion of good, he should be dispatched into heaven by a passport from Pleasure, there to dwell with Happiness, Virtue, and the gods.

SPECTATOR.

CHAPTER V.

LABOUR. LABOUR, the offspring of Want, and the mother of Health and Contentment, lived with her two daughters in a little cottage, by the side of a hill, at a great distance from town. They were totally unacquainted with the great, and kept no better company than the neighbouring villagers; but having a desire of seeing the world, they forsook their companions and habitation, and determined to travel. Labour went soberly along the road with Health on the right hand, who by the sprightliness of her conversation, and songs of cheerfulness and joy, foftened the toils of the way; while. Contentment went smiling on the left, fupporting the steps of her mother, and by her perpetual good humour increasing the vivacity of her sister.

In this manner they travelled over forests and through towns and villages, till at last they arrived at the capital of the kingdom. At their entrance into the great city, the mother conjured her daughters never to lose fight of her ; for it was the will of Jupiter, she said, that their feparation fhould be attended with the utter ruin of all three. But Health was of too gay a disposition to regard the counsels of Labour: she suffered herself to be debauched by Intemperance, and at last died in child-birth of Disease. Contentment, in the absence of her fifter, gave herself up to the enticements of Sloth, and was never heard of after : while Labour, who could have no enjoyment without her daughters, went every where in search of them, till she was at last seized by Lassitude in her way, and died in misery.

WORLD

CHAPTER VI. THE OLD MAN AND HIS ASS. An old man and a little boy were driving an ass to the next market to sell. What a fool is this fellow (says a

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