given to man, being the divine life of Christianity, and reasoning downwards from Christ our Lord. "This is the record, that it to the facts of Christendom, it would be God has given to us eternal life, and this well to begin by ascertaining the actual life is in his Son." Yet it must be con- phenomena, and then ascend afterwards to fessed that the evidence of the supernatural the religious system which undertook to is hard to give. No amount of facts in the explain and account for those phenomena. world of nature will ever prove the exist- With singular force and eloquence the ence of a world or a life above nature. preacher invited his hearers to consider "Between the man who believes only with him the manifestations in the history what he sees, and the man who believes in of Christendom of a noble and beautiful order that he may see, there is a necessary life which could not be accounted for withand endless opposition; they are exactly in out a new hypothesis of some kind. He the position of two men, one of whom is recounted the deeds of heroism and self-saclooking at a picture from a right point of rifice which had been done in the name of view, and sees the whole beauty of the Christ, and said that there was visible to design; and the other of whom is closely all who looked for it a kind of life "that examining it piecemeal through a powerful lifts itself above mere morality, respectalens. Both testify to what they see, but bility, and decency; a life that is saintly one sees more than the other, and the only and beautiful, which is ever ready to give answer he can make is, 'Stand where I itself for others, which is ever contending stand, and you will see what I see.' It is with the evil and misery there are in the impossible and in vain to dream of a recon- world; a life which sends the pastor to the ciliation of the belief in the supernatural outcast and the ignorant, which spends itwith the belief only in the natural. There self in efforts to reclaim the wanderer and must come a point when the man who to reform the criminal," and which had walks by faith must part company with the originated all the greatest agencies for the man who walks, and is resolved to walk, amelioration of our race. And if a still only by sight. Is it not a great matter closer inquiry was made into the motives that they should reach that point in com- and purposes of Christian men, it would be pany, that they should not part before they found that they all professed to have a hidhave reached it? Is it not a great matter den life of joy and solace and hope which that the man of faith should bring with him was more beautiful than any which they the man of science to the very verge of the could reveal. "Take up the biographies supernatural, showing him all he can see of men who in their day had belonged to before he asks him to believe what he can- the most opposite and contending sects, not see? Now, have religious men, as a and who would scarcely have owned one rule, done this? Too often they have done another to be Christians. Read the recexactly the opposite. They set forth the ords of their secret thoughts and feelings, claims of Christianity in this wise: uttering themselves in their prayers, their 'Eighteen hundred years ago there lived a hymns, their journals of religious experiman in Nazareth, who came down from ence. Blow away from their books the heaven, and claimed to be the Son of God, dust of the old bitter controversies, by and proved His claim by miracles; believe which these men were kept apart, and it, and ye shall be rewarded with salvation; what do you find? You find living souls believe it not, and ye shall be punished that wept, sorrowed, joyed, hoped, and with damnation.' Whether this was right- prayed alike; men who speak of the realily or wrongly put, the result of such a ties of a hidden life, of the sin they hated, statement was that the men of science of the temptations they struggled against, started aside from it at once, and rejected of a life and spirit in them which enabled the belief in the supernatural all the more them to conquer, and of the hope that susresolutely, because an attempt was thus tained them. So much had they been animade to enforce it by penalties." mated by the same spirit, that however divided they might have been in creed, it was clear that they might have sung one another's hymns and prayed one another's prayers. And the explanation which they would each have given of these phenomena would have been substantially the same. This life is not ours, there was a time when we were dead; this life is in us, but not of us; it comes from another, it is the life of our Lord Jesus Christ. He died for us;

The Dean proceeded to say that there was another way of enforcing the claims of Christianity, far more efficacious and more consonant to the legitimate demands of science. The inductive method of investigation was confessedly the fairest in regard to all forms of physical life; it would also be the truest in regard to the Christian life. Instead of beginning with a theory, historical or dogmatic, about the origin of

we believe in Him, and believing in Him, power which influences them, and the actwe find his life and spirit in us; as we trusting of which they feel and see, we make in Him, the life grows stronger; when we our appeal; we ask you to listen to us, as forget Him it grows weaker; we can do all we say, Behold, we show you another things through Christ, for He is our life." mystery, the mystery of a hidden life."" There, he continued, were phenomena in And, he proceeded to urge, so long as the the history of the world which the student Christian life yields fruits of holiness, of of human life could not disregard. They nobleness, and of beauty, so long its origin required some explanation, there was, and history will be deserving of the study somewhere, a theory to account for them. of every man of science. But if ChristianHe could not now ask them to go into the ity ever ceased to purify and ennoble the evidence of Christianity, but he invited lives of men, it would die out as a creed, them to consider whether, with these facts and ought to die. Its Founder had combefore them, the supernatural theory which pared His disciples to the salt of the earth, Christianity set up appeared quite so im- but if the salt have lost his savour. probable as it had seemed a priori; and it must be cast out and trodden under foot whether it would be philosophical to reject of men." There was no dead thing more without further examination an exceptional odious and pestilential, as it lay reeking on explanation for phenomena so hard to ac- the earth, than the corpse of a dead relicount for on any natural theory. They gion, one which had ceased to operate on had been considering the outward mani- the consciences and behaviour of its profesfestations of a life; and what was a life? sors. It was yet in the power of Christian He asked the man most profoundly versed men to vindicate the truth of their faith, if in science there present to define for him not in controversy with the modern forms what was that mysterious and hidden force of scientific belief, at least by consistent for which he was searching day by day into and holy Christian life. They might pathe recesses of beings that live, or that tiently wait for that reconciliation between have lived, and which still eludes his search? science and religion which men were lookWhat was the mysterious power which ing for; when science and philosophy, on makes of the inanimate the animate? The the one hand, should help religion to a men of faith had to tell of the life of man's spirit; should it surprise us to be told that this life is more mysterious than the life that the men of science seek vainly to discover of the body? Was it so very strange a thing that they who already believe in an invisible influence in the realms of science should be asked to go one step further, and believe the invisible in the realms of faith? They might not be entitled to say, "Believe the Christian theory; but they might be justified in claiming for it a respectful and patient hearing.

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"The men of faith make their earnest appeal to the men of science for help, and for help which they can, give. From the babbler, from the shallow smatterer in science and theology who prattles about the supernatural and the natural, and who refuses to believe in the mystery of religion, from him, to the real high priests of science, to the men who have reached the innermost shrine in her temple, and stand there reverently with bowed heads before the veil which they acknowledge they cannot lift, but beyond which they confess there is a

truer expression of its own beliefs; and religion, on the other hand, should give clearer evidences of its history and creeds. But one thing they could not afford to wait for,-the Christian life itself, as revealed in daily acts of self-sacrifice and holiness,— Christian men must take care that at least no one should be able to challenge them for proofs of the reality of this life, and to say that there was no answer to the challenge.

It is very difficult to give in this brief summary a fair representation of an argument which was as remarkable for close sequence and for concentration as for the richness and variety of its illustrations. Still more difficult would it be to describe the profound emotion and interest which was kindled and sustained by the preacher during a pulpit address of far more than the average length. But we hope that the Dean of Cork will be induced to publish a full and accurate report of his sermon, and that in this way he may address a yet wider and more influential audience than that which listened to his voice on Association Sunday in Norwich.

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pressed by the chief title of the volume is between the men who upon the great principles then in debate were with the King;

|litical in their actions but not in their writings, others in their writings but not in their actions. Some maintained the King's cause from the point of view of divine right, and would have maintained the same cause if Charles had been a Caligula or a Nero. Some were mere soldiers and gentlemen, who fought to keep down the populace, and wrote

from a sort of instinct of culture. But the

three who were on the side of the people wrote and what they did. We can underwere sternly in earnest, both in what they stand Professor Morley's objection to the

name "Puritan" as contrasted with "Cavalier; " for the first is used as an offensive nickname, while the second is meant as a title of honour. It is for this reason that we have given the contrast a new wording at the head of this article, and have shown personal fidelity to a King in competition with fidelity to the law.

of royalty. What Herrick says about kings is typical of the Cavalier spirit; for instance, his lines headed "A King and no King" strike at the root of all legitimate authority:

and those who were with the Commons." We think that the idea which is hinted at in this and other sentences was worthy of being worked out more completely than has been done in this volume. It might have been well if Professor Morley had shown in a more pointed way the contrast between the two parties in our great Civil War, and had only chosen his instances from men who clearly belonged both in date and sympathy extent justified by the high-flown language Professor Morley's arrangement is to some to one of those parties. In the present se-in which all the writers in the first part speak lection many poems which have no touch of the regular Cavalier spirit are placed on the side of the King. Men who died before the country was divided into two camps can hardly be assigned to either. Such as first adhered to the party of the Commons, then wrote outrageous panegyrics on Charles I., then sang in praise of Cromwell, and ended by flattering Charles II., ought, strictly speaking, to be on both sides in turn. This last arrangement would be a fitting censure on Waller. The first division might exclude Ben Jonson. It is true that, in the two pieces selected by Professor Morley, Ben Jonson praises the King. But both these pieces bear the date of 1630, and the concluding lines of the second, in which the poet It is true that he is careful to provide kings hopes that the King may cure the People's

"That prince who may do nothing but what's just

Rules but by leave, and takes his crown on trust.” If so, what is the use of his distinction between kings and tyrants ?

"Twixt kings and tyrants there's this difference known,

Kings seek their subjects good, tyrants their


Evil, savour more of the tone of Wither than with a special kind of education,


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Subjects are taught by men, kings by the gods."

of that of Herrick. If we look at Wither's" "Twixt kings and subjects there's this mighty Britain's Remembrancer, written two years earlier than these lines of Ben Jonson's, we find an equal willingness to take the King's good intentions on trust, to allow for his de- But what guarantee have the subjects that sire to do what was just and right, and to this educational process is successful, and blame the distemper of men's minds and of how are they to decide whether their ruler the time rather than the Sovereign. Yet, is a king or a tyrant, except by scrutinizing Wither is one of the three poets who in this the justice of his actions? Sir John Suckbook represent the Commons, and with Milling says that

ton and Andrew Marvell he shows himself thoroughly devoted to the cause of law and liberty. This is not the least striking part

of the contrast between those whom Professor Morley unwillingly calls Cavaliers and Puritans. Of the thirty odd writers who were on the side of the King, some were po

The King and the Commons; Cavalier and Puri tan Song. Selected and arranged by Henry Morley. London: Low, Son, and Marston. 1868.

"Kings and lovers are alike in this,

That their chief art in reign dissembling is ;" and he and his brother poets give us so many instances of dissimulation in love that the comparison is somewhat dangerous. these lovers studied. They thought that Evidently the Court was the school at which they might take any liberties because their own liberties, of another kind, were taken

from them. They might flirt and dally with | long it has prevailed in subsequent literaladies, be constant for twelve whole hours, ture. So many writers have been in a conor even three whole days, pay extravagant spiracy to vilify the Puritans and exalt those compliments, and then explain them away, whom it would be fair to nickname the because that was the principle on which the Charlatans, that it is very difficult to dissoKing acted with the Commons. This is not ciate abject hypocrisy from the one side and the tone of Lovelace, whose well-known patriotic generosity from the other. It must stanzas to Lucasta and Althæa stand out no- have been noticed already that while poets bly from the mass of frivolous sentiment; and novelists have been quick to choose nor of Montrose. But if we want to find their heroes from the ranks of the King's the true contrast to the amorous inanities of supporters, the cause of the people has been the Court circle, we must go to the popular impartially neglected when it has not been side, and read George Wither's manly po- caricatured. Scott has done much to inems. The same poet supplies us with a doctrinate English readers with Cavalier much truer ideal of royalty than the one con- sentiments, and many, no doubt, accept his tained in Herrick's lines, or in that ode of picture of Sir Henry Lee of Ditchley as the Sir Richard Fanshawe's where the King is type of fidelity, without recognizing the good praised for not only making peace, but also knight's weakness and prejudices. On the forcing his subjects to enjoy it. Even if we other side, we have little save a poem of want a worthy description of Charles's death, Macaulay's, which, stirring as it is, does not we must go to Andrew Marvell, and not to command so much favour as falls to the lot of any of the Royalist poets:the usual claptrap about the bold Cavaliers. It is natural that men who wrote a great deal about themselves should find imitators, and the frank heartiness of most of the Royalist songs cannot fail to be infectious. The stern, self-denying reticence of the Loyalists holds out no such attractions. In this collection we find much to explain the paucity of Loyalist poems. To the few who wrote, poetry was as serious as life. They did not waste their breath on love-songs and lighter dalliances. They would not even spend it on writing squibs. The result is that we have only one such piece here, from Marvell, to set against a great variety of them from the Royalists; and the loose, scattering fire of skirmishing songsters is drowned by the deep boom of Miltonic cannon, as each single piece is brought up and discharged full against the Royal standard.

"He nothing common did, or mean,
Upon that memorable scene,

But with his keener eye
The axe's edge did try;

"Nor call'd the gods with vulgar spite
To vindicate his helpless right,

But bow'd his comely head
Down, as upon a bed."

We may look in vain for any such fairness
to an opponent among the Royalist writers.
Wither's phrase of "the scornful adversa-
ries" well describes their literary warfare.
Sir John Denham's "Humble Petition of
the Poets" to the Five Members is even
more significant of this tendency than the
songs in which the Saints are ridiculed, and
the Roundheads are accused of prostituting
Church and State to the scum of the land.
For a squib the petition is too tame and
argumentative. As a mere piece of vitupera-
ion it has a distinctive value. As such,
too, it must be classed with many of the
other pieces in which the Cavaliers show
their lofty disdain for the rest of the com-
munity. It seems to have been impossible
for the King's friends to look beyond the
hypocritical noncomformists and snuffling
saints of the opposing army. Such things
as grave constitutional questions, rights,
liberties, never could occur to the gentle-
men who bragged about unsheathing their
swords in defence of the Church and the
Crown. The Five Members seemed merely
to be invading the poetic privilege of lying.
Cromwell was Oliver Brutus," and his ob-
ject to "gull the people through the nose."
Perhaps we can hardly wonder at this opin-
ion being so readily accepted by the song-
writers on the Royal side, when we see how

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The Cavaliers have certainly the advantage in lightness and gaiety. Waller's "Girdle," and his " Go, lovely Rose; " Herrick's "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may; Lovelace's "Amarantha sweet and fair; many of Suckling's poems, and some songs by less known writers, notably "When the King enjoys his own again," would suffice to recommend a book like Professor Morley's, and, if all of them were necessarily Royalist in their tendency, to explain the long popularity of the Cavaliers. A more chastened and more elevated tone breathes from the few poems of George Herbert's which Professor Morley has included in his volume. We may at first object to having the "Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright," placed in company with the trivial loves of courtiers and the snarls of political satirists. But the quiet country parsonage is not seldom the stronghold of party feeling, though there

that which is an element of discord in the busy life of the world is something calm and elevating. Still George Herbert died long before the troubles of Charles's reign had come to a head. It may be doubted whether he would have taken an active line in politics had he lived to be deprived, as Herrick was, of his vicarage. Cowley, who was the greatest and sincerest poet on the Royalist side, is poorly represented in this volume. But in this perhaps Professor Morley was wise. "Who now reads Cowley?" asked Pope, a hundred and fifty years ago. Such a collection as this is meant to be readable. It must necessarily devote itself more or less to light and pleasant verse. The Royalists are lost if once they put themselves in comparison with Milton."

From The London Review.


had none. Nor had he any tenderness, or any reverence, or religious instinct, or any power of reasoning. Leigh Hunt said Byron could never comprehend an argument; and it is obvious on the face of his writing that the remark was a true one. The late Alexander Smith asserted that Byron, when he died, was on the way to become our later Fielding. But Fielding, man of the world as he was, had nevertheless the simplicity of genius. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu used to say that if you gave him a muttonbone and a kitchen-maid, he would experience all the simple raptures of a boy closeted with a Venus at least, that is the ultimate effect of what the Lady said. And there is always something of idyllic possibility in his writings. Byron, to return to him, had no simplicity; and, partly through fastidiousness and partly through the insincerity which put an obstructing medium between him and his facts, never got the true feel of life. He always wore

Po," the "Vision of Judgment," and the two cantos translated from the Morgante Maggiore of Pulci, are certainly a splendid bequest of fum from one man, and we never tire of laughing over them, whatever we may think of their spirit.

A BEAUTIFUL Complete Byron for a shil-gloves-we speak metaphorically-of ling! This sounds rather too much like his rollicking vein. Then we must admit he some kind or other, except when he was in the Holborn eating-house keeper's placard, is infinitely amusing. "Don Juan," "Bep"A devilish good dinner for fourpence;" but really this beautifully printed volume, containing all Byron's poetry, tempts one to exclamations of some kind. Indeed, the publishers have not only presented us with all Byron's poems at that price, but, with reckless and impassioned liberality, they have given the public one poem twice over, as they will discover if they turn to the verses "To a Lady" on page 40, and the same verses (repeated with the alteration of a word or two in the last line) on page 57.

If anybody will take the pains to inquire at the cheap booksellers' shops, he will learn what many people would doubt, that there is a large, steady sale for Byron. He is a great favourite with lads at the desk and the counter; with the sort of people who think Canterbury Hall a heavenly place; and with most Irishmen. The same class of persons who admire Dr. Johnson will usually be found, unless they are very serious, to admire Byron. And, indeed, his Lordship was as much a rhetorician as a poet. A poet he was, full of energy, action, and animal spirits, and with a splendid mastery of rhyme. Yet even his verse is frequently harsh as well as turgid; and never, except in his bursts of animal spirits and fun, impresses us with the remotest sense of the writer's truthfulness. Simplicity he

The Poetical Works of Lord Byron. Reprinted from the Original Editions. With Explanatory Notes, &c. (Chandos Classics.) London: F. Warne & Co.

Perhaps we may interest some readers by referring to a few of the less known facts of Byron's life. Most people believe he had one club foot. But Mr. Trelawney has carried our knowledge upon that melancholy subject a good deal further. When Fletcher sent for him to see his master's the room to fetch a glass of water, and in corpse, Mr. Trelawney asked him to leave his absence lifted the covering. Both the feet were clubbed, and both legs withered to the knee: a pitiable sight indeed!

reader knows little, is the valuable influence
Another point upon which the general
of the poet Shelley upon Byron, both as a
man and as a poet. This is a subject for a
book rather than a review, but the fact is,
that while Shelley, like the little boy he al-
Lord Byron's creations (and his letters
ways was, was wrapped in simple wonder at
abound in expressions of almost abject won-
der and homage), Lord Byron was sucking
Shelley's brains, and deriving from him those
suggestions which gave their peculiar colour
to some of his later poems.
66 "Heaven and
Earth" would have been a very different
poem but for Shelley, if it had ever been
written at all.

Few of Byron's admirers have any idea

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