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I.-ESSAYS ON PHRENOLOGY; OR AN INQUIRY INTO THE PRINCIPLES AND

UTILITY OF THE SYSTEM OF DRS GALL AND SPURZHEIM.
II.-PHRENOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CEREBRAL DEVELOPEMENT OF

DAVID HAGGART.
III.- .--LIFE OF DAVID HAGGART, WRITTEN BY HIMSELF WHILE UNDER SEX-

TENCE OF DEATH.
IV.SPURZHEIM ON EDUCATION.
V.-ARTICLE I. OF NEW EDINBURGH REVIEW. NO. II.

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The most inveterate enemies of Gall he had a greater developement of BE ** and Spurzheim must now be convin- NEVOLENCE AND JUSTICE than I had ced-convicted of the blind folly of anticipated, his countenance softened, their opposition to the doctrines of those and he almost shed a tear.” The most great discoverers in the philosophy of flinty bosom must be softened-thethe human mind. Fortunately for most stony eye melt--we should think ** mankind, David Haggart murdered --at this simple recital. Mr Combe, sa the jailor of the Dumfries prison ; and with his hand slowly moving up and me that distinguished Craniologist, Mr down, and round about Mr Haggart's » », George Combe, having, according to youthful and devoted head-the ете the method of induction prescribed by of the tender-hearted murderer grahis predecessor, Lord Bacon, and ex- dually becoming suffused with tears plained by his contemporary, Mr Mac- the silk and spotted pocket-handker- -* vey Napier, studied the natural cha- chief purchased, no doubt, from the racter of the murderer, as indicated by man at the corner, softly applied by 1 his cerebral organization, he has been the sympathizing phrenologist to the * enabled to place Phrenology among face of the too sensitive assassin-Mr the number of the exact sciences. J. R. Sibbald, jailor, we presume, and Looking upon this achievement as by Mr James Law, junior, a gentleman far the greatest that has been perform- to us unknown-standing silent by, 2-3 ed in our day, we shall endeavour to each probably with a face as long as present our readers with a short sketch his arm--furnish a scene, inferior in of Mr Combe's discoveries, which have dignified and solemn pathos

, perhaps

, thus formed an era in the history of only to the death of Socrates. We list, human knowledge.

recommend it as a subject to Mr les Mr George Combe, who possesses a Geddes, far more likely to attract kJ tenderness of sensibility rarely found public attention than the discovery of united with great intellectual power, the Regalia. A set of quizzical fev 2 made his experiments on Mr David officers, with gowns and wigs, peep, Haggart, who was yet unexecuted, ing into a great chest, like a meal with

a kindness and a courtesy which garnel, or staring about them with a cannot be too highly eulogized, or too ugly and unmeaning faces, upon the warmly recommended to the practice most unmeaning of all possible occzof other men of true science. Though sions, could never be put into com Mr Haggart had dedicated his youth, petition, for a single moment

, with with an almost exclusive passion, to the first philosopher and the first felons the pursuits of pocket-picking, thie- of the age, laying their heads together tout ving in general, highway robbery, and for the completion of mental science

, , murder ; yet Mr Combe wisely and in the presence of two awe-struck and humanely saw in this no reason against reverential disciples. treating him with delicacy and re- This tender interview was before spect; and accordingly, there is some condemnation. But David was tried 2 74 thing very touching in the account of -and ordered to be hanged by the the first interview between the great neck till dead, between the hours of craniologist and the great criminal. eight and nine in the morning of July “On going over his head," says Mr 18, 1821. That restraint under which Combe, “ I mentioned to him THE he had laboured during this afflicting FEELINGS AND POWERS which it in- interview, was now removed. There dicated; but he made no remarks as was now, alas! no longer any reason i 70 to the correctness or incorrectness of for concealing the truth-and Mr the observations. On telling him that Combe now saw that many little trais lai

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David's character as a thief, a rob- words, burglary, robbery, and mura .:r, and a murderer-many little nice der. It throws a certain air of cheerid delicate shades of iniquity, which fulness and merriinent over crimes of id formerly been concealed, would the blackest dye, which, in a great bw appear to the inspection of the measure, reconciles us to them, and le of science, and that, by their ap- thereby enables us to look on them ication to the Theory, new light with little or no disturbance, so that ould be thrown on the whole moral we can the better judge of their real ad intellectual nature of man. character. An ordinary person cannot It does not appear from Mr Combe's think of bloody crimes with too great atement at least if it does, it has agitation of abhorrence; but a philocaped our notice--that he performed sopher, like Mr Combe, is superior to uy process of manipulation on the ce- these delusions of the imagination, bral organization of Mr Haggart, and therefore thinks and writes rationfter condemnation. But he drew up ally of murders and murderers. Next character of the criminal from the to the wisdom implied in such phrasezvelopement of his head, as formerly ology, appears to us that shewn in the voted, and submitted it to his own penultimate sentence of the paragraph oservation, as to correctness. In do- now quoted. Hitherto we have known ig so, Mr Combe still observed the nothing of the natural dispositions me laudable delicacy and refined which lead young men into a sporting umanity towards him, who was the line of life, or what makes them roba abject of his queries, and soon about bers and murderers. The whole subkewise to be the subject of the still ject has lain hid in utter darkness. vore searching home-thrusts of Dr No attempt ever has been made to Ionro, that had marked the whole of speculate on it; and consequently no is behaviour during their interview. effectual means ever adopted to eduin the sketch submitted to Mr Hag- cate the young people of this or any art, every expression was avoided that other country. Mr Combe's object, right seem in any way to convey any therefore, was to ascertain facts never arsh and needless disapprobation of before understood, and thence to deduce hat peculiar mode of life, which he rules for a grand system of moral eduad chalked out for himself, or any cation or regeneration. And these rant of sympathy with those pecca- views he recommended, as was proper, illoes, which had brought him with- to the enlightened mind and enlarged n a very few days journey of the scaf- understanding of Mr Haggart, who old. Mr Combe, with the wisdom of appears to have entered into them philosopher, and the charity of a with his usual energy, and with a Christian, blandly intimates to David, zeal, which, considering the peculiar

that the motive of doing so is not to circumstances of his situation, may be ndulge in idle curiosity, but to throw thought by some to class him among ight upon the natural dispositions the most disinterested benefactors of which particularly lead a young

maninto our species. i sporting line of life!! for the pur

The result of Mr Combe's observapose of devising effectual means to re- tions, and of Mr Haggart's own relaim young offenders at the outset of marks upon them, is a more perfect :heir career, by placing them in cir- knowledge of the sources of wickedness - rumstances calculated to cultivate the and crime in the human heart, than good, and restrain the evil tendencies has ever before been possessed by any of their nature.

The present conver- people ; and now it becomes an impesation is entirely confidential, and will rious duty on Mr Combe, and a duty not be abused. Ďavid Haggart is there- indeed, which he pledged himself to fore requested to be open and com- the late Mr Haggart and his executors pletely candid in his remarks.” The forthwith to perform, to devise effecexpression,“ sporting line of life,” is tual means for reclaiming young ofmost judíciously selected by MrCombe, fenders at the outset of their career. from the vocabulary most familiar to As soon as this plan is published, we the gentleman whom he addressed, shall think it our duty to lay an acand is well calculated to keep in the count of it before the public; and if - back-ground all those painful and dis- it is to be carried into effect by subtressing associations, which the mind scription, we put our_name down, is but too apt to connect with the Christopher North, Esq. ten gui

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neas; and there can be no doubt, knowledge what an excellent young that our example will be speedily fol- man he must have been, as young men lowed by Lord Grey, Mr Lambton, go. Mr Wilbraham Bootle, Gale Jones, 1. Amativeness. It was moderate. J. A. Murray, Esq. &c. But we Now this is jast what amativeness positively object to Sir James Mac- ought to be in a human creature. A intosh being treasurer, for reasons

man is not a horse, a bull, or a ram; which we shall be happy to commu- and therefore David Haggart's organ nicate to him, whenever he writes to of amativeness was moderate. Accord. us upon the subject. It is plain, that ingly, Mr Combe prettily writes, “

, “You had Mr Combe's intended plan been would not be the slave of the sexual carried into effect, “ for reclaiming passion ; you could resist that tenyoung offenders at the outset of their dency, without a great effort, when career," some late subscriptions, and, you wished to do so." This remark among others, that for Sir Robert, David rather misunderstood. He seems would have been uncalled for. to have forgot Mr Combe's philosophi

The real character of the late la- cal character, and the great aim of all mented Mr Haggart, as indicated by his inquiries, namely, to establish a his cerebral organization, may be sup- new system of education, and to have posed by shallow thinkers to be at vae suspected that his friend was sneering riance (in some of the minuter points) on a point, on which all men are exwith his supposed character, as indi- tremely tender, be the size of their ofcated by some of his actions. This gan of amativeness what it may. So discrepancy, however, disappears be- David rather pettishly replies : fore the eye of philosophy.

66 You have mistaken me in this point of “ The developement of Haggart's head, sexual passion; for it was my greatest fail. it

appears upon the cast of the skull, is ing, that I had a great inclination to the as follows:

fair sex,—not, however, of those called 1. Amativeness, moderate.

Prostitutes ; for I never could bear the 2. Philoprogenitiveness, large. thought of a whore, although I was the 3. Inhabitiveness, large.

means of leading away and betraying the 4. Adhesiveness, moderate.

innocence of young women, and then lea5. Combativeness, very large.

ving them to the freedom of their own will 6. Destructiveness, full.

I believe that I was the of that art 7. Constructiveness, large.

more than any other that I followed." 8. Acquisitiveness, moderate.

Now all this is perfectly consistent 9. Secretiveness, very large.

with a moderate sized amative 10. Self-esteem, very large.

“ An inclination for the fair sex," to 11. Love of approbation, small. employ Mr Haggart's moderate and 12. Cautiousness, full.

well-chosen expression, does not im13. Benevolence, large.

ply extreme criminality; and his natu14. Veneration, moderate.

tal and acquired abhorrence of “ those 15. Hope, rather small. 16. Ideality, very small.

called prostitutes," is much in favour 17. Conscientiousness, small.

both of himself and of Mr Combe. 18. Firmness, very large.

Leading away and betraying the in19. Individuality, moderate.

nocence of young women, and then lea20. Form, full.

ving them to the freedo:n of their own 21. Size, moderate.

will," was certainly far from being one 22. Weight, unascertained.

of the most amiable habits of this ac23. Colouring, small.

complished young man ; but it is by 24. Locality, large.

no means conduct inconsistent with 25. Order, full.

the possession of a moderate organ of 26. Time, moderate.

amativeness; for in Haggart it seems 27. Number, moderate. 28. Tune, full.

to have proceeded from a mixed feel. 29. Language, full.

ing. Pride of art, vanity, &c. were 30. Comparison, moderate.

gratified by these successful amours; 31. Causality, full.

and he knows little indeed of Mr 32. Wit, full.

Haggart's character-little indeed of 33. Imitation, full.

human nature in general-—perhaps 34. Wonder, small.

little of his own, who does not know As the above is, beyond all doubt, that even this mixed, compounded, his real character, just let us observe and complex emotion, excited Captain how it tallies with his life, and ac- Smith of Halifax to the seduction

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he unfortunate Miss Baillie. Besides, amiable weakness, and made him ocerhaps, there is a little embellishment casionally apply the rod. He says no. a this picture from Mr Haggart's thing of natural children, in his Memagination. Wiser and better meu noirs, so that this organ had never han he, have heen apt to stretch a long been brought into play. ow in love matters; and let us hope 3. Inhabitiveness, LARGE. According hat David was not so ruinous to the to Spurzheim, the positive evidence

vaid-servantry of Scotland as this con- of theexistence of this faculty is insufession, so much in the spirit of Rous- ficient; and it is stated only as conau, might lead us to suppose. His jectural. Perhaps, therefore, the orme seems to have been rather too gan which is now supposed to be that ruch occupied to have left him any of inhabitiveness, may afterwards turn eisure hours for such exploits, which out to be for some totally different re should conjecture must often prove purpose.

This also is conjectural. dious and protracted even to the most Haggart had it large; and it appears

exterous ; and his opportunities of from almost every page of his Me2, lyrming acquaintance with modest moirs, that he had the faculty in great

oung women, in decent private fami- perfection. He took up his habitation es, could not have been very great. any where-in lodging-houses,-in * Iere and there too, during his Me- bagnios,-in prisons,-in sheds,-in Sanoirs, as dictated to his amanuensis, hay-stacks,-in woods,- in ditches

Ir Robertson, he seems to talk of those no place came amiss to him. “Some called prostitutes,” in a way rather in- animals,” says Mr Combe, zzonsistent with his language on that tial to high regions, some to low coun13 Xlass of society,in his remarks onCombe. tries and plains, and others to marshes.”

1 Ve hear of him passing whole months Haggart was not so nice—but would By houses of bad fame, and a scene of sleep one night in the Figgite Whins, uch profligacy and wickedness in an one inch above the level of the sea,

rish Jail is alluded to, that Mr Hag- and another on the top of Arthur's art's modesty prevents him from lay- Seat, 800 feet above high water. ig the details before the public. In 4. Adhesiveness, MODERATE. “The

ict, notwithstanding his abhorrence function of this faculty is to give atwine to those called prostitutes,” he seems tachment in general.” See Combe on w have lived in their company at all Phrenology, p. 145. " When , too

ximes when not with his male palls, strong, -excessive regret at a loss of a as sollowing the more or less active duties friend, or excessive uneasiness at leaf his profession ; and let us hope, that, ving our country, called Nostalgia, is

same principle of historic truth, the result.” Ibidem.--Haggart seems të abstained entirely from the com- to have mixed a good deal with socievany of those modest virgins whom ty; but then it is to be remembered, te says he found so much pleasure in that it was not from the feeling of leluding. Still, in whatever conclu- adhesiveness," or attachment to the jon the mind may ultimately rest, parties, but simply in order to pick here is no reason to doubt that his their pockets. He certainly says that onduct is reconcileable to the fact of he loved his friend Barney, but it was moderate

organ of amativeness, which not pure disinterested attachment, sthe poiirt contended for by us and Mr It was rather admiration of superior Combe.

talents and acquirements—and when 2. Philoprogenitiveness, LARGES- Barney's own feelings of adhesiveness This is an exceedingly amiable trait in were violently rent asunder by transhe natural character of Haggart. This portation for fourteen years to Botanyorgan is in general larger in females Bay, it appears that Haggart mournthan in males ; and its great size indi- ed, not for the loss of a bosom friend, ates the feminine tenderness of Hag- but for the withdrawing of the guizart's heart. No doubt, had he been ding genius of his profession. His

the father of a family, he would have good spirit, he says, forsook him been a most indulgent one,---perhaps when Barney was lagged, and he ne

spoiled his children by giving them ver prospered afterwards. No symptoo much of their own way,-unless, toms of Nostalgia ever shewed themindeed, his firmness, which we shall selves in David. Indeed, he was presee he possessed in an eminent degree, paring to go to France, and we have had counteracted the tendency to this understood that he would willingly

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VOL. X.

appears to be to conceal in

have had sentence of death commuted of its activity, we may possess when for that of transportation for life. the day of want comes, and not be Therefore his organ of adhesiveness left to the uncertain provision which was but moderate.

could be made from the mere dictates 5. Combativeness, VERY LARGE.- of reason, after tracing a long chain of 6. Destructiveness, FULL. Haggart, consequences. In Haggart this or according to his own account, was a gan was moderate. Now it appears, tolerable pugilist. But unluckily he that he never shewed the least dispowas but poorly made about the chest, sition to hoard. We do not read of his shoulders, and arms. He was an eleven having lodged money with Sir Wil. stone man; but hecould not have stood liam Forbes, or lent it out on heritafor ten minutes before the Sprig of ble bonds, or dabbled in the stocks. Myrtle, who weighs only a few pounds Mr Combe adds, “ This faculty, when above eight. We saw him dissected by too energetic, and not controlled by Dr Monro, and that skilful anatomist superior powers, produces theft.” But observed the defects we have now spo- he ought to have added, that the indiken of. At school, &c. he used to vidual must, in that case, be both a fight boys bigger than himself; and thief and a miser. Now Haggart

, as in Ireland, on one occasion, he fought we have seen, was no miser; therea Paddy, and smashed him all round fore, though a thief, his organ of acthe ring. So he says. On another oc- quisitiveness was moderate. casion, he and Barney together knock- 9. Secretiveness, VERY LARGE. "The ed down a man in a flash-house, and function of this faculty,” says M 2 Haggart struck him when down with Combe, “ the

heels of his shoes. There are other general, without delivering the object anecdotes to which we might refer to and the manner of concealing. Mans prove his combativeness. He knocked persons conceal their opinions and indown a pig-drover at an Irish fair ; tentions, and sometimes maintain in and also struck a man on horseback conversation, in writing, or in public

, from behind with the butt-end of his an opinion opposite to their own. The whip. His destructiveness was exhi- faculty gives the propensity in poets bited by his shooting a Newcastle to construct interesting plots for you beak, and by fracturing the skull of mances and dramatic pieces; and it the Dumfries jailor. He had also in- appears to inspire that compound of tended to drown a justice of the peace, dissimulation and intrigue which is we forget where, and to shoot an Edin- designated scavoir faire. In animak burgh police-officer.

it produces slyness." _“When the is7. Constructiveness, LARGE. This culty is very powerful, it produces : organ was, we understand, very large slyness of look, a peculiar side-long in the late Mr Rennie, who designed the rolling cast

of the eyes, and a stiffene Waterloo Bridge, and the Plymouth approach of the shoulders to the head." Breakwater. Why it should have been Mr Haggart excelled in concealment

. so large in Haggart, who does not ap- He concealed bank-notes in the palm pear to have studied architecture, it is of his hand so dextrously, that they hard to say. But he had a mechanical were invisible to the searching eyes of turn, and could construct false keys. the beak. He concealed his very name, He had also a singular felicity in pull- and assumed divers alias's

. He not ing down walls, and getting out of only concealed all his intentions, but places of confinement. This shewed he concealed himself for two days in a he excelled in one part of the mason's hay-stack. Had he written for the trade. Besides, Mr Combe says in his stage, no doubt he would have colo Phrenology, p. 150, “ That it does structed interesting plots for romances not form ideas of the objects to be and dramatic pieces ;

and we regter constructed.”—“ Its function is to that Mr Murray had not retained him produce the desire or impulse to con- about the theatre here as struct in general.”

We believe also, that Haggart's generator 8. Acquisitiveness, MODERATE. No. ral appearance correspondel very next 8, in Mr Combe's great work, is called ly with the above description. We Covetiveness ; and he observes, “that never but once had the pleasure the intention of nature in giving this ing him; and then we of acquiring; so that, in consequence the shoulders to the head.” "But culo faculty, is to inspire us with the desire remarked - the stiffened approach of

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