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finds himself detained at the house of ill lace. Belford is admitted to the intimacy fame in company with women of the town of Clarissa, and is named her executor. In whose conversation is given at length, this position he becomes acquainted with and is given as repeated by Clarissa to a all the details of her life, which he communigentleman who is the chief correspondent cates to his friend in letters eight, ten, and of Lovelace! Will Mr. Dallas tell us that twelve pages in length, writing sometimes Clarissa Harlowe's life at Mrs. Sinclaire's two a day. In the last months of poor will ever be popular among English novel Clarissa's life, Mr. Belford had almost more readers? It is very moral and not ob- than man could do in looking after her, and scene;- but it is nasty, altogether unnatu- telling the history of her life to her seral, and wanting in all the elements of dra- ducer; but during all this time he never matic effect.
quarrels with his friend or is stirred to From this den she escapes to Hampstead, avenge Clarissa.
This is done some and is brought back again by contrivances months after the lady's death by a military which are surely the most clumsy which cousin who has had much dealing with ever a novelist used. She was a lady of Lovelace, dealing that was frank and alexcellent education, of high intellect, used most friendly, and that after he had learned to society, and able to talk down an arch- the story of the poor girl's fate; but who bishop on any matter of discourse. In con- at last, after full consideration, conceives it versation it is impossible to have her at a to be his duty to follow Lovelace, and to loss. Her manners and wit are as perfect challenge him with all courtesy, and to as her beauty. And yet she is cajoled shoot him. Of hot anger, of passionate inaway from her refuge at Hampstead by two dignation, of that feeling which would have women of the town who represent them- driven almost any man - nay, almost any selves, at Lovelace's instance, to be ladies of woman to clutch at Lovelace, and to title, and his near relations ! By them she is tear him to pieces, there is not a word, taken back to her former prison, - and The first question to be asked as to every there she is drugged and violated. And novel is whether it will please. There are upon this the violator writes the only short various other questions to be asked, which letter in the book. “And now, Belford, are also very important. Will it be injuriI can go no further. The affair is over, ous to its readers? If so, though it be Clarissa lives. And I am,—your humble ever so full of delight, let it be banished servant.” We will admit here that the pa- from our rooms. Is it well written? If it thos is so great and overwhelming as to be not, even though it please, it is open to banish from the reader's mind for the mo- just censure. Is it untrue to nature? If ment the remembrance that no man that it be false to nature, let the crities say so, ever lived could in such circumstances have even though the charm of the work be comwritten such a letter.
plete. Let all and every fault be pointed And now the author is so vilely crippled out,- for the benefit of readers and of by the fashion of his narrative that he can writers too. These novels are so far good make but little of the picture of his heroine. that the readers seek them and delight in Clarissa, balf-crazy, as she well might be, them. So much is true of them, though we writes a letter to Anna Ilowe, and a letter acknowledge that they might have been betto Lovelace, which Lovelace copies and ter. But a novel that will not please is sends to his friend! But the injured woman naught. The world will not have it if there herself cannot be brought on the scene, be more of trouble than of pleasure in the the two letters seem to have tried too reading of it. Now, to our thinking, the highly the novelist's powers. “Oh, Love- world of the present day cannot be made to lace,” she says, “you are Satan himself, take delight in “ Clarissa.” Every reader or he helps you out himself in everything, that does read it will acknowledge its wonand that's as bad. But have you really and derful power of harrowing up the feelings, truly sold yourself to him? and for how its surpassing pathos, its terrible picture of long? What duration is your reign to Virtue suffering all things but debasement have?" After this she escapes again; gets under the hands of Vice. But no reader into good hands; is then arrested by the will rise and feel that in the reading of the bad women, not at the instance of Love- book he has passed happy hours. It is lace, but on his behalf; again escapes, is quite true that readers who have commenced grandly persistent in her refusal to marry may be unable not to finish the volumes,him, and dies unvisited by any of her near that readers may find themselves compelled relations or by her darling friend.
to get through the work by some mixed The latter part of the story is chiefly told process of reading and skipping; but the in the letters of Belford to his friend Love-l desire will always be to reach the end in
order that the labour may be over. Through- men have changed. The novels of the out the story there is no one to love or sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are even to like, save only Clarissa. The per- now absolutely unreadable by us, sonages with whom the reader will become do not think that any abridgment would acquainted are for the most part either make them pleasant to us. Those of the gloomy and tyrannical, or vicious and abom- eighteenth stand their ground with a cerinable. And with Clarissa herself the read- tain amount of life. We have ackpowler forms no pleasant acquaintance. She edged that men desire to have Richardson never smiles, and we must admit, indeed, on their shelves, and almost persuade themthat she has little reason for smiling. She selves that they have read “ Sir Charles is always among wretches, and from first Grandison.” But no force from the outto last we never see what Clarissa would side will draw people back upon them. We have been with pleasant friends around her, do not think much of the admiration of or with a lover whom she loved. Main- Diderot, of Scott, or of Macaulay, as extained misery may please through a short pressed for Richardson. The enthusiasm story; but the world of readers is averse of an individual, let him be who he may, or to being steeped in wretchedness through a the enthusiasm of a certain hour in that inlong series of volumes.
dividual's life, is but slender proof of the It has not been so much our intention to excellence of anything. If we found that criticise Richardson's story, which as we the volumes of Richardson were frequently have said, is indeed an old tale, as to call taken down from our shelves, that the bookin question the conclusion of Mr. Dallas sellers dealt in them widely, and that the with the view of inquiring whether that novels were sold at the railway stores for a which he has done will resuscitate a lost shilling apiece, we should think more of popularity. When Richardson wrote nov- such evidence than of that of the Governorels were scarce, and of those which were General, and Secretary, and Commanderwritten few were deemed to be fit reading in-chief in India, with their wives and famifor young and modest women. That “ Clar- lies, as given by Macaulay to Thackeray in issa" should have been so esteemed some-the drawing-room of the Athenæum. But what astonishes us, as in no novel that we we will not close these remarks, widely opknow is a fouler brood of low characters posed as they are to the views of Mr. Dalintroduced than in “ Clarissa ; "— but the las, without again expressing our admiramoral teaching was supposed to be good, tion for the literary zeal of an Editor who and the book was undoubtedly accepted. has been willing to give so much labour As we look back to the literature of past and time to an old tale, simply because it ages we see that the tastes of men and wo-1 has moved him deeply.
lake, and I proposed to take the little girl, for [TO THE EDITOR OF THE “SPECTATOR.") whose loneliness I could not help feeling a good SIR,– I am reminded by your article on the deal of pity, on the water. She would like very children whom one meets with on the Continent much to go, but she could not leave Minnie. As of an American family whom I met with in a I could not bear to deprive my little friend of pension on the Lake of Geneva, where I spent what was evidently a great pleasure, I asked two days. The party consisted of a girl of about whether Minnie would be good, and having retwelve and two younger children; they had no ceived the elder sister's promise that she would, nurse or servant, The eldest girl was left in I suggested taking her too, though an unknown charge, while the father and mother were, I be- child of five in a boat is rather anxious work. lieve, making a tour in Switzerland for a fort- Minnie was perfectly good, and we returned in night. I did not hear that any express cause safety. had taken them away. The little girl's manage- I have often thought since of the eldest girl. ment of the younger ones was such as many a I wonder whether hers is an exceptional case, or mother might have envied. The boy and an- whether there are many American children like other little boy had been out playing till after her. The strange and, to English ideas, preposdinner was ready, and rushed in while we were terous notion of leaving a girl of twelve without at table. One of the young culprits was adjured any elder friend, and without any special recomby his mother several times in persuasive, drawl- mendation to the mistress of the pension, did not ing tones, “Do brush your hair, Tommy, you're surprise me more than the manner of the little not fit to be seen, do go and brush it." When girl herself, gentle, childlike, unassuming to the other appeared his sister suid very gently, strangers; very gentle yet very decided to the “ You have forgotten to brush your hair, Char- younger ones; staid and quiet she naturally was, lie, you cannot sit down to table so," and Char- but there was not a particle of self-conceit, or lie was off to make himself tidy.
presumption, or self-sufficiency in her bearing. In the evening we were going for a row on the I am, Sir, &c.,
E. G. T. F.
From The Saturday Review. ject it. We say most obstinately, because NATIONALITY AND RELIGION.
they reject Christianity while having better
opportunities than idolaters, or even than We supported, in an article a little time Mahometans, of knowing what Christianity back, the doctrine set forth by Lord Ma- really is. The vast mass of Christians have caulay, Dean Milman, and others, that the no sort of ethnical kindred with the first Reformation of the sixteenth century was converts of Galilee and Jerusalem. They essentially a Teutonic movement. We are the descendants of men who worshipped showed how the reformed doctrines had Zeus, Jupiter, Woden, and the less famous been accepted by the great bulk of the Teu- Gods of those lesser nations which seem a tonic nations of Europe, and by very few sort of appendage to Greeks, Romans, and besides the Teutonic nations. We argued Teutons. In this case, and in many others, also that the acceptance of the Reformation nations have adopted a religion, they have by the Teutonic nations, by England above become identified with it, they have made all, was owing to a certain conformity in it as it were part of their national being, its doctrines, and still more in the political though it has been first preached to them incidents of those doctrines, with the na- by men of some other race, and though its tional character of those nations, and with tenets have been such as, before the event, the circumstances of their former history. they might have been expected to cast aside To us islanders above all, a system which with disdain. called for no submission to a foreign Power, Some religions again, and some particular which allowed us to develop our insular forms of the same religion, seem more easifeelings to their fullest growth, was natu- ly to allow the free development of narally acceptable above all others. But we tional life than others. The identification purposely kept ourselves from pointing out, of nationality and religion reached its exTest we should be drawn away too far from treme point among the ancient Hebrews. our proper subject, that this phenomenon, Judaism was, simply and solely, the religion according to which Teuton and Protestant of the Hebrew nation. The Jew was ready are, in modern Europe, names which are all to make proselytes, but such proselytes but interchangeable, is only one example were called on to become Jews. The worof a large class of phenomena of the same shipper of the God of Abraham was to bekind to be remarked in all times and coun- come, as far as adoption could make him, tries of the world. We leave it to divines a son of Abraham. Mahometanism again and philosophers to explain the fact, but is essentially a proselytizing religion : it is the fact itself is beyond doubt, that certain of its very life and being to be so. Now forms of religion do commend themselves Mahometanism does not indeed require men in a special way to men of certain races, to become Arabs, as Judaism requires men that they seem, as it were, better suited to to become Jews; but it seems, when left to their national character and circumstances, itself, to bring all its converts, as far as that they embrace them more readily and may be, to a certain level of national becarry them out with greater zeal. We de- ing. It seems to raise them to a certain sign nothing beyond a plain statement of point, and to keep them from rising above historical facts; and we do not flatter our- à certain point. It seems to stereotype a selves that we are going to put forward certain social and political state as its unanything that is at all new. But a collec- conscious ideal. And, if it has not made tion of facts, however well known, plainly all men Arabs, it has carried the Arabic stated and put into their right relation to language everywhere with it; the speech of one another, is often of great use. It is of the Koran has in some Mahometan countries special use on this sort of subject, on which displaced the native speech of the people, men's ideas are often greatly confused, led and in others it has been largely mingled away in many cases by mere misunderstand with it. Comparing again Eastern and ings of nomenclature and historical geogra- W'estern Europe, it is plain that in the East phy.
nationality and religion become identified One thing must specially be marked at in a way in which they do not in the West. starting, that the religion which history A French Protestant is still a Frenchman; shows best to suit a particular nation is by an English Roman Catholic is still an Engno means always the immemorial faith of lishman; nay, we have found out that even that nation, or even a faith which has had the Jew may, if he chooses, be admitted to its origin among that nation. One exam- civil, political, and social equality with the ple, the greatest of all, is enough. Chris- Christian of either Church. It clearly is tianity is of Jewish origin, but the Jews not so in the East. Greek, Turk, Jew, are just the people who most obstinately re- ) Armenian, are words which express religious as well as national differences. In on its chief as something more than a mere fact, the religious difference comes first. If civil ruler, as the temporal chief of Chrisa man changes his religion, he changes his tendom. Except so far as its faith has been nationality. The Orthodox Church and the displaced by Mahometanism, Christianity Greek nation are very far from being co- still includes all those nations which formed extensive expressions ; but what makes them part of the Roman Empire at its greatest not co-extensive is that the Orthodox Church extent; all the then heathen nations which contains the Greek nation and several other in the process of serving, conquering, or nations beside it. But if a man of any of dismembering it, came within the range of those nations forsakes his religion, if he its influence; all the heathen nations which ceases to belong to the Orthodox Church, afterwards came within the range of direct he is looked on as forsaking his nationality Roman influence, Imperial or Papal. That as well. Multitudes of Turks are of Greek is to say, it is the religion of Europe, inor Slavonic origin; Constantinople was cluding of course 'European colonies; it is stormed, and the Ottoman Empire was ad- the religion of the small remnant in Roman ministered, by the children of Christian Asia in Roman Africa there is hardly so parents. But the proselyte to Islam, wheth- much as a remnant which Mahometan iner voluntary or involuntary, whether the vasions have failed to eat up. Beyond these mature renegade or the Janissary kidnapped limits its extent has always been small and in his childhood, ceased to be Greek, Slave, its existence precarious. Abyssinia stands or whatever he was before; the mere fact alone as an example of an ancient Chrisof proselytism enrolled him among the rul- tian Kingdom surviving in a country which ing caste, and made him, for all practical never formed part of the Empire, and which purposes, a Turk. Even the Oriental Chris- has never been settled by European colotian who forsakes the national form of Chris- nists. We leave divines and philosophers tianity for another greatly weakens, if he to explain the reasons. We only state the does not wholly cast off, the national tie. manifest fact. If the Articles would let us, The United Greek and the United Armenian we should say that there was something or are Greek and Armenian only in a very other in the national character or circumsecondary sense. So, in the further East, stances of all these nations which did denames like Hindoo and Parsee - strictly serve Christian enlightenment
of conmere names of nations, like English and gruity.”. French — have acquired a secondary re- Looking again within the limits of Chrisligious meaning which has quite displaced tendom itself, it is easy to see four very the national meaning. If a Hindoo or a intelligible divisions. First, let us go back Parsee embraces Christianity or Mahome- four hundred years or thereabouts. We tanism, no one any longer speaks of him as should then see but three. There was first a llindoo or a Parsee. In the East then the Western, the Latin Church, with the we may say that nationality and religion are Ronan Pentiff still its real spiritual chief, absolutely identical. Given a man's nation with the Roman Cæsar at least its nominal
- his practical nation, not necessarily his temporal chief. Its pale embraced all ethnological pedigree -- and you know his those nations which had at any time bowed religion. Given his religion, and you very either to the temporal sway of the Western often know his nation; you at least know Cæsar or to the spiritual teaching of the that he must belong to one out of two or Western Pontiff. Secondly, there was the three nations. In the West nationality bas Eastern, the Orthodox, Church, the Church had a good deal to do with determining re- of the hardly defunct Roman Empire of the ligion, and religion has had something to East, and of those European nations which do with determining nationality. But, in had submitted either to the temporal domeither case, nationality or religion has been inion or to the spiritual teaching of the simply one element among other elements. New Rome. Thirdly, there were the remThe two things have never become identi- nants of the ancient national Churches of cal, as they have in the East.
the East the heretics, as Roman and ByIf we cast our eye over Christendom and zantine orthodoxy deemed them, of Arits divisions, we shall easily see how exactly menia, Syria, and Eygpt. That is to say, they are marked out by certain great na- they were the Churches of those nations tional and historical landmarks. Christian- which had been politically incorporated ity is the religion of the Roman Empire and within the Empire of the Cæsars, but which of those nations which have come, more or had never cheerfully accepted either its less fully, under Roman influences. It was Greek or its Roman influences. Armenia, not without a meaning that the Empire in the oldest Christian Kingdom, Syria and later days took the title of Holy, and looked Egypt, representatives of a civilization and
a literature older than that of Greece and (if it ever happens, be very different from Italy, had never become pupils of their the Reformation in the West. It will not
While the rest of the Empire, be a revolt. The utmost in the way of resave here and there a wild mountain tribe, volt that is likely to happen is for Bulgaria adopted either the Greek or the Latin lan- to claim to form an independent national guage, they clave to their own ancient Church as well as Russia and the Greek tongues, they moulded Christianity into Kingdom. There is no need to cast off a forms of their own, and they offered no hear yoke where no yoke exists. If a reform, ty resistance to the Saracen invader. Abys- doctrinal or other, ever happens in the sinia, the spiritual colony of Egypt, the East, it is as likely to begin at Constantinoone Christian State wholly beyond the lim- ple as at Athens or at Saint Petersburg. its of the Empire, of course takes its place A reform in the West could not begin at along with those nations which never wil- Rome, because the leading object of all lingly belonged to it. All these three di- reform was to cast off the authority of visions still remain, and, within the range Rome. of the last two, nationality and religion are Nationality and religion then are in some still as identical as ever. But the events of parts of the world identical; in other the last three centuries and a half have parts, though not identical, they greatly added a fourth division. That is to say, influence one another. The ritual, the the Teutonic nations have risen against the discipline even the dogmas, which suit one spiritual domination of the elder Rome. A nation do not suit another. Such is plainly curious question now arises. We see that the fact, but beyond the statement of the Roman, Byzantine, Oriental, and Teutonic fact we do not presume to go. Christianity all exist. Will there ever be such a thing as Slavonic Christianity ? The great mass of the Slavonic nations, all
From The Saturday Review, 24 Oct. at least of the Eastern branch of the race,
FRANCE. have stood for ages towards the Eastern Church and Empire in nearly the same The Spanish Revolution has perhaps relation in which the Teutons have stood done something for the general peace of to the Western Church and Empire. They Europe during the next few months. What have been half conquerors, balf disciples. plans, if any, the Emperor Napoleon had Will they ever revolt against the New Tormed, only those in his confidence can Rome as we have done against the Old! tell. The settled discontent with which the If they ever do, it must be a revolt of a Tuileries regards the state of Germany had different kind. It must be a purely dog- perhaps found vent this last summer in the matic revolt. It is only accidentally that concoction of more than one scheme or the Byzantine Church has anywhere estab- conspiracy against the quiet of the Contilished a dominion against which national nent. Various ideal repartitions of Europe feeling is tempted to kick, as national feel- have been designed in the Imperial Cabinet ing is tempted to kick against the dominion in the course of sixteen years of political of the Roman Church. Some of the na- dreaming, and 1868 has had, like the rest, tions belonging to the Orthodox Church its map, its programme, and possibly, its have had, and still have, grievances to plan of a campaign. Great enterprises complain of at the hands of the Byzantine inight have been undertaken again in the Patriarchate. But they are simply local and coming winter if it had not been for the temporary grievances, such grievances as irony of Fortune, which so constantly inthe appointment of Greek Bishops to Bul- terferes with the execution of the vague garian sees and the like. The Eastern purposes of irresolute men. Prussia, at Church never attempted to establish the any rate, is thought to be safe till next year, same sort of universal dominion as the when, unless anything else happens, the Western. The national Churches within French Emperor will again be hard at work its communion have always enjoyed a na- conquering General Moltke upon paper. tional hierarchy and the use of the national All that can be hoped is that something language in divine service. At this mo- may happen again next year, and, as the ment the national Churches of Greece and world is full of surprises, perhaps someRussia are in full spiritual communion with thing will. The Pope may be ill, or M. the mother Church of Constantinople, while Rochefort may be dead, or there will be a they are as independent of her in their in- Great Exhibition somewhere, or a new genternal constitution as the Church of Eng- eral election to the Corps Législatif, or the land is independent of Rome. There may Jesuits may have got into trouble by buybe a Reformation in the East, but it must, ing up all the land in Belgium, or M. Olli