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his pencil children retained their playground | gel-wings, and wake out of his dream to clothes, and preserved their playground oc- put on rags and loathe them; and thus will cupations, and appeared at the best, and in he grow up in a sour discontent with that homely realism, what Wordsworth calls 'state of life to which it has pleased God “Sound healthy children of the God of heaven." vies, in a review of the Revivals of 1859, to call him.'"* The Rev. Llewellyn DaThe style and effect of Mrs. Pardiggle's of which visitations children were the subsystem of home education are depicted by ject, equally with their elders, refers to this Mr. Dickens with a high-coloured brush. fact as one "peculiarly shocking to English She is made to introduce to us her five Christians, at least to Churchmen and boys: Egbert, aged twelve, as the boy who Churchwomen. At an incredibly tender sent out his pocket-money to the amount of age they, poor things, are made convicts,' five-and-three-pence, to the Tockahoopo arrive at peace,' and afterwards become Indians; Oswald (ten and a half), as the leaders of prayer and exhortation." In the child who contributed two-and-nine-pence to Scriptures, he goes on to affirm, you will as the Great National Smither's Testimonial; soon find cases of little children" convictFrancis (nine), one-and-sixpence-half-pen- ed" of sin, as you will cases of grown perny; Felix (seven), eightpence to the super-sons thrown into epileptic convulsions by annuated Widows, while Alfred, the young- receiving the Gospel. "These things are est (five), has voluntarily enrolled himself utterly unknown to both the Testaments."† in the Infant Bonds of Joy, and is pledged But to recur to the Pardiggle progeny. never, through life, to use tobacco in any Never were seen such dissatisfied children form.* Young Bands of Hope," by the not merely weazen and shrivelled, but way, were of ill odour in the nostrils of a looking absolutely ferocious with discontent. late clerical essayist, pithy and pungent of The face of each child, as the amount of pen, the Rev. John Eagles-so well and his contribution was mentioned, darkened widely known as the "Sketcher" of Black-in a peculiarly vindictive manner," except, wood's Magazine. In reviewing the "Re- however, the little recruit into the Infant ports" of Temperance and Teetotal Socie- Bonds of Joy, who was stolidly and evenly ties, he lamented the constant display-pro- miserable. My young family are not cessions of children with banners, walking frivolous," Mrs. Pardiggle remarks; through crowded thoroughfares with music expend the entire amount of their allowbefore them, assuming all the consequence ances in subscriptions under my direction; of their position, as the "observed of all and they have attended as many public observers," drinking in excitement and self- meetings, and listened to as many lectures, approbation with the very air they breathe orations, and discussions as generally fall - little paragons of all that is good, satis- to the lot of few grown people. She adds, fied only when they attract all eyes to them. with peculiar complacency, that Alfred What, he asks, is the natural tendency? (five) the one who had, of his own elec"They must either believe that they have tion, joined the Infant Bonds of Joy - wa been converted into little angels on earth, one of the very few children who manifested or believe it not; in either case they are consciousness on that occasion, after a ferthe worse. Their natures will rebel-will vid address of two hours from the chairman tell them they are acting a lie. They must of the evening. be fed with excitement, than which nothing There have been, unquestionably, many is more dangerous to young persons." very interesting children who, as Dr. Holmes another place the same plain country parson remarks, have shown a wonderful indifferstands up for the old-fashioned Church Cate-ence to the things of earth, and an extraorchism, with its plain answers to plain ques-dinary development of the spiritual nature. tions, as far better for the instruction of Probably he would give Swedenborg a place children - of the poor at least than among them. Of Bishop Svedberg's famihymns which lift up the little souls far ly of nine all but one were, we read, like above their ordering themselves lowly and himself and his wife, "Sunday children," a reverently. Such holy children' as Mr. recognized augury of the godliness of his Smithies has described to us are not likely house.. Emanuel Swedenborg is not the to acknowledge any to be their 'betters.' exception out of the nine. And as a reNow-a-days a child is not allowed to think viewer of his life remarks, to judge from as a child. He must have strong meats' Swedenborg's recollections in his old age, when he should have milk for babes.' He his childhood was one of precocious piety: must have visions of angel-robes and an- from his fourth to his tenth year his thoughts *Temperance and Teetotal Societies,' ibid. p.210. † Macmillan,' i. 372.
♦ Bleak House,' ch. viii.
Essays by the Rev. John Eagles,' p. 201.
were constantly engrossed in "reflecting on | sees indeed one of the most beautiful inGod, on salvation, and on the spiritual af- stances of the principle of compensation fections of men." The things he revealed which marks the Divine benevolence. "But in his discourse so astonished his parents to get the spiritual hygiene of robust nathat they declared angels certainly spoke tures out of the exceptional regimen of inthrough his mouth. But it does not appear valids is just simply what we professors call that Swedenborg carried his early pietism bad practice,' and I know by experience into his youth or early manhood."* Be that there are worthy people who not only that as it may, the biographies of these ex- try it on their own children, but actually force ceptionally devout children are recognized it on those of their neighbours." Do chilas identical in their essentials-the same dren die so often and so good in your "disinclination to the usual amusements of parts ?" asks Charles Lamb of Bernard children," the same remarkable sensibility,† Barton,* by way of gentle objection to the the same docility, the same conscientious- gentle Quaker's over-elaboration of that ness; in short, what the Professor at the subject, in his volume of verses. And corBreakfast-table designates an almost uni-dially would Elia, with his genuine depth of form character, marked by beautiful traits, feeling, and his shrewd sense and keen perwhich we look at with a painful admiration. ception, have assented to the American It will be found, he asserts, that most of professor's doctrine, that a time comes when these children are the subjects of some con- we have learned to understand the music of stitutional unfitness for living. And he ex- sorrow, the beauty of resigned suffering, presses his conviction that many healthy the holy light that plays over the pillow of children are injured morally by being forced those who die before their time, in humble to read too much about these little meek hope and trust; but that it is not until he has sufferers and their spiritual exercises; that worked his way through the period of hondisgust is implanted in the minds of many est hearty animal existence, which every robust youngsters by early surfeits of path- robust child should make the most of, — not ological piety. "I do verily believe that until he has learned the use of his various He who took children in in His arms and faculties, which is his first duty, that a blessed them, loved the healthiest and most boy of courage and animal vigour is in a playful of them just as well as those who proper state to read these tearful records of were richest in the tuberculous virtues." In premature decay.† the sensibility and the sanctity which often accompany premature decay, Dr. Holmes
Saturday Review,' xxiii. 603.
+ Schleiermacher, by the way, contends that children are incapable of true feeling; that what in them is called feeling is only utterance of instinct, by which, however, they themselves, as well as others, are led erroneously to believe that they possess real feeling. See Schleiermacher's Letters, vol. i. No. clxvi.
'Remains,' p. 128.
"Now, when you put into such a hot-blooded, hard-fisted, round-cheeked little rogue's hand a sad-looking volume or pamphlet, with the portrait of a thin, white-faced child, whose life is really as much a training for death as the last month of a condemned criminal's existence, what does he find in common between his own overflowing and exulting sense of vitality and the experience of the doomed offspring of invalid parents?" The Professor at the Breakfast-table, ́ ́§ viii.
We wind our life about another life-
This also can be borne.
We shrink and shudder at the surgeon's knife-But ah! we do not die with those we mourn -
Yet to our sense the bitter pangs reveal
We see a sorrow rising in our way,
And try to flee from the approaching ill,
Behold, we live through all things- famine,
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From The New York Evening Post.
THE most charming of college songs, both for tune and words, is the familiar "Lauriger Horatius." Mr. James A. Morgan, of New York, writes to the College Courant of Yale an interesting letter about it, of which the following is the substance:
"Can any of your correspondents tell me who was the author of that most widely known and admired of our college songs, Lauriger Horatius'? Also, of the origin of the tune, which our Southern brethren appropriated during the war, to their My Maryland'?
"Whoever wrote it, had drunk in the true rolick of the Mantuan; for Flaccus himself never wrote sixteen lines that breathed more unmistakably his own abandon, than this little bumper of bonhommie, as sparkling and inspiriting as a glass of Sully's best. I have been told that in the terrible Wilderness an officer heard a little group of grimmed and blackened men, in a rifle-pit, singing Lauriger Horatius.' Near them were lying two of their wounded comrades, waiting for the surgeons who were long coming, in those sad days when brave men lay bleeding in every thicket. And these two wounded men- one of them, as it proved, past all human surgery were stoutly echoing the chorus they had so often shouted in merry rout and college frolic, when, poor fellows! they hardly dreamed their time, swifter than the tempest's breath,' was upon them. And I can well fancy that, like as in that group under the Redan,
"Crescit uva molliter Et puella crescit ; Sed poeta turpiter Sitiens, canescit. "Ubi sunt, &c.
"Quid juvat aeternitas Nominis? amare Nisi terrae filias Licet, et potare. "Ubi sunt, &c."
The simple and beautiful air of Lauriger is just the thing for a campaign song. Will not some one of our Republican poets find lyric inspiration enough in the great political contest of 1868, for the safety of the government, and for peace, to give us words for it, which shall wed its sweet strains with the people's patriotic hopes and aspirations?
From The North British Review.
THE institutions and social life of America would appear in some respects unfavourable to the production of any form of literary activity in which the imagination is principally concerned. There is a hardness and matter-of-fact quality alike about the types of character and the historical environments which the Western Continent presents to the writer's study and choice, while he himself is open to the same influences that tend to produce these general features of national life. There would seem, therefore, to be at once less favourable conditions for the generation of the idealistic faculty, on the one hand, and less material for its exercise, on the other. Notwithstanding this twofold operation of the practical and materialistic complexion of the life of that great nation, its literature is not without examples of conspicuous idealism. A country that can boast of three such contemporary authors as Emerson in Philosophy, Longfellow in Poetry, and Hawthorne in Pure Fiction, cannot be considered a barren or unhopeful soil for the cultivation of the richer fruits of the imagination.
- is not on
called a part in the drama at all the busy stage, mingling in the throng by whom the movement is carried on and the plot worked out; but aside, as a spectator, sympathising with, yet critical of all, and recognising the hidden springs of the action and the influences, reaching from beyond the present and the visible, that sway the actors, with a far keener and more comprehensive sense than any of themselves. It could. not be better expressed than in the words of Miles Coverdale, in reference to his own share of the transactions at Blithedale: "It resembles that of the chorus in a classic play, which seems to be set aloof from the possibility of personal concernment, and bestows the whole measure of its hope or fear, its exultation or sorrow, on the fortunes of others, between whom and itself this sympathy is the only bond." He is meditative, sympathetic, interpretative; too poised to be decisive; with an ear too justly open to the multitudinous voices within him, to become the clear and pronounced organ and advocate of any one. Hence at once a certain suggestiveness and reticence, a tendency to raise questions rather than to settle them, and a delicacy, almost diffidence of treatment, which by some is felt to be most insinuating, by others timid or tantalizing. There are dark and curious chambers within his consciousness, which perhaps a want of firmness and courage, perhaps a wise humility, restrains him from too rashly investigating, but the shadowy forms of which he often finds a pleasing subdued awe in watching and pointing out from a distance. He sees a mystery in every living thing, not merely the mystery which profounder science discovers underlying every operation of Nature, and of which that operation is but the phenomenal result and expression, but a He is calm, dreamy, subtle, with latent mystery which manifests itself often an imagination most penetrating, a refined with seeming caprice, yet ever normally, almost a fastidious taste; and in his finding its cause and sanction less in physihands the pen becomes a very magician's cal than in moral and spiritual forces and wand, “creating," as he himself says, "the laws operating through the veil of sensible semblance of a world out of airy matter, things that overlie them. Endowed with a with the impalpable beauty of a soap-bubble." deep appreciation of the wonderful comHe is very far from being one of Carlyle's plexity of life, he sees minutely interlacing heroes he is eminently the man of con- tissues lost to grosser sense, and which templation- not of action. His part in sometimes, under unusual lights, present the drama of life-if it can be properly shifting and apparently unaccountable hues.
As a literary artist, and in respect of that characteristic so difficult to analyse or define, but to which common consent has assigned the name Genius, it is questionable whether, among the distinguished and remarkable men whom America has produced, there is any one of higher rank than Nathaniel Hawthorne — if, indeed, his equal. He has no glittering brilliance to arrest vulgar notice, no high-pressure enthusiasm or sweeping passion hurrying away with whirlwind-power great and small that come within its range, nor that rude muscular force that compels attention and often commands