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of the country, the nature of the seasons, “ I shall now suppose that the emigrant the mode of farming, and various other de. has made all necessary arrangements for sirable particulars. The female part of the the occupation of his land. His first object family may engage themselves as house- then is to get a house built. If his lot lies hold servants, whose wages are always paid in a settlement, his neighbours will assist in money, and thus add a good deal to the hinı in doing this without being paid ; but general stock. Many, who are now inde- if far back in the woods, he must hire peopendent settlers, came to the Province in ple to work for him. The usual dimensions absolute poverty ; but, by pursuing the of a house are eighteen feet by sixteen. plan above described, were soon enabled to The roof is covered with bark or shingles, commence working upon their own lands, and the floor with rough hewn planks, the and to raise themselves beyond the reach interstices between the logs that compose of want.

the walls being filled up with pieces of “ Some people choose to clear a few wood and clay. Stones are used for the acres, and crop them, before they build a back of the fire-place, and a hollow cone house, or go to reside upon their lots. of coarse basket work does the office of a Others erect a habitation first of all, and chimney. The whole cost of a habitation move into it at once with their families. of this kind will not exceed £12, suppoThe first plan is most congenial to the sing the labourers had been paid for erectfeelings of British emigrants ; for the par. ing it; but as almost every person can tial cultivation that has been effected, di- have much of the work done gratis

, the minishes the wildness of the surrounding expence will not perhaps amount to more forests, and things are usually more com

than £5 or £6." fortable and orderly within doors, than they can be when the settler takes up his

Those who think seriously of folresidence on his land before any trees have lowing Mr Howison's advice, will of been cut down. But the expence of sup

course study his book with the serious porting a family, while clearing operations attention it deserves ;


the are going forward, is great, unless the idle whole, it seems to be made out quite members engage themselves as servants ; clearly and convincingly, that any

inand the work, particularly if hired persons dustrious family, who can command a are employed, does not proceed so fast as capital of L.20 or L.30, may, safely it would do, were the principal residing embark for Canada, and nourish upon his lot, and superintending the busi- hope of soon seeing themselves elevaness himself. Therefore, all settlers who ted into a situation of comfort and inhave little money, ought to set themselves down in the woods at once, and boldly

dependence, altogether unknown acommence chopping. This plan may sub.mong the poorer classes of our counject them to a few hardships, but it will trymen here in Britain—while the assuredly be for their advantage in the man who is in possession of twice as “ Much of the immediate success of a through the most

culpable negligence

much money, cannot fail, unless settler depends upon the time of his arri

. on his own part, to establish himself val in the country. Should he not reach in the course of a very Quebec till the autumn, winter will be al. manner far more than adequate most commencing before he arrives

at York, cure all the purposes for which hason and the badness of the roads, and incle- Scotchman ever einigrates, or thinks of mency of the weather, will then make it difficult for him to travel to the new set. tlements, and survey the lands that are

of open for location. Even were he able to die fully into the merits of this ter set in, he could not clear any land tili proceed to consider very briefly its upon a lot, and build a house before win. Mr Howison's work, but shall now spring, on account

of the deepness of the merits of “a purely literary character, snow and severe cold ; while he would all These, it cannot be disputed, are ofte the time be at the expence of supporting very brilliant order. Howison (like himself and his family in idleness. But if Humboldt) seems to write of the fothe emigrant reaches York in the month of rests, the rivers, the cataracts, the July, he will find sufficient time to choose boundless and majestic wildernesses acres of ground, and sow it with wheat or å good lot, erect a habitation, clear several of the New World, as if his spirit Indian corn, previous to the commencement of winter : thus getting the start, by ty and mysterious influences of elea whole year, of him who arrives late in mental nature ; nor have we met, for the autumn, and who would only be pre- a long while, with any thing more paring his land for seed, when the other charming in ourliterature, than the urwas reaping his first crop.

studied contrast continually presented



emigrating from his native shores. We have not room to enter more


were quite penetrated with the migh

by his quiet and temperate views of spray of the Great Fall had extended itself men and manners on the one hand, through a wide space directly over me, and, and his most rich and imaginative de- receiving the full influence of the sun, exscriptions of external nature on the hibited a luminous and magnificent rainother. Neither Chateaubriand nor

bow, which continued to over-arch and irHumboldt has written any thing more enthusiastically contemplated the indescri

radiate the spot on which I stood, while I ia truly beautiful and impressive, than

bable scene. u his sketch of the voyage up the St Lawrence in the batteaux-Some of (as I had,) may plunge his hand into the

“ Any person, who has nerve enough, his descriptions of walks and rides water of the Great Fall, after it is projectthrough the primeval forests, which ed over the precipice, merely by lying down still skirt the shores of Ontario and flat, with his face beyond the edge of the Erie-His rich panorama of the thou- Table Rock, and stretching out his arm to and islands-or, above all, his visit its utmost extent. The experiment is truly o the cataracts of Niagara. We ven

a horrible one, and such as I would not ure to quote a considerable part of wish to repeat ; for, even to this day, I feel je last description, and to challenge i recollect having been in the posture above

a shuddering and recoiling sensation when ny one to point out any thing more

described. werful , or more chastely and taste

“ The body of water which composes Lly powerful, in all the prose that the middle part of the Great Fall is so ims been written in our time.

mense, that it descends nearly two-thirds of The Table Rock, from which the the space without being ruffled or broken, Is of Niagara may be contemplated in and the solemn calmness with which it rolls their grandeur, lies on an exact level over the edge of the precipice, is finely conthe edge of the cataract, on the Cana- trasted with the perturbed appearance it aside, and, indeed, forms a part of the sumes after having reached the gulf below. pice over which the water gushes. It But the water towards each side of the Fall es its name from the circumstance of is shattered the moment it drops over the ojecting beyond the cliffs that support rocks, and loses as it descends, in a great e the leaf of a table. To gain this po- measure, the character of a fluid, being diit is necessary to descend a steep vided into pyramidal-shaped fragments, and to follow a path that winds the bases of which are turned upwards. shrubbery and trees, which entire. The surface of the gulf below the cataract ceal from the eye the scene that presents a very singular aspect ; seeming, him who traverses it. When near as it were, filled with an immense quantity nination of this road, a few steps of hoar frost, which is agitated by small ne beyond all these obstructions, and rapid undulations. The particles of gnificent amphitheatre of cataracts water are dazzlingly white, and do not apon my view with appalling sud- parently unite together, as might be supnd majesty. However, in a mo- posed, but seem to continue for a time in a

scene was concealed from my state of distinct comminution, and to repel dense cloud of spray, which in- each other with a thrilling and shivering

so completely, that I did not motion which cannot easily be described. tricate myself. A mingled rush- “ The noise made by the Horse-shoe undering filled my ears. I could Fall, though very great, is infinitely less - except when the wind made a than might be expected, and varies in loud. ne spray, and then tremendous ness according to the state of the atmosemed to encompass me on every phere. When the weather is clear and elow, a raging and foamy gulf frosty, it may be distinctly heard at the erable extent lashed the rocks distance of ten or twelve miles ; nay much Eng waves, and swallowed, un- further when there is a steady breeze ; but - obscurity, the smoking floods I have frequently stood upon the declivity ecipitated into its bosom. of the high bank that overlooks the Table

the sky was obscured by Rock, and distinguished a low thundering fter a few minutes the sun only, which at times was altogether drownad the breeze subsiding at the ed amidst the roaring of the rapids above cmitted the spray to ascend the cataract. In my opinion, the concave 7. A hostof pyramidal clouds shape of the Great Fall explains this cirly, one after another, from

The noise vibrates from one é bottom of the Fall; and side of the rocky recess to the other, and a ad ascended a little above little only escapes from its confinement, and cataract, displayed a beau- even this is less distinctly heard than it hich in a few moments was would otherwise be, as the profusion of erred into the bosom of the spray renders the air near the cataract a nediately succeeded. The very indifferent conductor of sound.


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“ The road to the bottom of the Fall precipices above were tumbling down in presents many more difficulties than that colossal fragments upon my head. which leads to the Table Rock. After lea- " It is not easy to determine how far an ving the Table Rock, the traveller must individual might advance between the sheet proceed down the river nearly half a mile, of water and the rock ; but were it even where he will come to a small chasm in the possible to explore the recess to its utmost bank, in which there is a spiral staircase extremity, scarcely any one, I believe, enclosed in a wooden building. By descend would have courage to attempt an expediing this stair, which is seventy or eighty tion of the kind. feet, perpendicular height, he will find “ A little way below the Great Fall, the himself under the precipice on the top of river is, comparatively speaking, so tranwhich he formerly walked. A high but quil, that a ferry-boat plies between the sloping bank extends from its base to the Canada and American shores, for the conedge of the river ; and on the summit of venience of travellers. When I first crossthis there is a narrow slippery path, cover- ed, the heaving flood tossed about the skift ed with angular fraginents of rock, which with a violence that seemed very alarming; leads to the Great Fall. The impending but as soon as we gained the middle of the cliffs, hung with a profusion of trees and river, my attention was altogether engaged brushwood, over-arch this road, and seem by the surpassing grandeur of the scene to vibrate with the thunders of the cataract. before me. I was now within tħe area of a In some places they rise abruptly to the semi-circle of cataracts, more than three height of one hundred feet, and display up- thousand feet in extent, and floated on the on their surfaces, fossil shells, and the or- surface of a gulf, raging, fathomless, and ganic remains of a former world ; thus sub- interminable. Majestic cliffs, splendid rainlimely leading the mind to contemplate the bows, lofty trees, and columns of spray, were convulsions which nature has undergone the gorgeous decorations of this theatre of since the creation. As the traveller ad- wonders, while a dazzling sun shed refulvances, he is frightfully stunned by the ap- gent glories upon every part of the scene, palling noise ; for clouds of spray some- Surrounded with clouds of vapour, and times envelope him, and suddenly check stunned into a state of confusion and terhis faltering steps-rattlesnakes start from ror by the hideous noise, I looked upwards the cavities of the rocks, and the scream of to the height of one hundred and fifty feet

, eagles soaring among the whirlwinds of ed- and saw vast floods, dense, awful, and stu. dying vapour, which obscure the gulf of pendous, vehemently bursting over the prethe cataract, at intervals announce that the cipice, and rolling down, as if the windows raging waters have hurled some bewilder- of heaven were opened to pour another deed animal over the precipice. After scram- luge upon the earth. Loud sounds, resembling among piles of huge rocks that ob- bling discharges of artillery or volcanic ex. struct his way, the traveller gains the bot- plosions, were now distinguishable amidst tom of the Fall, where the soul can be sus

the watery tumult, and added terrors to the ceptible only of one emotion, viz. that of un. abyss from which they issued. The sun, controllable terror. “ It was not until I had, by frequent spray, was encircled by a radiant halo;

looking majestically through the ascending excursions to the Falls, in some measure familiarized my mind with their sublimi- every side, and momentarily vanished, on

whilst fragments of rainbows floated on ties, that I ventured to explore the pene- ly to give place to a succession of others tralia

of the Great Cataract. The precipice more brilliant. Looking backwards, I sama over which it rolls is very much arched the Niagara river, again become calm and underneath ; while the impetus which the tranquil, rolling magnificently between the

and beyond the cliff, and thus an immense receiving showers of orient dew-drops from Gothic arch is formed by the rock and the the trees that gracefully over-arched its torrent. Twice I entered this cavern, and transparent bosom. twice I was obliged to retrace my steps, fled the waters, and beautiful birds flutterlest I should be suffocated by the blasts of ed around, as if to welcome its egress fron dense spray that whirled around me; how those clouds of spray, accompanied by thub. cing about twenty-five yards. Here dark- of its precipitation into the abyss of the caever, the third time I succeeded in advan- ders and rainbows, which were the heralds ness began to encircle me; on one side, taract.” the black cliff stretched itself into a gigan. tic arch far above my head, and on the night-piece in the wilderness.

The next is a short but admirable other, the dense and hissing torrent formed an impenetrable sheet of foam, with and strolled into the woods contiguous to

C6 When it was midnight, I walked out, which I was drenched in a moment. The rocks were so slippery, that I could hard- cended to the summit of the arch of hea. ly keep my feet, or hold securely by them ;

ven, and poured while the horrid din made me think the light upon the silent world below. The

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A gentle breeze ruf

the house. A glorious

moon had now as a perpendicular fitored of

starry hosts sparkled brightly when they tor,' cried the patient, ' I was wishing to emerged above the horizon, but gradually see you very bad I don't calculate upon

faded into twinkling points as they rose in ever getting smart again.'-—Hoity, toity,' by the sky. The motionless trees stretched returned the doctor, you look a thunder1, their majestic boughs towards a cloudless ing sight better than you did yesterday.'

firmament, and the rustling of a withered Better !' exclained the sick woman, I leaf, or the distant howl of the wolf alone no, doctor, I am no better-I'm going e broke upon my ear. I was suddenly roused to die in your hands.'— My dear good

from a delicious reverie, by observing a lady, cried the doetor, “ I'll bet a pint of * dark object moving slowly and cautiously spirits I'll raise you in five days, and make

among the trees. At first, I fancied it was you so spry, that you'll dance upon this a bear, but a nearer inspection discovered floor.' -Oh,' said the woman, 6 if I an Indian on all fours. For a moment I had but the root doctor that used to attend

felt unwilling to throw myself in his way, our family at Connecticut; he was a dread. ** lest he should be meditating some sinister ful skeelful man.' Here they were inter

design against me; however, on his wa. rupted by the entrance of her husband, ving his hand, and putting his finger on his who was a clumsy, credulous-looking perlips, I approached him, and notwithstand- son. * Good morning to you, doctor,' said ing his injunction to silence, inquired what he, “what's the word ?? — Nothing new he did there. “Me watch to see the deer or strange, sir,' returned the doctor.-kneel,” replied he; 66 This is Christmas Well now, doctor,' continued the hus

night, and all the deer fall upon their knees band, how do ye find that there woman? a to the Great Spirit, and look up.” The so- -No better, I conclude ?-I guess as how

lemnity of the scene, and the grandeur of it would be as well to let you understand the idea, alike contributed to fill me with plainly, that if you can't do her never no

awe. It was affecting to find traces of the good, I wouldn't wish to be run into no ex5 Christian faith existing in such a place, pences--pretty low times, doctor-money's eyen in the form of such a tradition." out of the question. Now, sir, can you

Fine as these are, we think it would raise that there woman ??— Yes, my good not be difficult to quote ten or twelve sir,' cried the doctor confidently, yes I sketches of equal excellence, from the can—I offered to bet a pint with her this

moment, and I'll make it a quart if you first part of the book; but we must please, my dear friend.'— But, doctor, now shew our readers, that Mr Howi

are you up to the natur of her ailment ?' son possesses talents for composition, not inquired the husband. “Oh, perfectly,' less versatile than powerful. Through- said the other, nothing more simple; it out the whole of the book, are scat- arises entirely from obstruction and constitered little characteristic sketches of tutional idiosyncrasy, and is seated under domestic manners, which exhibit a sort the muscular fascia. Some casual exciteof quiet tact and native humour, which ment has increased the action of the ab. unfortunately has come to be of but sorbent vessels so much, that they have rare occurrence in our modern Eng

drawn the blood from different parts of the lish literature. We shall quote one that is now present.'— Well now, doc

body, and occasioned the pain and debility or two of these little sketches, and tor,' cried the husband, “ I swear you talk then leave our readers to form their like a lawyer, and I begin to have hopes own conclusions. Mr Howison rests for that you'll be pretty considerably apt to a short time in the house of a comfort. raise my woman.' The doctor now openable settler on the (Canadian) Thames. ed his saddle-bags, and, having set forth

" In this house there was a woman af- many small parcels and dirty phials upon flicted with acute rheumatism. She had the table, began to compound several retried the mineral oil without receiving any cipes for his patient, who, when she saw benefit from it, and consequently had been liim employed in this way, put out her induced to put herself into the hands of head between the curtains of the bed, and one of the doctors of the settlement. This cried, “Doctor, don't forget to leave somegentleman happened to make his daily visit thing for the debilitation. When he had when I was present, and entered the room, finished, he packed up his laboratory, and carrying a pair of large saddle-bags, in ordered that something he had left should which phials and gallipots were heard clat- be infused in a pint of whisky, and that a ering against each other in a most formid- table-spoonful of the fluid should be taken able manner. He did not deign to take off three times a-day. • Will that raise me is hat, but advanced to his patient, and slick ?' * said the woman ; ' I guess I had hook hands, saying, "How d'ye do, my as well take it four times a-day. As the good lady, how d'ye do ?'-—Oh, doc- doctor was mounting his horse, I heard the

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farmer say, ' Doctor, don't be afeard about unheard of request was granted, and soon your pay, I'll see you satisfied : money, you afterwards they rung a bell to announce know's, out of the question, but I've plenty that tea was ready. I immediately obeyed of good buck-wheat.'”

the summons; and, on entering the public In the course of the journey to New


found eighteen or twenty people al. York, the following incident occurs, ready seated at a table, which was abun.

A as the reader will guess, after Mr dantly furnished with beef-steaks

, ham, Howison has passed the frontier of fowls, preserved fruit, cake, cheese, &c. the United States :

The hostess, who was rather pretty, stood “ About six in the morning we drove

at one end of the table, and poured out up to a small house, which appeared to be tea, gracefully enough, to those who called a sort of tavern. The landlord was at the for it, and occasionally joined in the con. door ready to receive us, and the following versation, with the same ease as if she had conversation took place :

been one of the guests. Most of the people 1 “ Landlord. Good morning, gentlemen.

were respectable enough in appearance

, but “ Driver. Good morning, mister.

very plain in their manners. A good deal L: Very warm, but pretty consider- of detached unconnected conversation passable of air stirring.

ed among them; but some of it was in D, I guess so. Can we get any thing such extraordinary language, that I found to drink?

nodifficulty in remembering the expressions “ L. Well, I suppose you can. What verbatim, until tea was over, when I wrote liquor would you propose to have ?

them down, and shall now give the reader ** D. Brandy, I guess.

'the following specimens : “ L. We've got nothing in the house

“« Take some beef, 'squire.—No, I but whisky, sir.

guess not, I don't feel much like eating to. .D. Let us have some then-by God, night.—’Squire, is your cip out ? It will I'll treat; but where's Bill ?

be so right off, ma'am.- My tea is 100 L. Cleared



strong.-I conclude you're nervous, sir. “ What an almighty shame! and I vow, ma'am, I can't sleep when I take where's his family ?

much tea.--Indeed I like tea, it makes me " L. Cleared out too, mister.

feel good.— I agree with you, I never feel D. ”Tarnation ! well, I vow one feels

$0 spry as when I've got a good raft of tea pretty damned cheap, when

a fellow clears aboard of me. I calculate upon there being out without paying scores,

some electricity in tea, it makes one feel so L. By the life he does--but here's smart.-An't you from Canada lately, success to Bill, (drinking,) though he owes mister ? how are politics there ? Nothing me for a pair of shoes.

stirring in that way, sir. I conclude to go D. Bill owes me eight dollars, and


very soon, and hope to see you ; and Hifty-seven cents and a half.

if I can rip out your quarters, I'll give you i L. Cash ?

a damned blow up. “ D. Ho, good morning to you ! no, no,

feel pretty considerably tickled to see you. I'll be satisfied with three hundred rails

-You didn't stay long at Canandaguia ! and some leather (a pause.) Bill knows

No, I dined at full jump, and went right what he's about ; did he clear out slick ? “ L. Yes, mister, right off ; but I guess

this place.--I

fear that little shaver (child) he's still in the bush ; and I swear I could is troubling on you, sir.- Not at all, ma'am, find him if I had a mind.

pretty considerable of a boy, I D. Bill will steer southward.

Yes, sir, only three years old, and knows here's success to Bill, and damn the shoes." The following is the last we shall

but we quote:

and liveliness of these sketches ; “ About six in the evening we arrived

cannot allow ourselves to quote them the stage there, intending to go to Otical by that Mr Horison is quite wrong if he ,

at all peculiar to transatlantic manners. vern, and desired that water might be sent into a room. • Water !' exclaimed the landlord, why, here's water and towels

thor went abroad without having ever enough in the bar-I guess all the gentle. enjoyed any great opportunities of tracuriosity, and found things in such a state, least, without ever having had decide dust I had received while in the stage, than lower orders of his own countrymen. attempted ablution in it. However, after If Mr Howison had visited Manches some parley and hesitation, my apparently ter, Paisley, Glasgow, and such towns,

Well now, I shall

off in the

stage, which carried me slick to

L. I guess he will howsomever; haist belts Hemuse be awfully smarthens

his letters.
He was in the abbs and

ebbs We are pleased with the smartness

our honest beliet,

way of the Grand Canal. Having seen my

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