of their doors and windows, while the offences were committed. People were constantly drowned in Hong Kong, in the presence of those who night have saved them without any peril to themselves, and I was obliged to issue an ordinance, condemning the boats to confiscation whose owners refused to rescue those who had fallen into the water."

The purely civic civilization of a crowded and over-populous empire is sure to end in something like this, at least without the presence of a strong spiritual power to leaven and exalt that secularism of idea which the Chinese, the English, and the Americans seem to exhibit naturally in almost equal degrees. A reviewer with whom we have had some little controversy lately, has lamented the failure of the Darwinian law of "natural selection in the struggle for existence" in the human world. We are not sure that in China it does not operate with almost the same force as in the lower world of animal life. The account of the deaths which take place during the competitive examinations is a strict result of the triumph of the Darwinian law:

his parents by his eventually marrying both
the heroines, for example, a dénouement of
which English novelists cannot avail them-
selves,-it will be found full of curious and,
to English readers, striking touches.

From The Spectator.


THE long struggle between the votaries and the opponents of Tobacco, which has raged at intervals for the last three hundred years, is, we suspect, very nearly at an end. The world smokes, just as the world eats, and sees as little necessity for defending the one practice as the other. It recognizes evils arising from oversmoking just as it recognizes evils arising from overeating; but is no more alarmed by stories of paralysis produced by cigars than by reports of apoplexy from roast goose. It sets down the victims in either case as slightly silly persons, and goes on its way with a remark about the uses of moderation. But that the Governments of Europe have seized with natural eagerness on a new and tempting opportu"Late newspapers from China give some in-nity of taxation, and that there is but one teresting particulars of the resumption of com- mode of smoking, the narghile, which looks petitive examinations in Nan King, where they graceful, the women of the West would, we had been long interrupted by the presence of the believe, ere this, have adopted the practice, Tae Ping insurgents. An Imperial decree directed the ex umination hall to be opened in the as their sisters in the East have done, and ancient capital of China. No less than two Mankind have discovered, in fact, a new the victory of the weed would be complete. thousand students presented themselves as candidates for the Kiu Jen, or Master of Arts de- pleasure so great that it tempts them to gree, and in consequence of the time which had overcome an instinctive disgust so genuine passed since the list examination, an unusual that the first cigar makes everybody sick, number, not less than 248 students, were pro- do not see any counter-balancing evil, and moted. So severe was the competition, that will not be lectured into giving the pleasure great numbers committed suicide, and many oth-up. Moralists indeed have pretty nearly ers died from over-exhaustion and anxiety. It abandoned their efforts in despair. A man is said that no less than 75 corpses were carried like Dean Close now and then says a harsh out from the examination-halls. They were re-word against an enjoyment which he regards as purely sensual, and an economist occasionally makes a fuss about the waste of a waste very curiously great, if we assume that tobacco has no effect either for good or evil; but as a rule these austere thinkers have concentrated And to this, mere secularism, however re-most of their attention upon alcohol, a much spectful of the rights of others, however less dubious subject for the eloquence of civic and citizenlike in Goethe's sense, necessarily tends.

moved by secret, underground passages, lest the great entrance should be profaned by the presence of the unhappy dead, who are supposed to pay this most awful penalty for undivulged offences, which ought to have prevented them from entering into the competitive field."


it involves


asceticism. The only serious attacks now come from the fastidious, who in some counSir John Bowring has produced in this tries have contrived to make it bad taste to translation a very useful as well as amusing smoke in a woman's presence; and from book. Of course of its scholarship we can-physicians, who every now and then are not pretend to be judges in any degree. But of its freshness and interest we are; and quite apart from the features of the tale which are likely to be thought the most curious, the reconciliation of the views of the two rival young ladies, the lover, and

startled by isolated facts into reviewing the
popular decision. Some such facts seem
recently to have come before a well-known
physiologist, who, in St. Paul's Magazine
for this month, does a little thinking aloud
upon the matter, arriving of course, with

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some hesitation upon one point to be noticed directly, at the popular conclusion. It is, he says, a fallacy to argue that because nicotine in the concentrated form, or an overdose of ordinary tobacco, is poisonous, therefore a smaller dose must in its degree be poisonous too. Quantity alters quality sometimes, as we see in the cases of alcohol, opium, and even flesh meat, all of which can be made to yield a strong poison, but in reasonable doses are innoxious or beneficial. The effect of the doses is not cumulative when the smoker is in an ordinary state of health, any more than the effect of daily glasses of wine or cups of tea, either of which may be taken for seventy years with as little consequence at the close of life as at first. There are, no doubt, states of health in which a small dose may be highly injurious or even poisonous, and the essayist in St. Paul's gives, with characteristic clearness, an explanation of this circumstance, the cause, as he thinks, of much of the prejudice against tobacco :

The experience of mankind, which after all is the best guide, is, we need not say, in exact accord with this view, and tobacco might be pronounced a harmless luxury but for one exceptional fact, which is noticed by the writer in St. Paul's Magazine, but which is dismissed far too summarily. He admits, with a freedom which will please the few resolute opponents of tobacco, that its use in excess is very injurious, producing nervous complaints, hysteria, mental weakness, and sometimes paralysis, and very justly sets that aside as an evil incident to almost every habit of mankind. Alcohol, coffee, and even ordinary food may all be made dangerous by taking too much, and " the argument from excess is an excess of argument -the only important point as to that matter being the limit of moderation, which differs with every individual, and with the state of the digestion or each separate day, or even hour, tobacco before breakfast being injurious to many men who can smoke after it with impunity. But those who use tobacco want an answer,

either from the lay physiologist of the St.
Paul's or from the medical profession, to a
much more subtle question. Has not to-
bacco a property belonging to very few sub-
stances which makes its use exceptionally
dangerous, much more dangerous, say, than
that of alcohol, the property, that is,
when administered in an overdose, of effect-
ing some permanent change, probably in the
spinal cord, which renders the victim for
ever after liable to injury from the minutest

But in the great majority of cases small doses of tobacco are as entirely innocuous as small doses of the very dangerous poison contained in tea.

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"The stomach is quite capable of absorbing
the poison, but it absorbs it slowly compared
with the rapidity of the process by which the
poison is excreted; and in consequence of this
greater rapidity of excretion, although all the
poison may be absorbed, yet at no one moment
is there sufficient quantity in the blood to pro-
duce injury. Spread out the thunder into its
minutest tones' says Schiller, and it becomes a
lullaby for children.' Spread out the deadliest
poison in minute doses, and it becomes a med-
icine- —as we know from the daily use of strych-
nine, prussic acid, and other energetic poisons, dose? This writer does not pretend to an-
in medical practice. Now when a poison is rap-swer that question as it could be answered
idly excreted by the skin, lungs, and kidneys, so in the Lancet, but he has had special reason
that an accumulation in the blood is prevented, to study the action of tobacco, and believes
all injury is avoided, a succession of minute
doses not being the same as one concentrated
dose. But if from any cause the rapidity of ex-
cretion be arrested, an accmulation takes place,
and thus a small dose comes to have the effect of
a large dose. This is not hypothesis; it has been
proved by Hermann of Berlin, who found that
the dose of curare which was quite innocuous
when injected into the stomach of a rabbit be-
came almost immediately fatal if the vessels of
the kidneys were tied, thus preventing the excre-
tion from taking place through the kidneys.
Hermann also found,-what, indeed, Brown Sé-
quard had long ago proved,- that the dose of
alcohol which was fatal to an animal when left
exposed to the cold, passed away without serious
effects when the animal was kept very warm,
the heat accelerating and the cold retarding the
excretion from the skin."

that the following three cases quoted in the
magazine, from Dr. Druhen's work on to-
bacco, point to the one real danger arising
from its use: —

"Case I. M. T., an advocate, aged thirty, of athletic frame, began in 1840 to manifest symptoms of a spinal affection, which continued till the summer of 1845. These symptoms fluctuated considerably, but they resisted all treatment. At last, Druhen, suspecting that the disturbing cause was excessive smoking, persuaded his patient to give up this bad habit. All the symptoms disappeared as if by enchantment, and at the end of one month the cure was complete. M. T. enjoyed good health for some time, but one day dining with the Doctor he entreated to be allowed to indulge in a cigar. The permis sion was refused, but he persisted and smoked. No sooner had he finished his second cigar than I saw him hastily quit the table. I rose also in some anxiety, and he confessed that all his old sensations had returned. This indication was


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action of calomel swallowed years after-
wards. The old superstition about anti-
dotes probably had its origin in facts of the
same kind, observed, perhaps, in times
when men had a greater capacity for be-
lieving what they saw than they have in this
If this suggestion is cor-
century of ours.
rect, and no other explains the facts, to-
bacco is a permanent danger to mankind,
important whenever the conditions of men's
lives or the specialties of their constitution
makes overdoses probable.

decisive. M. T. henceforth entirely gave up his eigar, took steel tonics for a month, and has ever since enjoyed robust health.'- Case II. M. observed that his energies had been declining; he was excessively thin, ate little, and only found comfort in smoking very strong cigars. He complained of acute abdominal pains every afternoon, which only ceased at night; trembling of the limbs, palpitations, and sometimes sickness. He was advised to relinquish tobacco during one month; did so, and the symptoms disappeared; but he afterwards declared that he would rather endure the sufferings than be deprived of tobacco. He resumed his old habit, and the old pains re- It would be very useful to ascertain, if it turned.-Case III. A man aged forty-five, of lym- were possible, what those conditions and phatic temperament, extremely sober, and very constitutions are, an inquiry towards which regular in all his habits, was troubled by the pre- the writer in the St. Paul's gives us very monitory symptoms of melancholy mania. He little help. It has been proved by experiwas perfectly aware of his hallucinations, but ment that inaction of the kidneys make nicocould not escape them. After two or three weeks' tine additionally dangerous, and the essaymedical treatment they passed away, and he re-ist lays it down as a proposition that anypost of cashier. M. Druhen accidentally learned that his patient was a smoker,-a moderate smoker, and that during his treatment the desire for tobacco had not made itself felt, but on his recovery he again resumed his cigar, and once more the old symptoms appeared. Warned thus by experience, he renounced tobacco entirely, and from that day has had no recurrence of the symptoms."

sumed his labours at the bank, where he held the

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There are physicians in London who could add greatly to this list. One we know watched a case in which a violent nervous and mental affection, cured by the disuse of tobacco, returned after an interval of years when the patient had thoughtlessly smoked a few cigars, and disappeared again on the cessation of the habit; and numbers of smokers will testify to occasional "fits" of severe malaise from a smaller allowance of tobacco than usual. Is it not, then, at least possible, if the facts are true and every physician in large practice knows them to be correct, that almost any devotee of tobacco may accidentally get an overdose, and may thenceforward be liable to suffer more or less severely whenever the ordinary dose happens not to be carried off as rapidly as usual? The poison is then absorbed, as the writer in the St. Paul's describes, and a permanent, though it may be minute, injury is inflicted on the nervous system. In what way the overdose alters the victim's liability to attack is a question for physiologists; but it may be held to be certain that it does, and though we have called the action special, it is not unique. The vaccine virus permanently alters the liability of every child in the empire to be poisoned by smallpox; there are drugs are there not? - which produce a liability to epilepsy, and an overdose of mercury will intensify the

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thing which diminishes excretory action, a
severe fall in the temperature, for example,
creates danger. So probably does any se-
vere reduction in the pulse, if coincident
with the overdose; or hunger, or deep de-
pression of mind. Constitutions vary so
infinitely that it is scarcely possible to lay
down many rules, but most physicians
would, we imagine, endorse one or two; as,
for example, that a severe cold is always a
hint to diminish tobacco, that it should
never be taken fasting, and that to most
men it is specially, and as it were oddly, in-
jurious during the intervals of sleep. That
last is a caution smokers do not need, — in
Europe at least, but snufftakers do, and
it is one which this writer, without pretend-
ing to understand the reason, offers serious-
ly. One pinch of snuff taken between
sleeping and waking at night will do more
to produce the symptoms of nicotine poison-
ing than a boxfull taken in the day-time,
will produce in many cases actual vomiting
hours after. And finally, it may be laid
down as an axiom that men of highly-strung,
sensitive, nervous organizations, and men
who habitually eat little, are better without
tobacco. They need it least, it is on them
that it exerts its worst effects, and they, of all
men, are most liable to become slaves to
the indulgence, which they fancy relieves
the dyspepsia it produces. To all sufferers
from tobacco, we would add that if the the-
ory we have tried to maintain is correct,
and we speak as those who know by dreary
experience the hold tobacco gets over the
affections, - there is no remedy whatever
except total abstinence. If the mischief has
once been done, one cigar or one pinch of
snuff is as bad as a hundred. Some of them
can act on the advice without an effort,
nothing in the history of tobacco being so

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posed of the same material as the emerald, with the exception of its colouring matter. This can scarcely be called a precious stone, as it is found in large quantities. We are told, indeed, that a mass weighing five tons was found in America. It is used in Birmingham, under the name of aqua marina, in making cheap jewelry. Rockcrystal is one of many valuable minerals which belong to the quartz system. It is very generally distributed over the globe in large crystals. Lumps of this mineral, often weighing many hundred weight, are found; and it is used rather in the manufacture of articles of vertu than of gems for the adornment of the person. We meet with it in old goldsmiths' work, and curious cups and goblets are made out of it, which are often most delicately cut. Like some of the gems, it was supposed by the ancients to flush with colour when poison was poured into cups made from it. Indeed, crystal has always been supposed to possess magical properties. We all have heard, for instance, of Dr. Dee's Crystal Globe, upon looking into which, it is said, he foretold events. The Japanese and Chinese use it largely, and, among other purposes, as a refrigerator to cool the hands. A ball of this material may be

PRECIOUS JEWELS. Colour is never so commercially valuable as in precious stones. For instance, the ruby, the sapphire, and the Oriental topaz are identically the same so far as the materials of which they are composed go, but they differ in value immensely. The ruby is, in fact, the same as a red sapphire, but the firstmentioned jewel is the most precious of stones, whilst the blue sapphire is not of any great value. Of old all blue stones were called sapphires, and extraordinary virtues were attributed to them. In these days we go to the analytic chemist when we wish to discover if there is any poison in a drink, but our forefathers imagined that Nature took the place of science, and attributed to this gem the power of discovering the presence of noxious matter in any liquid in which it may have been placed. The ancients believed that these precious gems changed colour on being brought in contact with poisonous matters, and that they even had the power of killing spiders, which in past times were considered poisonous. The sapphire is very easily imitated, and there are many sham jewels that are passed off as the real thing. Indeed, we do not doubt that this is the case with many so-called jewels which we see on fair necks, and never dream of doubt-seen in the shop window of an establishment in ing. The Oriental emerald is an exceedingly Regent-street, where Japanese nicknacks are exrare jewel, and so is the Oriental amethyst. These, posed to view. The cairngorm, onyx, cornelian, like the ruby and the sapphire, are varieties of amethyst, sardonyx, agate, and chalcedony, all the corundum, the Indian name by which they belong to the same quartz system as the rockare known. The reader may not be so well ac- crystal. The opal, the most delicate of gems, quainted with what is termed the cat's-eye jewel; depends for its beauty very much upon the temit has the reputation of being a very lucky stone, perature: its rainbow-like tints—or rather, we and it is sold sometimes for very large prices in should say, its iridescent flashes, like those on the consequence of this supposed quality, for there is breast of a pigeon - -are always the most brilnothing very beautiful in its appearance to re-liant in warm weather; this fact should teach commend it. The ancients, who had not arrived at the modern perfection in jewel-cutting, were in the habit of engraving their jewels, and Mr. King, in his volume on precious gems, has given us some very beautiful examples of this art. The emerald is principally found in New Granada, but many are also found in Salzburg and Siberia, principally in limestone rock. This gem is a great favourite with Mohametans, chiefly, we suppose, from the colour. The Orientals believe it possesses marvellous powers of a very diverse nature; for instance, it is considered capable of endowing the men with courage and the women with chastity; it is supposed to possess many medicinal qualities as well, but it is not necessary to mention them. The beryl is com

the wearer that it should be worn as a summer gem only. There are several kinds of opals, the most valuable being known as the noble opal; then there is a more deeply and evenly tinted red opal; and the Mexican opal, which loses much of its lustre upon being exposed to water. Thus it will be seen this jewel is very sensitive to atmospheric effects, and possibly this is the reason why it has been supposed to possess some supernatural gift. The opal is unique in one respect, it cannot be imitated with any success. This jewel, when large, very valuable. There is one in the museum at Vienna valued at thirty thousand pounds.

Cassell's Magazine.

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GREAT OUTLINE OF GEOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND FAMILIES. BY THEODORE S. FAY. In two volumes: 1. A Folio Atlas, beautifully printed and colored; 2. A Textbook in duodecimo. "A correct opinion of the work cannot be formed by turning over the leaves. It is not a book of reference or reading. It is a teaching, a studying book." It is highly commended by Alexander de Humboldt, a fac-simile of whose letter to Mr. Fay is given. We have shown our copy to some teachers well qualified to judge, who express their pleasure very heartily. We recommend it as a family book, as well as for teachers. The Atlas is beautiful and useful on the parlor table.

From Sheldon & Co., New York.

THE CHILD WIFE: a Tale of the Two Worlds. By Capt. MAyne Reid.

From J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia.

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FOR EIGHT DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor where we have to pay commission for forwarding the money.

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