der of Cilicia another rock-sculpture had come to ligbt. Here a priest is represented adoring the Cilician Herakles, who holds in his hands a cluster of grapes and a sheaf of corn. The images of the priest and god are accompanied by hieroglyphs, the first of the kind that had been seen by European scholars.

Similar hieroglyphics, however, eventually turned up, not in Asia Minor but at Hamah, the ancient Hamath, in Syria. They were graved in relief on blocks of basalt, and were first noticed by the great traveller Burckhardt. But it was not until 1872 that they became known in Europe, when the late Dr. William Wright took casts of them which he sent to England. It was soon recognized that the "Hamathite" characters and the hieroglyphs of Ivriz must belong to the same system of writing.

In 1879, on the eve of an exploratory journey in western Asia Minor, the identity of the art of Ivriz with that of Boghaz Keni and Karabel suddenly flashed upon me. It followed that the “Hamathite" characters were Asianic rather than Syrian, and that we might expect to find them on the Asianic monuments. As a matter of fact, the photographs of Perrot showed that an inscription in the same characters was cut on the rocks of Boghaz Keni, and hieroglyphs, supposed to be Egyptian, were said to be associated with the monument of Karabel. I prophesied in the Academy that these latter would prove to be Asianic and not Egyptian, and staked the correctness of the discovery I had just made upon their being so. A few weeks later, with an escort of soldiers, I visited that haunt of brigands, Karabel, and there took squeezes of the hieroglyphs in question. They turned out to be, as I had prophesied, identical with the hieroglyphs of Ivriz, of Bogbaz Keni, and of Hamath.

Meanwhile the site of the old Hittite capital, Carchemish, had been found by Skene and George Smith in the mounds of Jerablûs on the Euphrates. Excavations undertaken on the spot by the British Museum, about the time that my visit to Karabel took place, resulted in the discovery of more monuments in the same peculiar style of art as that of Asia Minor, and of the same peculiar system of writing. Art and writing alike thus belonged to the Hittites, and the fact that the human heads depicted among the hieroglyphs are identical in headdress and features with the heads of the sculptured figures made it clear that the system of writing must be of Hittite origin. Other facts soon came to support the conclusion; the boot, for example, with upturned point, which appears among the hieroglyphs, is found not only in the rock-sculptures of Asia Minor, but also distinguishes the Hittites of Syria portrayed on the Egyptian monuments.

The Hittites are alluded to in two or three passages of the Old Testament, but it is only since the decipherment of the Egyptian and cuneiform inscriptions that we have learnt what an important part they once played in the history of the East. The Hittite monarch, whose southern capital was at Kadesh on the Orontes, contended on equal terms with Egypt in the plenitude of its power, and summoned to his standard not only the Lycians of Asia Minor but Mysians and Dardanians as well. The Egyptian inscriptions bear the same testimony as the sculptured warrior of Karabel to the extension of Hittite influence in the West. Northern Syria had been wrested by them from Egypt after the fall of the Eighteenth Dynasty, and when the Assyrians first became acquainted with it they were so far the dominant people in it as to cause even Palestine to be ever afterwards known


at Nineveh as "the land of the Hit- another as in Latin or Greek. Another tites." When the Hittite empire was discovery of mine was the ideograph broken up a fragment of it, under the or “determinative” of divinity, which name of "Hittite,” still continued to is prefixed to the name of a deity, and exist to the south of the Gulf of Anti- seems to present sacred stone och, and the kings who engraved the wrapped in cloths. German scholars cuneiform inscriptions of Armenia next drew attention to the use of anfound Hittites in the neighborhood of other sign as a word-divider, words Malatiyeh.

being divded by it one from the other; Ever since my discovery of the ori- while it had been recognized from the gin and connections of Asianic art I outset that the inscriptions are writhave kept the problem of the decipher- ten in boustrophedon fashion, and must ment of the “Hittite” hieroglyphs con- be read from the direction towards tinually in view. I had tried, or be- which the hieroglyphs look. lieved I had tried, every possible and With these preliminary data the deimpossible clue, only to find myself cipherers set to work. System after confronted by a blank wall. Eight system of interpretation has been promonths ago I still held that the prob- posed, each put forward with an equal lem was insoluble without the help of amount of confidence, but satisfying a long bilingual inscription. How it none but its author. Before a system has been solved without any such help can be accepted it must fulfil three I will now try to explain.

conditions. The phonetic values asAs far back as 1880 I brought to signed to the characters must be such light a short bilingual text, in Hittite as to enable us to read, without forcand cuneiform, engraved on a silver ing, the geographical names of the lo“boss," and being a royal name, the calities in which the several inscripGreek form of which is Tarkondêmos. tions are found the name of CarcheThe text gave us the ideographs of mish at Carchemish, of Hamath at “king” and “country,” as well as the Hamath, of Tyana at Tyana; the sufphonetic value of me for another char- fixes must. reveal a consistent and coacter; but otherwise the reading of herent grammar to which parallels both the Hittite and the cuneiform can be found elsewhere; and the intexts was involved in difficulties, and, scriptions must yield a rational sense. as far as I know, was necessarily mis- Only when these conditions are fulleading. What, therefore, we might filled can the problem of decipherment have hoped to have been the Rosetta be considered to have been solved. Stone of Hittite decipherment ended What has principally stood in the only in leading the decipherer astray. way of the solution has been, not only

At the same time I pointed out an- the scantiness and imperfection of the other fact. The Hittite proper names texts we possess, but, still more, the preserved in the Egyptian and As- inaccuracy and untrustworthiness of syrian inscriptions show that the usual our copies of them. It is only recently termination of the nominative singular that squeezes, casts, and photographs was s, while an examination of the have at last given us accurate reprotexts makes it clear that this termina- ductions of such of the inscriptions as tion was represented by the picture of are not in the museums of London and a yoke. It is also clear that the gram- Berlin. And one of the first results of matical forms of the language were a study of these was to show me that expressed by suffixes, and that the sub- the ideograph of "country" or "disstantive and adjective agreed with one trict' had been confounded with that

Tor “king,” though the bilingual "boss" of Tarkondemos had long ago given us their distinguishing forms. The error had been committed by myself in the early days of Hittite research, and I have been followed in it by subsequent decipherers. But the error was vital. It prevented us from detecting those geographical names, through which alone, without the help of a bilingual, the decipherment of the texts was possible. As soon as I found that the native scribes have always carefully distinguished the two ideographs from one another, all the conditions were changed: I now knew in what group of characters I had to look for the geographical names.

Recent additions, moreover, to the Qumber of texts known to us have also assisted the decipherer in another way. The same suffix is represented in them by more than one character; thus, in the case of the nominative singular, the goat's head (which must therefore have the value of 8) interchanges with the yoke. Thanks, too, to the fact that the hieroglyph of a man's head, surmounted by the priestly tiara, is attached to the figure of the high-priest at Fraklin in Cappadocia, I was able to read the group of phonetic characters accompanying the ideograph in the inscriptions of Carchemish, the native form of the Cappadocian word for “high-priest,” having fortunately been given by the Greek writers Strabo and Hesychius. From this it resulted that the rabbit's bead denoted the syllable ka.

Now in the inscriptions of Carchemish, and in them only, we find a geographical name, or territorial title, to which alone the determinative of "district" is attached. It consists of four characters, the last three of which are the rabbit's head, the character which the bilingual "boss” had long ago told as has the value of me, the head of a goat, while the first character is one

which is not met with elsewhere and may therefore be assumed to express, not a simple, but a closed syllable. As the last three characters read ka-me(î)s it is obvious that the first must be Kar. We thus get the name of Carchemish just where we should expect to find it. Besides the uninflected Karkames, an adjectival form of the name also occurs, which enables us to fix the values of some more characters. There


two characters which from the frequency of their occurrence and the fact that they can be inserted or omitted at will after other characters, have long since been recognized to be vowels. For reasons, which it is needless to detail here, I have succeeded in fixing the value of one of them as a and of the other as i. The values of a few other characters bave been obtained through their employment as suffixes. One or two Hittite suffixes have been made known to us through the proper names contained in the Egyptian and cuneiform inscriptions; thus, Khatti-na-s is "Hittite,” Samal-i-u-s is “Samallian.” The Hit tite inscription on a bowl found in Babylon, again, has furnished us with the suffixes of the accusative singular, the first person of the verb and probably of the dative case. It begins with an ideograph, which Dr. Leopold Messerschmidt, has shown from a compari. Son of texts is the demonstrative “this"; then comes the picture of a bowl with a common suffix, denoted by the hieroglyph of a sleeve; then the name of a deity with its suffix; and finally the mason's trowel, which other texts show must have the signification of “mating” and to which a suffix is attached. The whole phrase must have some such meaning as “This bowl I have made for the god X,” and the sleeve will denote the suffix of the accusative.

The decipherment of the suffixes bas

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disclosed an interesting fact. They and suffixes that are written phonetiagree in form and use with those of a cally. The roots or stems of the nouns. language first made known to us by and verbs are more commonly exthe famous cuneiform tablets of Tel pressed by ideographs. The pictorial el-Amarna. Among these tablets are nature of Hittite writing, however, two in an unknown language, one of not unfrequently gives us a clue to which is addressed to, or by, a cer- the meaning of the latter. And when. tain Tarkhundarans, king of Arzawa. once the texts are broken up into their The name of the king is Hittite, and constitutional parts so that we know so raises a presumption that the lan- where the name of an individual or of guage of the letters is Hittite also. a country is found, and where we may The presumption has been confirmed look for the verb with its subject and by the excavations of M. Chantre, at object, the translation of the ideoBoghaz Keni. Here he has found graphs is comparatively simple. other cuneiform tablets in a language But it must be understood that the closely allied to that of Arzawa. decipherment of the inscriptions is. Thanks to the ideographs and stereo- still only in its initial stage. If it took typed formulæ that occur in the letters half a century to complete the deciof Arzawa, the meaning of several pherment of the Persian cuneiform words and grammatical forms in them texts we must not expect to decipher can be made out: thus, the termina- the Hittite hieroglyphs in a day. All I tion of -s marks the nominative of the can claim to have done is to have noun and -r the accusative. The re- made a start and pointed out the road markable agreement of the Hittite and that others may follow. Arza wan suffixes goes far to show Meanwhile such Hittite inscriptions that my reading of the Hittite charac- as we possess have yielded little that ters is correct.

is interesting. The three shorter inSo, too, does the fact that the right scriptions of Hamath record the resgeographical names occur in the in- toration of a temple. The most perscription in which we should expect to fect of the Carchemish texts is a long find them. A stela, for instance, has list of the titles of the priest-king. Two been discovered on the site of the an- facts, however, have resulted from the cient Tyana which begins with the decipherment which, to me at least, name of a priest-king. This is followed were unexpected and surprising. Ou by his territorial title, to which the the one hand the name of "Hittite" is. determinative of “district” is attached. confined to the inscriptions of Syria The title, according to the values I and the districts eastward of the have obtained for the characters, passes of the Taurus; in the inscripreads *-a-na-a-na-a-s. Nas is the sufix tions of Cilicia and Cappadocia it does: of a gentilic adjective with the nomi- not occur. On the other hand, the lannative termination; the same suffix is guage that has been revealed to us is, found not only in the name Khatti- on the grammatical side, extraordinarnas, which I have quoted above, but ily like Greek. Thus the priest-king also in the Arzawa letters. Stripping who is commemorated on the rocks of the title, therefore, of its suffix, there Bulyar Mader calls himself Sandanyas, remains *-a-na-a. What else can this “of the city of Sandes,” the Cilician be except Tu-a-na-a ?

Herakles. The same perplexing simiWhat I have said will, I hope, ex- larity recurs in the case of Lycian plain my method of decipherment. grammar: how it is to be explained I But it is usually only the proper names

do not know. Apart from its gramFAIRY TALES IN THE SCHOOLROOM.

matical forms I see nothing in Lycian that is Indo European; and Hittite seems equally to be an Asianic tongue. Can it be that Greek is really a mixed

language, the product of early contact on the part of an Indo-European dialect with the native languages of the coast of Asia Minor?

A. H. Sayce.

The Monthly Review.

Keep a fairy or two for your children.


A deeper import Lurks in the legend told my youthful

years Than lie upon the truth, we live to


The old Florentines of the Middle Ages had a noble conception of the uses of literature in the training of painters as well as children. “And to the old painter," writes Ruskin, "with his wild, weird, mysterious Etruscan instincts and ancestors, literature meant the Bible, legend, poetry, myth -it neant essentially imaginative literature—fairy tales an it please you." Literature to Plato meant pretty much the same thing; for he, too, would teach children by fables, which he says are “fictions, though there are in them some elements of truth." And by fairy tales Plato would open up the child's mind, for these half reveal and half conceal the truth, for the little child is as yet too tender to look upon Truth unveiled.

Classic fairy tales, myths, legends, and sagas, born in the childhood of the world, are the true food for little children; because the little child is psychically near to the childlike races of the early world, and the same things which appealed to the credulous barbarian appeal to him. The Puritan divines, Rousseau, as well as some modern writers on Education, would forbid the fairy tale in the schoolroom. “As for romances and

idle tales," writes Richard Baxter, “I have already shown in my book of Self-Denial how pernicious they are, especially to youth." When thou canst read,” counsels Thomas White, "read no ballads and foolish books, but the Bible, and the Plaine Man's Pathway to Heaven." Rugged enough was this pathway, as spelled out by the little Puritan child; but, happily for him, no one denied him his David and Goliath, his Daniel and the den of lions, his Joseph and his brethren; for the Bible always remained to him.

Rousseau sternly forbade fairy tales. The child was to learn only from real thiugs within his experience, and his emotional nature was to be left severely alone. He dared to present the naked truth to the little child, which Plato would spare him. “Men may learn from fables,” he writes, "but children must be told the bare truth; if it be veiled they do not trouble to lift the veil." So in his passion for realities, Rousseau would clip the wings of the child's imagination, and thus maim him for life; for the folk-lore and fairy tales not read in childhood miss their effect for ever.

Rousseau set many brains and pens at work on educational theories. There was Madame de Genlis, with her Adele et Théodore, her amazing vanity, and her many followers; and in England he ushered in the didactic literature of the Aiken, Day and Edgeworth type, and instructive stories for chil. dren with a moral lurking behind

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