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curious as the readiness with which many one useful line of advice. Fight the babit confirmed victims give up the habit, a' with your whole will and attention, as if it readiness in part due, it may be, to the fact were a stutter or a twitch. Bear the torthat no consequences follow its disuse such ture of disuse as you would bear a disease; as follow the disuse of opium or alcohol. go to bed, or to sea, and remember that Others could as soon be broken of opium- one cigar or one pinch of snuff will in bad smoking, or hemp-eating, or dram-drinking cases re-arouse, after an interval of months, as of tobacco, and for them there is only the insatiable crave.

PRECIOUS JEWELS. Colour is never so com- posed of the same material as the emerald, with mercially valuable as in precious stones. For the exception of its colouring matter. This can instance, the ruby, the sapphire, and the Ori- scarcely be called a precious stone, as it is found ental topaz are identically the same so far as the in large quantities. We are told, in deel, that a materials of which they are composed go, but mass weighing five tons was found in America. they differ in value immensely. The ruby is, in It is used in Birmingham, under the name of fact, the same as a red sapphire, but the first- aqua marina, in making cheap jewelry. Rockmentioned jewel is the most precious of stones, crystal is one of many valuable minerals which whilst the blue sapphire is not of any great value. belong to the quartz system. It is very generOf old all blue stones were called sapphires, and ally distributed over the globe in large crystals extraordinary virtues were attributed to them. Lumps of this mineral, often weighing many In these days we go to the analytic chemist when hundred weight, are found; and it is used rather we wish to discover if there is any poison in a in the manufacture of articles of vertu than of drink, but our forefathers imagined that Nature gems for the adornment of the person. We meet took the place of science, and attributed to this with it in old goldsmiths' work, and curious cups gem the power of discovering the presence of and goblets are made out of it, which are often noxious matter in any liquid in which it may most delicately cut. Like some of the gems, it have been placed. The ancients believed that was supposed by the ancients to flush with col. these precious gems changed colour on being our when poison was poured into cups made brought in contact with poisonous matters, and from it. Indeed, crystal has always been sup that they even hul the power of killing spiders, posed to possess magical properties. We all have which in past times were considered poisonous. heard, for instance, of Dr. Dee's Crystal Globe, The sapphire is very easily imitated, and there upon looking into which, it is said, he foretoll are many sham jewels that are passed off as the events. The Japanese and Chinese use it largely, real thing. Indeel, we do not doubt that this and, among other purposes, as a refrigerator to is the case with many so-called jewels which we cool the hands. A ball of this material may be see on fair necks, and never dream of doubt- seen in the shop window of an establishment in ing. The Oriental emerald is an exceedingly Regent-street, where Japanese nicknacks are esrare jewel, and so is the Oriental amethyst. These, posed to view. The cairngorm, onyx, cornelian, like the ruby and the sapphire, are varieties of amethyst, sardonyx, agate, and chal-elouy, all the corunduin, the Indian name by which they belong to the same quartz system as the rockare known. The readler may not be so well ac- crystal. The opal, the most (lelicate of gems, quainted with what is termed the cat's-eye jewel; (lepends for its beauty very much upon the terzit has the reputation of being a very lucky stone, perature : its rainbow-like tints - or rather, we and it is sold sometimes for very large prices in should say, its iridescent flashes, like those on the consequence of this supposed quality, for there is breast of a pigeon — are always the most brilnothing very beautiful in its appearance to re- liant in warm weather; this feet shouill teach commend it. The ancients, who had not arrived the wearer that it should be worn as a suunner at the modern perfection in jewel-cutting, were gem only. There are several kinds of op als, the in the habit of engraving their jewels, and Mr. most valuable being known as the noble opal; King, in his volume on precious gems, has given then there is a more deeply and evenly tintei us some very beautiful examples of this art. red opal; and the Mexican opal, which l* The emerald is princip:lly found in New Gra- much of its lustre upon being exposed to Frater. nada, but many are also found in Salzburg and Thus it will be seen this jewel is very sensitive tu Siberia, principally in limestone rock. This gem atmospheric effects, and possibly this is the reais a great favourite with Mohametans, chiefly, son why it has been supposed to possess stue suwe suppose, from the colour. The Orientals be- pernatural gift. The opal is unique in one lieve it possesses marvellous powers of a very di- spect, it cannot be imitated with any su *** verse nature; for instance, it is considered capa- This jewel, when large, is very valuable. There ble of endlowing the men with courage and the is one in the museum at Vienna valued at thirty women with chastity; it is supposed to possess thousand pounds. many medicinal qualities as well, but it is not

Cassell's Magazine necessary to mention them. The beryl is com

No. 1280. — December 12, 1868.

643 657 668 669 671

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CONTENTS. 1. ON SOME FEATURES OF AMERICAN SCENERY,

Fortnightly Review, 2. PHINEAS Finn. Part XIII.

Saint Paul's, . 3. THE DEATH OF THE CZAR NICHOLAS,

The Month, 1. LITTLE SEAL-SKIN,

Macmillan's Magazine, 5. The MONCRIEFF GUN-CARRIAGE,

Examiner, 6. THE COUNTRY-HOUSE ON THE RHINE. Part IV. By

Berthold Auerbach. Translated from the German
for the “ Living Age,”

Die Presse, 7. THE LAME AND THE LAZY,

Sunday Magazine, 8. INTERVIEW BETWEEN THE QUEEN OF SPAIN AND THE FRENCH EMPEROR,

Blackwood's Magazine, 9. The Sun's DISTANCE,

Macmillan's Magazine, 10. A SWIMMING LESSON,

Gentleman's Magazine, 11. ON SOME PLEASANT Books,

Gentleman's Magazine, 12. THE PRESIDENT ELECT,

Spectator, 13. THE POET HALLECK,

M. Y. Evening Post, :

POETRY THE OUTWARD VOYAGE,

642 | LITTLE SEAL-SKIN, PARTED, .

642 AUTUMN VIOLETS, THE PICTURE OF THE WORLD,

642 INTO MY HEART A SILENT LOOK,

SHORT ARTICLES. VOLTAIRE AND LORD BYRON,

656 BOAR-HUNT IN BURGUNDY, MEXICAN RESURRECTION PLANT,

656 HERALDIC ANIMALS, SWEDISH ARCTIC EXPEDITION,

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NEW BOOKS :

From G. P. Putnam & Son, New York. GREAT OUTLINE OF GEOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND FAMILIES. BY THEO

DOBE S. Fay. In two volumes : 1. A Folio Atlas, beautifully printed and colored; 2. A Textbook in duodecimo. “A correct opinion of the work cannot be formed by turning over the leaves. It is not a book of reference or reading. It is a teaching, a studying book.” It is highly commended by Alexander de Humboldt, a fac-simile of whose letter to Mr. Fay is given. We have shown our copy to some teachers well qualified to judge, who express their pleasnre very heartily. We recommend it as a family book, as well as for teachers. The Atlas is beautiful and useful on the parlor table.

From Sheldon & Co., New York.
THE CHILD WIFE: a Tale of the Two Worlds. By Capt. MAYNE REID.
SPECTACLES FOR YOUNG EYES. New York. By S. W. LANDER.
GLEANINGS AMONG THE SHEAVES. By the Rey C. H. SPURGEON,

From J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia. MOSAICS OF HUMAN LIFE. By ELIZABETHL A. THURston. We have only had time to admire this as a beautifully printed book. The Boston Transcript says of it:-

A volume which possesses a kind of endless interest, for it is a collection of the sayings and sing. ings of the philosophers and poets of the world on the most important eras of human life. Sense, wit, sagacity, sentiment, imagination, reason, embodied in pithy sentences, or extended paragraphs, or beautiful verses, are the staple of the work. As a volume for the parlor table, as a book of reference to the vast realms of thought and emotion, it will be found full of suggestion, information, and inspiration. It is for sale in Boston at 80 Washington St.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY

LIT TELL & GAY, BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. FOR Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor where we have to pay commission for forwarding the money.

BY NICHOLAS MICHELL,

BY E. R. SILL,

From The New Monthly Magazine. We walked together, you and I,
THE OUTWARD VOYAGE.

In the happy groves, where wood birds sing,

But sweeter were the pleasant words
Far away upon the sea,

That you kept murmuring.
On the deck my watch I keep;

They beat in time with our glad hearts,
Ocean, like eternity,

Old words they were from some old song; Doth around me grandly sweep;

Laughing, you sang them, all for me
Night is striving to be dark,

As we two wandered on.
But the throbbing stars, bright shining,
Make each bruken wave a spark,

We talked together, you and I,
And our sails with pearls are lining;

Wise things you spoke for one so young,

I listened, feeling all the while,
Softly breezes fall and swell,
Like strange murmurs in the shell.

That on your words a story hung.
Far away upon the sea,

We lived together, you and I,
Pacing slowly, thinking, dreaming,

In those old years, two friends, no more; Turn my thoughts, loved home, to thee,

Did we ever dream of what was to be, Sun upon fond memory beaming :

Could we span the years that were on before? What a waste of water lies

If we loved together, you and I, 'Twixt me and my childhood's bowers ! Was it wise that the love was never told? O’er its paths I watt my sighs,

Was it better to let the time glide on
Musing on dear vanished hours;

Till both life and love were old?
Slow I sail, yet not in gladness,
Every league but deepens sadness.

Dublin University Magazine.
Far away upon the sea,

Hastening south, but looking north, All the world seems flood to me,

THE PICTURE OF THE WORLD.
And my thoughts, like doves, go forth :
Yes, they fly, and now alight

One morning of a summer's day
On old elm-trees in a valley;

Upon'a painter's easel lay
There I see — dear, touching sight -

The picture of a child at play:
House, moss'd pond, and garden alley,

A form of laughing life and grace, And the clock-tower with its bell,

And finished, all except the place And the dog I loved so well.

Left empty for the untouched face. Far away upon the sea;

In nodding violets, half asleep,
Hush! it is not fancy all;

The dancing feet were ankle deep; O'er the waves immensity

One rounded arm was heaping up Murmurs float, and rise, and fall :

With clover-bloom and buttercup; 'Tis the village bells I bear,

The other tossed a blossom bigh
Charming once our evening skies,

To lure a lowering butterfly.
Sounds to happy childhood dear,

'Twas easy to imagine there, Ringing as from paradise :

In that round frame of rippled hair Oh, that music o'er the deep !

The wanting face, all bright and fair. Let me listen — let me weep.

A sadder artist came that day, Far away upon the sea;

Looked on the picture where it lay, Hush ! it is not fancy all;

And, sitting in the painter's place, O’er the waves' immensity

He painted in the missing face.
Silvery voices seem to call :

From his own heart the hues he took'Tis my sister's as her tresses

Lo! what a wan and woful look! Float, gold-shining, in the sun,

Under that mocking wreath of flowers, 'Tis my mother's, as she blesses,

A brow worn old with weary hours ; Blesses me, her wandering son :

A face-once seen one still must sceOh, those voices o’er the deep !

Wise awful eyes' solemnity,
Let me listen – let me weep.

Lips long ago too tired to hide
The torture-lines where love had died ;

The look of a despair too late,
PARTED.

Too dead, to even be desperate ;
WE sang together, you and I,

A face for which so far away In a quiet church, sweet songs of praise,

The struggle and the protest lay, Your voice was like an angel's voice,

No memory of it more could stay. Your face was as an angel's face.

Repulsed and reckless, withered, wild, We knelt together, you and I,

It stared above the dancing child. In that dim old church, in sight of heaven,

At night a musing poet came, And you prayed a prayer that the angels know

And shuddering, wrote beneath its name. That sin may be forgiven.

Public Opinion

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From The Fortnightly Review. who has formed, wisely or foolishly, an inON SOME FEATURES OF AMERICAN SCEN. veterate habit of judging for himself as to ERY.

objects that strike his eye, and skipping the I have often heard it said by travellers rapturous passages in guide-books. that America (meaning thereby the United What do we mean by the picturesque' States, or rather that part of their enor- in scenery ? An old question, and not mous surface with which ordinary visitors quite so readily answered as at first sight become familiar) is not a picturesque may appear. Picturesque ” are “ those country. Grand it is, of course, in many combinations or groups, or attitudes of obof its features, and it may possess beauty jects which are fitted for the purposes of of scenery in certain senses; but not (say the painter.” So says Stewart, the Scottish these critics) in the sense which we com- oracle of the last generation, and certainly monly understand by “the picturesque.” a very precise and accurate definer. The And this depreciatory judgment I have term picturesque, in its application to scensometimes heard repeated by Americans ery, according to a French authority, desthemselves; who, after roaming over the ignates un aspect pris dans la nature, et most celebrated parts of Europe (and few qui, par la réunion d'heureux effets et cultivated Americans have not done so), d'accidents variés, est susceptible d'une indulge themselves, like other travelled reproduction avantageuse par les procédés folk, in certain slightly disparaging airs de l'art.” Nothing can be more correct, towards their mother country on their re- etymologically speaking; and it is well turn. This is an opinion in which, for my that this close definition should be kept in own part, I can by no means concur. My view on a subject on which we commonly acquaintance with the external aspect of permit ourselves much looseness of expresthat portion of the world is confined to a' sion. It is in this sense that mere beauty, mere traveller's glance over the Eastern which may, or may not, according to cirand Middle States, a little of the West, cumstances, have an artistic effect, is disand part of Canada ; but this amount of tinguished from picturesqueness. To use knowledge, though not quite sufficient to once more Sydney Smith's old illustration, enable me to sit in judgment on American • The rector's horse is beautiful, the usages and institutions, may suffice for my curate's is picturesque,” the latter animal present purpose. I say nothing as to what abounding, undoubtedly, more than the I have not seen. But, speaking from my former, “in happy effects and varied acciown observation only, I venture to stand dents." Nevertheless, after having theoup in defiance of common opinion, if com- retically established this distinction, I must mon opinion be on the side of the critics take the liberty of disregarding it, and uswhom I have named. Although great parting the term picturesque, for my present of this vast surface is (like that of other purpose, in that larger and more vulgar extensive regions) of a monotonous char- sense in which it comprehends all the acter to the eye, yet it contains portions pleasing general effects of scenery on the which abound in elements of the pic- eye: form, colour, grace, beauty, even turesque to a degree entitling them to en-grandeur and sublimity, wherever these ter boldly into competition with those effects are naturally produced by what we scenes of the Old World on which the epi- see, and not merely by adventitious thet is most commonly lavished in popular thoughts associated in our minds with description. My object, in the cursory that which we see. notions on

a great subject which I am The love of the picturesque in this larger about to confide to these pages, will be to sense is one of the most modern of tastes; it convey the general impression made by is hardly a century old with us, and it is American scenery, and especially with a only beginning to develop itself among our view to this attribute of picturesqueness, American relations. But, in this as in on the eye of one who is no artist, but every other fancy which they take up, they respectably familiar, as a mere observer, are hasty and vehement, and eager to with the art and nature of Earope, and achieve everything at a bound. They

sites”

are

have dispensed altogether with the slow most do, in order to become acquainted educating process by which Goethe and with cities and men, and visit at most one Wordsworth, and their schools, implanted or two noted wonders in the way of scenery, what may be called the sentimental love but to learn the real aspect of her external of external nature on the English and Ger- nature, he need be under no apprehension man mind; and claim to have arrived at of difficulties, or over-exertion, or underthe same end by a summary process, as so feeding. The best-known sites within orquick-witted a people ought. Thirty years dinary reach are all monopolised ; huge ago mountains and lakes were, to the great boarding caravanserais are planted upon mass of Americans, only quarters for pot- them; railroads from various centres lead shooting and fishing, and cataracts had no to them, and converge upon them; and all value except in the shape of water privi- may be enjoyed at the regular price of leges. Now, all the favourite sites of pic- three or four dollars per day per head, turesque beauty in the Northern States board and lodging, liquor not included. swarm with visitors like Switzerland and This, or nothing. If you seek to have NaScotland. A whole literature of descrip- ture to yourself, you will be disappointed, tive hand-books, and guides, and local as at Grindelwald or Lochlomond. And poetry, and romances, has sprung up like there is scarcely any alternative in Ameran exhalation from the forest;

ican travel, at least in the forest region, beworth a fancy price for building purposes, tween the perfectly easy and the utterly and mill-owners turn on for tourists occas- impracticable. Keep to the track, and ional waterfalls at ten cents a head. And you may count for days beforehand on the American, carrying his gregarious hab- every hour's journey, and every meal to its into the wilderness, establishes himself be eaten. Diverge from it but for a trifling for the season in some enormous hotel, digression, and you are immersed at once in holding from six hundred to two hundred jungle, swamps, curduroy roads, starvation, guests; every rapid, mountain, and lake and bewilderment. has now one such at least; and there, in You must therefore make up your mind, company with bevies of ladies in the latest as there is no help for it, to the gregarious New York style, he flirts, dances “Ger- habits of American travelling; for the big mans," and lounges through the prescribed rural hotels are almost as promiscuous in weeks, with the help of iced water or point of company as the railroad cars, exstronger liquors, as his taste may be. Hecept so far as stress of expense contributes drives about in his host's spider-wheeled to make them more select. You must learn “ buggies," over desperate roads, to see not to regard any sort of folks with whom the obligatory lions. Walking and riding you are thrown in contact as what a grievare not his favourite amusements; but this ance-writer to the Times described the deficiency is not owing to indolent habits, other day as a dreadful set of third-class as has been commonly said. It is rather passengers.” If you cannot endure this caused, or at least rendered habitual, by admixture, content yourself with the Old the greatness of distances and the imper- World, which is large enough for the fasvious nature of the forests, which force the tidious. But, if you make the experiment, wanderer to keep the road, and render the you will learn this among other secrets use of wheels almost necessary. But in that (to borrow a political phrase lately in mountain and forest sporting the taste vogue) there is such thing as levelling for which, as a high-bred pastime, is also a upwards, as well as levelling down; and new acquisition to Americans, and rapidly that if refined folks must put up in America growing into a passion — the city Ameri- with a great deal of what they regard as can is quite as willing and able to encoun- coarseness of demeanour in the less reter fatigue, as well as hardship, as similar fined with whom they are made to associate, men of other nations.

these latter, on the other hand, are apt to The consequence is, that if any one learn much of forbearance and civility, and should be tempted to travel in the fre- kindness and accommodativeness, and comquented parts of America, not merely, as parative polish, from the same association ;

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