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ed by the fortiter in re, is always respected, commonly fuccessful. In your friendships and connections, as well as in your enmities, this rule is particularly useful; let your firmness and vigour preserve and invite attachments to you; but at the fame time, let your manner hinder the enemies of your friends and dependents from becoming yours : let your enemies be disarmed by the gentleness of your manner, but let them feel at the same time, the steadi. ness of your just resentment: for there is a great difference between bearing malice, which is always ungenerous, and a resolute self-defence, which is always prudent and jufti fiable.

I conclude with this observation ; That gentleness of manners, with firmness of mind, is a short, but full defeription of human perfection, on this fide of religious and moral duties. .

LORD CHESTERFIELD,

CHAPTER VIII.

ON GOOD SENSE.

WERE I to explain' what I understand by good sense, F fhould call it right reason; but right reason, that arises not from formal and logical deductions, but from a sort of intuitive faculty in the soul, which distinguishes by immediate perception ; a kind of innate fagacity, that in many of its properties seems very much to resemble instinct. It would be improper therefore to say, that Sir Ifaac Newton Thewed his good sense, by those amazing discoveries which he made in natural philosophy: the operations of this gift of heaven are rather instantaneous, than the result of any tedious process. Like Diomed, after Minerva had endued him with the power of discerning gods from mortals, the man of good sense discovers at once the truth of those objects he is most concerned to

distinguish ; and conducts himself with fuitable caution and security. : It is for this reason, possibly, that this quality of the mind is not so often found united with learning as one could wilh: for good sense being accustomed to receive her dircoveries without labour or study, le cannot so easily wait for those truths, which being placed at a distance, and lying concealed under numberless covers, require much pains and application to unfold.

But, though good sense is not in the number, nor always, it must be owned, in the company of the sciences; yet is it (as the most sensible of the poets has juftly observed)

-fairly worth the sevin. Rectitude of understanding is indeed the most useful, as well as the most noble.of human endowments, as it is the sovereign guide and director in every branch of civil and social intercourse. · Upon whatever occasion this enlightning faculty is exerted, it is always fure to act with diftinguished eminence; but its chief and peculiar province seems to lie in the commerce of the world. Accordingly we may observe, that those who have conversed more with men than with books; whose wisdom is derived rather from experience than contemplation ; generally possess this happy talent with fuperior perfection. For good fense, though it cannot be acquired, may be improved; and the world, I believe, will ever be found to afford the most kindly foil for its cultivation.

MELMOTH.

CHAPTER IX.
ON STUDY.

STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. The chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring :

for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert, men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars one by one : but the general couniels, and the plots, and marfalling of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in liudies, is floth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience ; for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by duty, and ftudies themselves to give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience, Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them: for they leach not their own use, but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be taited, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested : that is, fome books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not.curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with,diligence and attention.' Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that thould be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else diftilled books are like common distilled was ters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full man; confere ence a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning to seem to know that he doth not,

BACON,

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CHAPTER X.

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ON SATIRICAL WIT. Trust me, this unwary pleasantry of thine will sooner or later bring thee into scrapes and difficulties, which no after-wit can extricate thee out of. In these fallies, too oft I fee, it happens that the perfon laughed at, considers himself in the light of a person injured, with all the rights of such a situation belonging to him; and when thou vieweit him in that light too, and reckonest upon his friends, his family, his kindred, and allies, and mufterest up with them the many recruits which will list under him from a sense of common danger; 'tis no extravagant arithmetic to say, that for every ten jokes, thou has got an hundred enemies ; and, till thou haft gone on, and raised a swarm of wasps about thine ears, and art half ftung to death by them, thou wilt never be convinced it is fo.

I cannot suspect it in the man whom I esteem, that there is the least fpur from spleen or malevolence of intent in these fallies, I believe and know them to be truly honest and sportive; but consider that fools cannot distinguish this, and that knaves will not; and thou knowest not what it is, either to provoke the one, or make merry with the other : whenever they associate for mutual defence, depend upon it, they will carry on the war in such a manner against thee, my dear friend, as to make thee heartily sick of it, and of thy life too.

Revenge, from some baneful corner, shall level a tale of dishonour at thee, which no innocence of heart or integrity of conduct shall set right. The fortunes of thy house fhall totter--thy character, which led the way to them, shall bleed on every side of it-thy faith questioned -thy works belied-thy wit forgotten-thy learning trampled on. To wind up the last scene of thy tragedy,

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Cruelty and Cowardice, twin ruffians, hired and set on by Malice in the dark, shall strike together at all thy infirmities and mistakes. The best of us, my friend, lie open there ; and trust me when to gratify a private appetite, it is once resolved upon, that an innocent and an helpless creature thall be sacrificed, it is an easy matter to pick up sticks enough from any thicket where it has strayed, to make a fire to offer it up with.

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CHAPTER XI. HAMLET'S INSTRUCTIONS TO THE PLAYERS. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to you, trippingly on the tongue. But if you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had aš lieve the town-crier had spoke my lines. And do not saw the air too much with your hand, thus; but use all gently; for in the very torrent, teinpest, and, as I may say, whirlwind of your passion, you mult acquire and beget'a temperance that may give it fmoothness. Oh! it offends me to the soul, to hear a robufieous perriwig-pated fellow tear a passion to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the groundlings; who (for the most part) are capable of nothing but inexplicable dumb fhows and noise: I could have such a fellow Awhipp'd for o'erdoing termagant; it out-herods Herod. Pray you, avoid it.

Be not too tame neither; but let your own discretion be your tutor.

Suit the action to the word, the word to the action, with this special observance, that you o'erstep not the modefty of nature : for any thing fo overdone is from the purpose of playing; whole end, both at the first and nów, was and is, to hold, -as 'twere, the mirror up to naiure ; to thew virtue her owii feature, fcorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time, his form and pressure. Now this overdone or come tárdy off, though it make the

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