tist, toiling heroically over the tech. Odonto-Chirurgical Society, said that, nique, and who has never done with having his attention drawn to a single the scales, may ind some dreadful

case, he has been led to examine the

the morning that the extensors of

teeth of various pipers, and all of them

presented “wearing away" of the cutwrist and fingers are seemingly para- ting edges of six front teeth, in lyzed. It is time then to call on the greater or lesser degree, varying with doctor, even at the risk that his ver- the density of the tooth-structure and dict may mean little less than profes- the time engaged in pipe-playing. He

found on inquiry that, on the average, sional extinction. Happily, however,

it took about four years to make a wellfor the army of small piano-players marked impression, but that once the and teachers, cramp of the most seri- enamel edge was worn through, the out kind is infrequent in this calling. “wearing away" was more rapid. Every The manipulation of the key tele- one was aware of the way in which the graph is a somewhat similar exercise,

tobacco-pipe wore the teeth of the

smoker, but this was not to be wonbut one which apparently does not

dered at, the baked pipeclay being a often lead to nervous breakdown.

hard and gritty substance, but that & The bow-arm of the violinist is apt horn mouthpiece should have such an to get cramped while the learner is appreciable effect was, he thought, a going through his arduous apprentice- matter of curious interest. He might ship; but when this is over, and the

mention, however, that the mouthpiece.

suffered more than the teeth, the averday of artistic execution has arrived,

age life of a horn mouthpiece being. the movements of the bow-arm are so

twelve to eighteen months, that of a delicate as almost to preclude the pos- bone or ivory one being about two. sibility of strain. With the violin and years. The peculiarity noticed was a 'cello it is the left hand that does the

crescent-shaped aperture on the cutting.

edge of the front teeth in three locali. greatest amount of muscular work, ties-viz., between the central incisors: and this accordingly is the hand most and between the lateral and canine on prone to suffer; yet the master player, both sides. Mr. Macleod offers no exs a Sarasate or a Nachez, will enthral bis planation, but might not one be found: hearers through the hours of a long

in the friction caused by the constantrecital with scarcely any conscious

movement of the mouthpiece during

playing? ness of physical fatigue. What strain

In the same journal (March 29, 1890). there is, is chiefly felt in the higher

appeared the following letter on the. nerve centres. Dr. Poore cites from

subject of the clarionet: Duchenne the case of a priest “who had a mania for playing the hautboy,

In reply to “B Flat," I beg to say that and, as a consequence (as the patient

I used to play the cornet, and found:

that it had a decided tendency to in. thought) of excessive practicing on

crease some friction and pain of dry. this instrument, he became troubled pleurisy from which I suffered. I then, with a spasmodic contraction of the changed to the clarionet, with complete. muscles of the right half of the abdo

relief to the symptoms. I was after a men, which came on with each inspi- instrument, and had a return of the

few years tempted to return to a brass ration for a sufficient blast. Conse

pain. I think that with moderate skill: quently the hautboy often emitted there could be no injury to the neck. wrong notes, which considerably as- from playing the clarionet. It is not an tonished his congregation."

question of hard blowing, but of I take from the "Lancet" (June 28,

“knack” in the management of the.

reed, and in keeping the whole instru1890) an instance of the effect of bag.

ment in order. I think a wind instrupipe-playing on the teeth:

ment requires almost as much care as Mr. Macleod, at a meeting of the a watch,

Ç Natural.

It is, however, in the occupations mainly mechanical, involving the constant repetition of some particular and more or less automatic movement or series of movements, that the true craft palsy most commonly arises. “I have seen,” says Dr. Vivian Poore, "a case of 'sawyer's cramp' in a man who made 'packing-cases' by the piece. Another interesting case was that of a man whose work consisted in covering pickle-jars with bladder. In this case it was the left hand which became impotent, and the muscles affected were the flexors of the finger which tightly grasped the top of the jar.”

But it matters little what the trade is, provided the conditions are there which may tend to induce partial or complete impotence of a particular group of muscles. In all probability there is scarcely a workshop in the kingdom from wbich the possibilities of craft cramp in some form would be completely excluded. In greater or less degree the disability might be found in the composing-room of a printing office, in the sewing. room of a dressmaking establishment, in the tailor's shop, in the carpenter's, in the upholsterer's, in

the ironmonger's—the list might be extended ad inf. Dr. Poore has observed cases of bricklayer's cramp, in which the difficulty consisted in handling the trowel; and of milker's cramp, in which the milker could no longer grasp the teat.

Dancing, not the pastime of the ballroom, but the severe occupation of the trained and paid performer, is very liable to cause functional derange ment when the toes are forced to bear the weight of the entire frame, the muscles of the calf being then subjected to an excessive strain. Dancer's cramp is said to be by no means uncommon.

The shop-assistant and shop-walker,

one of whom is more or less always standing and the other more or less always walking, are apt to contract a condition of the foot which the medical profession recognizes


“fiat foot.” It is observed that “when the foot is taken off the ground the arch of the foot reappears.” This disfigurement is more likely to be found in young persons who “have not finished growing,” than in adults.

Dr. Poore (Lancet, August 23, 1890) describes a case of "mercurial tremor,” the patient being an Italian aged sixty-two. He came to England at the age of seventeen, and had been working here for thirty-four years as a looking-glass silverer. His duty was to "run" the mercury over tin-foils spread upon sheets of glass; he was therefore constantly handling mer: cury and exposed to its fumes. With the exception of the mercurial tremor, the direct toxic effects of his trade, Dr. Poore found the man in perfect health. The tremor affected the hands mainly and the right hand more than the left. When at rest, the arms and hands of the patient were steady, but the instant he attempted to use his hands they were seized with excessive trembling and shaking. He could not pick up a scrap of paper, he could not feed himself, and he was obliged to drink through a glass tube, owing to the impossibility of holding a cup steadily to his lips. The tremor

so “coarse" (unlike the tremor from alcohol general paralysis) that when he tried to use his hands they jerked through several inches of space. He had been attacked first twenty-six years earlier, and after thirteen weeks' treatment in the London Hospital had completely recovered. Eight years later he had had a second attack, and from that also he had made satisfactory recovery. After three weeks' treatment for the third attack, the Italian left the hos






Liital much improved, and able to feed nent and very pronounced flexion of himself, but still far from well.

the fingers upon the hand, which was Dr. Poore says that cases of mer- more pronounced in the case of the curial tremor are rare in this country, third and fourth fingers than in that although “met with among workmen of the other two, leaving the thumb whose occupation rings them in con wholly unaffected. The indexion OCtact with mercury


its salts.” curred principally at the second joint, Mirror-makers are a class who have so that the second phalanx was fixed always been recognized as liable, “but almost at right angles to the first. not very liable,” to chronic mercurial The malady, said M. Poncet, was unpoisoning. At the present day, how- accompanied by pain. The “distal ever, mirrors are made largely by joints” were more or less deformed, chemical methods, the salts of silver the fingers were bent into a curve and being employed more than those of could not be extended. The skin of mercury. Cases of mercurial poison- the palmar surface was somewbat ing in this trade are likely therefore, thicker and more callous than

was to become rarer and rarer.

usual even with manual laborers. This Dr. Poore had under his care in the deformity, known among French glasshospital a mat-maker, forty years of blowers as main en crochet or main age, whose left arm bad become so fermée, comes on after a short pracstiff, contracted, and absolutely use tice of the art of glassblowing, and less, that he could no longer follow his increases progressively. It appears to craft. The joints of this arm were so attack the majority of glassblowers, stiff that they “creaked audibly," and, and, naturally, is most marked although sensation was but little inn- those who have been longest at the paired the power of voluntary move- work. M. Poncet regards it as due to ment was almost nil.

the continuous application of the hand In "tailor's cramp" the trouble to the tube with which a glassblower seems generally to begin with a cer- manipulates his “metal.” Thus, durtain weakness of the right thumb and ing the eight hours a day through forefinger, which makes it difficult to which such a man ordinarily works, hold the needle; and this difficulty in- his fingers are without intermission «creases until the tailor is obliged to kept closed about this tube, and the give up work. There is little to see constraint induces, even within in the hand affected, any more than month, some difficulty in effecting there is in a case of writer's cramp complete extension. This difficulty or writer's palsy; but, after a few gradually becomes greater and greater, stitches, the needle held between the until at last it develops into a comthumb and forefinger eludes the tail- pletely crippled condition of the hand. or's grasp, and he can no longer push Altogether, according to M. Poncet, it through the fabric.

the trade of the glassblower as purOn the subject of glassblower's sued in France is so unhealthy that cramp-a professional deformity of the operatives who habitually take it the band to which attention has not up as young men are obliged to abanoften been drawn-a French special. don it at about thirty-five years of age, ist, M. Poncet, made an interesting "and do so with their hands permacommunication some years ago to the nently crippled in such a way as to Académie des Sciences. He described render them useless for almost any the deformity as consisting in a perma- other occupation.”

Tighe Hopkins. The Leisure Hour.



In the summer of 1900-01 a large flying months, or to feel the sickening portion of Australia,-practically the dread of it all hanging as nightmare whole of central Australia–was suffer. over one. It may rain to-morrow, or ing from the most disastrous drought it may not rain for two years; and within the memory of white men. It even the rain may not be an unmixed was not a case of one bad season com- blessing, for heavy rain falling on ani. ing after several good seasons, but the mals as weak as ours were will kill worst of a number of bad ones. The them in thousands, what with the cold result has been almost the annihilation and the wet and the country almost a of the live-stock in the country; all who morass. Only the other day at a railcould have moved or sold their stock; way-station on the central Queensland those who, owing to the impassability line there were three thousand weak of roads, were unable to do so have sheep waiting to be transported to been obliged to watch their animals fresh pasturage; rain came down, nothdying of starvation and want of water. ing could be done with the sheep but Even in fair seasons it is a country of to keep them there, and by the next light-carrying capacity; on an average morning, when three inches of rain had it will carry about sixty sheep or six fallen, there was not one sheep alive; head of cattle to the mile; and conse- they had just died where they stood. quently the areas worked are very However, until rain does fall, we can large; a thousand square miles is a only make the most of our resources, moderate property, but there are many

while we watch our flocks and herds double and even treble that size. perish day by day. Everything is on a large scale, except As I start of a morning on my daily the profits. One man, who had de- round, with a large water-bag slung cided to get rid of his stock before the around my horse's neck,-he poor beast summer set in, sent to market, or must often go till evening without a moved to another district, sixty thou- drink-I meet the first of the sheep on sand sheep, and in districts nearer rail- their way to water before the heat of ways there have been several instances the day. The country is rolling downs, of two hundred thousand sheep being covered thickly with stones like shingle moved to fresh pasturage; while, as a on the beach; for four miles there is contrast, a neighbor who preferred to nothing but brittle stumps of grass take the risk of rain falling, or who which the stones preserve from being was unable to get his cattle away, had trodden out, and beyond are withered left on his several properties at the end low-growing salt-bush, all nourishment of the summer two thousand cattle out seemingly long ago dried out of it. of one hundred thousand. And there Here and there, along a gully or a are many, very many, who have not a water-course there are some stunted single animal left.

trees; and on the salt-bush and the There can be no more disheartening withered fallen leaves the sheep are labor than tending live-stock in a living, or trying to live. drought, to watch the result of years of Red soil, red stones, a few dingy labor and anxiety, and of constant green trees, and overhead a faint blue fighting with the elements, disappear sky which loses almost all its color as ing before one's eyes in two or three it meets the horizon... oh you hate


ful sky of drought and heat! The long they draw together now and then; the dusty lines of sheep are winding over winds there seem blowing all ways, the downs; heads down, they scarcely bearing the clouds with them, and tonotice me as I ride close alongside wards four o'clock comes the boom of them; here and there one raises its thunder; it even rains, but alas, it head, stops a moment, then on again, evaporates in mist long before it plodding its weary way along the pad reaches the parched red earth. Other to water; they have been thirty-six sheep making towards water, hours away from it, for the feed is too caught on their way this morning by far out to let them get a drink each the mid-day heat and forced to wait day, and their scraggy ribs are drawn under what shade they could find, together, so hollow are they. In time while here and there a

group have the leaders snuff the muddy odor of the stood the long hours through with water, and break into a run. Such a heads hidden beneath each other's bleating there is as they rea the flanks, patient, thirsty, panting. As the banks; the others behind catch it up, sheep I am driving know their way till it echoes down their files; and so now, I turn them among some others: for hours they string in, fill themselves also making for water, and go on my till they can scarcely walk, and sleep way homewards. Passing the waterand rest till evening.

hole I find some beasts stuck in its soft The paddocks are about six miles muddy banks, and many too weak to square, and in a far corner I find a carry away their loads of water; their hundred sheep or so. Poor beasts, the days are numbered, for most of them combined effects of thirst and heat will die where they lie, the rest within have made them absolutely stupid, as a mile or two. As the sun goes down they do all animals,-aye, and men too. the clouds clear away, or we get a few They have followed one fence, met the drops of rain and a dust-storm. other fence and stayed; and as there, And so it is all over the run; there if allowed, they would stay till they is no feed within miles of water, and perished, I take them in to water. The feed of little nourishment then. In the sun beats down relentlessly; the stones spring there were tens of thousands of are so hot I can scarcely bear to touch rabbits; now there is scarcely one. them; and every now and then a gust Many have perished along a rabbitcomes swooping over them, a burning proof fence that divides the run, markfiery blast, shrivelling the skin on mying the border of Queensland and New face. My eyes are scorched with the South Wales; they huddled under the glare of the sun flung back from the shade of the posts, gasping in the heat, stones, which shimmer all around me perishing slowly. Should you follow till in the distance they disappear in one up as he hobbles in front, he goes mirage.

but thirty yards, squeaks, and falls It is slow, weary work. We camp over, utterly exhausted. All along the during the heat of the day under the length of fence sit sparrow-hawks and shadiest tree within reach,—the tem- eagle-hawks and crows-black-eyed perature in the veranda at home being crows, white-eyed crows-and such a hundred and ifteen degrees, or over. cold cruel eyes they have, these birds As the afternoon draws on the great of death. From time to time they rouse white heat clouds rise, that seem to themselves, flop heavily down, snatch act like a lens and to focus the sun's a rabbit, and gorge once more, leisurely rays on my wretched body. High over- choosing the choicest tit-bits of their head in the air, miles high it seems, wriggling prey. So it is, too, with the ECLECTIC. VOL. LXXVII


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