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given to man, being the divine life of Christianity, and reasoning downwards from Christ our Lord. “This is the record, that it to the facts of Christendom, it would be God has given to us eternal life, and this well to begin by ascertaining the actual life is in his Son." Yet it must be con- phenomena, and then ascend afterwards to fessed that the evidence of the supernatural the religious system which undertook to is hard to give. No amount of facts in the explain and account for those phenomena. world of nature will ever prove the exist- With singular force and eloquence the ence of a world or a life above nature. preacher invited his hearers to consider
“ Between the man who believes only with him the manifestations in the history what he sees, and the man who believes in of Christendom of a noble and beautiful order that he may see, there is a necessary life which could not be accounted for withand endless opposition; they are exactly in out a new hypothesis of some kind. He the position of two men, one of whom is recounted the deeds of heroism and self-saclooking at a picture from a right point of rifice which had been done in the name of view, and sees the whole beauty of the Christ, and said that there was visible to design; and the other of whom is closely all who looked for it a kind of life “ that examining it piecemeal through a powerful lifts itself above mere morality, respectalens. Both, testify to what they see, but bility, and decency; a life that is saintly one sees more than the other, and the only and beautiful, which is ever ready to give answer he can make is, Stand where I itself for others, which is ever contending stand, and you will see what I see.' It is with the evil and misery there are in the impossible and in vain to dream of a recon- world; a life which sends the pastor to the ciliation of the belief in the supernatural outcast and the ignorant, which spends itwith the belief only in the natural. There self in efforts to reclaim the wanderer and must come a point when the man who to reform the criminal,” and which had walks by faith must part company with the originated all the greatest agencies for the man who walks, and is resolved to walk, amelioration of our race. And if a still only by sight. Is it not a great matter closer inquiry was made into the motives that they should reach that point in com- and purposes of Christian men, it would be pany, that they should not part before they found that they all professed to have a hidhave reached it? Is it not a great matter den life of joy and solace and hope which that the man of faith should bring with him was more beautiful than any which they the man of science to the very verge of the could reveal. * Take up the biographies supernatural, showing him all he can see of men who in their day had belonged to before he asks him to believe what he can- the most opposite and contending sects, not see? Now, have religious men, as a and who would scarcely have owned onc rule, done this? Too often they have done another to be Christians. Read the recexactly the opposite. They set forth the ords of their secret thoughts and feelings, claims of Christianity in this wise : uttering themselves in their prayers, their * Eighteen hundred years ago there lived a hymns, their journals of religious experiman in Nazareth, who came down from ence. Blow away from their books the heaven, and claimed to be the Son of God, dust of the old bitter controversies, by and proved His claim by miracles ; believe which these men were kept apart, and it, and ye shall be rewarded with salvation; what do you find? You find living souls believe it not, and ye shall be punished that wept, sorrowed, joyed, hoped, and with damnation. Whether this was right- prayed alike; men who speak of the realily or wrongly put, the result of such a ties of a hidden life, of the sin they hated, statement was that the men of science of the temptations they struggled against, started aside from it at once, and rejected of a life and spirit in them which enabled the belief in the supernatural all the more them to conquer, and of the hope that susresolutely, because an attempt was thus tained them. So much bad they been animade to enforce it by penalties.”
mated by the same spirit, that however diThe Dean proceeded to say that there vided they might have been in creed, it was another way of enforcing the claims of was clear that they might have sung one Christianity, far more efficacious and more another's hymns and prayed one another's consonant to the legitimate demands of prayers. And the explanation which they science. The inductive method of investi- would each have given of these phenomena gation was confessedly the fairest in regard would have been substantially the same. to all forins of physical life; it would also This life is not ours, there was a tiine when be the truest in regard to the Christian we were dead; this life is in us, but not of life. Instead of beginning with a theory, us; it comes from another, it is the life of historical or dogmatic, about the origin of our Lord Jesus Christ. He died for us;
we believe in Him, and believing in Him, power which influences them, and the actwe find his life and spirit in us; as we trust ing of which they feel and see, we make in Him, the life grows stronger; when we our appeal; we ask you to listen to us, as forget Him it grows weaker; we can do all we say, Behold, we show you another things through Christ, for He is our life.” mystery, the mystery of a hidden life.'" There, he continued, were phenomena in And, he proceeded to urge, so long as the the history of the world which the student Christian life yields fruits of holiness, of of human life could not disregard. They nobleness, and of beauty, so long its origin required some explanation, there was, and history will be deserving of the study somewhere, a theory to account for them. of every man of science. But if ChristianHe could not now ask them to go into the ity ever ceased to purify and ennoble the evidence of Christianity, but he invited lives of men, it would die out as a creed, them to consider whether, with these facts and ought to die. Its Founder had combefore them, the supernatural theory which pared His disciples to the salt of the earth, Christianity set up appeared quite so im- but if the salt have lost his savour probable as it had seemed a priori ; and it must be cast out and trodden under foot whether it would be philosophical to reject of men.” There was no dead thing more without further examination an exceptional odious and pestilential, as it lay reeking on explanation for phenomena so hard to ac- the earth, than the corpse of a dead relicount for on any natural theory. They gion, one which had ceased to operate on had been considering the outward mani- the consciences and behaviour of its profesfestations of a life ; and what was a life? sors. It was yet in the power of Christian He asked the man most profoundly versed men to vindicate the truth of their faith, if in science there present to define for him not in controversy with the modern forms what was that mysterious and hidden force of scientific belief, at least by consistent for which he was searching day by day into and holy Christian life. They might pathe recesses of beings that live, or that tiently wait for that reconciliation between have lived, and which still eludes his search? science and religion which men were lookWhat was the mysterious power which ing for; when science and philosophy, on makes of the inanimate the animate? The the one hand, should help religion to a men of faith had to tell of the life of man's truer expression of its own beliefs; and respirit; should it surprise us to be told that sligion, on the other hand, should give this life is more mysterious than the life clearer evidences of its history and creeds. that the men of science seek vainly to dis- But one thing they could not afford to wait cover of the body? Was it so very strange for,- the Christian life itself, as revealed a thing that they who already believe in an in daily acts of self-sacrifice and holiness, invisible influence in the realms of science Christian men must take care that at least should be asked to go one step further, and no one should be able to challenge them for believe the invisible in the realms of faith ? proofs of the reality of this life, and to say They might not be entitled to say, “ Be- that there was no answer to the challenge. lieve the Christian theory;
It is very difficult to give in this brief might be justified in claiming for it a re- summary a fair representation of an arguspectful and patient hearing.
ment which was as remarkable for close se" The men of faith make their earnest quence and for concentration as for the appeal to the men of science for help, and richness and variety of its illustrations. for help which they can, give. From the Still more difficult would it be to describe babbler, from the shallow smatterer in science the profound emotion and interest which and theology who prattles about the super- was kindled and sustained by the preacher natural and the natural, and who refuses during a pulpit address of far more than the to believe in the mystery of religion, from average length. But we bope that the him, to the real high priests of science, to Dean of Cork will be induced to publish a the men who have reached the innermost full and accurate report of his sermon, and shrine in her temple, and stand there rever- that in this way he may address a yet wider ently with bowed heads before the veil and more influential audience than that which they acknowledge they cannot lift, which listened to his voice on Association but beyond which they confess there is a Sunday in Norwich.
litical in their actions but not in their writings, others in their writings but not in their actions. Some maintained the King's cause from the point of view of divine right, and would have maintained the same cause if Charles had been a Caligula or a Nero. Some were mere soldiers and gentlemen, who from a sort of instinct of culture. But the fought to keep down the populace, and wrote The true division ex-three who were on the side of the people wrote and what they did. We can underwere sternly in earnest, both in what they stand Professor Morley's objection to the name "Puritan as contrasted with "Cavalier; " for the first is used as an offensive nickname, while the second is meant as a title of honour. It is for this reason that we have given the contrast a new wording at the head of this article, and have shown personal fidelity to a King in competition with fidelity to the law.
time. pressed by the chief title of the volume is between the men who upon the great principles then in debate were with the King, and those who were with the Commons." We think that the idea which is hinted at in this and other sentences was worthy of being worked out more completely than has been done in this volume. It might have been well if Professor Morley had shown in a more pointed way the contrast between the two parties in our great Civil War, and had only chosen his instances from men who clearly belonged both in date and sympathy to one of those parties. In the present selection many poems which have no touch of the regular Cavalier spirit are placed on the side of the King. Men who died before the country was divided into two camps can hardly be assigned to either. Such as first adhered to the party of the Commons, then wrote outrageous panegyrics on Charles I., then sang in praise of Cromwell, and ended by flattering Charles II., ought, strictly speaking, to be on both sides in turn. This last arrangement would be a fitting censure on Waller. The first division might exclude Ben Jonson. It is true that, in the two pieces selected by Professor Morley, Ben Jonson praises the King. But both these pieces bear the date of 1630, and the concluding lines of the second, in which the poet It is true that he is careful to provide kings hopes that the King may cure the People's Evil, savour more of the tone of Wither than with a special kind of education,
odds, Subjects are taught by men, kings by the gods." But what guarantee have the subjects that this educational process is successful, and
of that of Herrick. If we look at Wither's" "Twixt kings and subjects there's this mighty Britain's Remembrancer, written two years earlier than these lines of Ben Jonson's, we find an equal willingness to take the King's good intentions on trust, to allow for his desire to do what was just and right, and to blame the distemper of men's minds and of how are they to decide whether their ruler the time rather than the Sovereign. Yet, is a king or a tyrant, except by scrutinizing Wither is one of the three poets who in this the justice of his actions? Sir John Suckbook represent the Commons, and with Milling says that ton and Andrew Marvell he shows himself thoroughly devoted to the cause of law and liberty. This is not the least striking part of the contrast between those whom Professor Morley unwillingly calls Cavaliers and Puritans. Of the thirty odd writers who were on the side of the King, some were po
From The Spectator. POEMS BY ROYALISTS AND LOYALISTS.
THE object of this collection, according to Professor Morley's introduction, is to blend the voices of true poets who lived in the time of Charles I. and the Commonwealth into a genuine expression of the manner of their music and the spirit of their
Professor Morley's arrangement is to some extent justified by the high-flown language in which all the writers in the first part speak of royalty. What Herrick says about kings is typical of the Cavalier spirit; for instance, his lines headed "A King and no King" strike at the root of all legitimate authority: "That prince who may do nothing but what's just
Rules but by leave, and takes his crown on trust.” If so, what is the use of his distinction between kings and tyrants?
"Twixt kings and tyrants there's this difference known,
Kings seek their subjects good, tyrants their
The King and the Commons; Cavalier and Purt
tan Song. Selected and arranged by Henry Morley. London: Low, Son, and Marston. 1868.
66 Kings and lovers are alike in this,
That their chief art in reign dissembling is;" and he and his brother poets give us so many instances of dissimulation in love that Evidently the Court was the school at which the comparison is somewhat dangerous. these lovers studied. They thought that they might take any liberties because their own liberties, of another kind, were taken
from them. They might flirt and dally with long it has prevailed in subsequent literaladies, be constant for twelve whole hours, ture. So many writers have been in a conor even three whole days, pay extravagant spiracy to vilify the Puritans and exalt those compliments, and then explain them away, whom it would be fair to nickname the because that was the principle on which the Charlatans, that it is very difficult to dissoKing acted with the Commons. This is not ciate abject hypocrisy from the one side and the tone of Lovelace, whose well-known patriotic generosity from the other. It must stanzas to Lucasta and Althæa stand out no- have been noticed already that while poets bly from the mass of frivolous sentiment; and novelists have been quick to choose nor of Montrose. But if we want to find their heroes from the ranks of the King's the true contrast to the amorous inanities of supporters, the cause of the people has been the Court circle, we must go to the popular impartially neglected when it has not been side, and read George Wither's manly po- caricatured. Scott has done much to in
The same poet supplies us with a doctrinate English readers with Cavalier much truer ideal of royalty than the one con- sentiments, and many, no doubt, accept his tained in Herrick's lines, or in that ode of picture of Sir Henry Lee of Ditchley as the Sir Richard Fanshawe's where the King is type of fidelity, without recognizing the good praised for not only making peace, but also knight's weakness and prejudices. On the forcing his subjects to enjoy it. Even if we other side, we have little save a poem of want a worthy description of Charles's death, Macaulay's, which, stirring as it is, does not we must go to Andrew Marvell, and not to command so much favour as falls to the lot of any of the Royalist poets:
the usual claptrap about the bold Cavaliers. “ He nothing common did, or mean,
It is natural that men who wrote a great Upon that memorable scene,
deal about themselves should find imitators, But with his keener eye
and the frank heartiness of most of the RoyThe axe's edge did try ;
alist songs cannot fail to be infectious. The
stern, self-denying reticence of the Loval“ Nor call’d the gods with vulgar spito ists holds out no such attractions. In this To vindicate his helpless right,
collection we find much to explain the pauBut bow'd his comely head Down, as upon a bed.”
city of Loyalist poems. To the few who
wrote, poetry was as serious as life. They We may look in vain for any such fairness did not waste their breath on love-songs and to an opponent among the Royalist writers. lighter dalliances. They would not Wither's phrase of the scornful adversa- spend it on writing squids. The result is ries” well describes their literary warfare. that we have only one such piece bere, from Sir John Denham's “ Humble Petition of Marvell, to set against a great variety of them the Poets” to the Five Members is even from the Royalists; and the loose, scatter, more significant of this tendency than the ing fire of skirmishing songsters is drowned songs in which the Saints are ridiculed, and by the deep boom of Miltonic cannon, as the Roundheads are accused of prostituting each single piece is brought up and disChurch and State to the scum of the land. charged full against the Royal standard. For a squib the petition is too tame and The Cavaliers have certainly the advanargumentative. As a mere piece of vitupera- tage in lightness and gaiety. Waller's “Girion it has a distin value. As such, dle," and bis“ Go, lovely Rose;" Hertoo, it must be classed with many of the rick's “Gather ye rosebuds while ye may; other pieces in which the Cavaliers show Lovelace's “ Amarantba sweet and fair; their lofty disdain for the rest of the com- many of Suckling's poems, and some songs munity. It seems to have been impossible by less known writers, notably “When the for the King's friends to look beyond the King enjoys his own again,” would suthice to hypocritical noncomformists and 'snuffling recommend a book like Professor Morley's, saints of the opposing army. Such things and, if all of them were necessarily Royalas grave constitutional questions, rights, ist in their tendency, to explain the long liberties, never could occur to the gentle- popularity of the Cavaliers. A more chastmen who bragged about unsheathing their ened and more elevated tone breathes from swords in defence of the Church and the the few poems of George Herbert's which Crown. The Five Members seemed merely Professor Morley has included in his volume. to be invading the poetic privilege of lying. We may at first object to having the “* Sweet Cromwell was Oliver Brutus," and his ob- day, so cool, so calm, so bright," placed in ject to “gull the people through the nose.” company with the trivial loves of courtiers Perhaps we can hardly wonder at this opin- and 'the snarls of political satirists. But ion being so readily accepted by the song- the quiet country parsonage is not seldom writers on the Royal side, when we see how the stronghold of party feeling, though there
es - we
that which is an element of discord in the had none. Nor had he any tenderness, or busy life of the world is something calm and any reverence, or religious instinct, or any elevating. Still George Herbert died long power of reasoning. Leigh Hunt said Bybefore the troubles of Charles's reign had ron could never comprehend an argument; come to a head. It may be doubted whether and it is obvious on the face of his writing
The late he would have taken an active line in poli- that the remark was a true one. tics had he lived to be deprived, as Herrick Alexander Smith asserted that Byron, when was, of his vicarage. Cowley, who was the he died, was on the way to become our later greatest and sincerest poet on the Royalist Fielding. But Fielding, man of the world side, is poorly represented in this volume. as he was, had nevertheless the simplicity But in this perhaps Professor Morley was of genius. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu wise. “Who now reads Cowley?" asked used to say that if you gave him a muttonPope, a hundred and fifty years ago. Such bone and a kitchen-maid, he would experia collection as this is meant to be readable. ence all the simple raptures of a boy closIt must necessarily devote itself more or eted with a Venus — at least, that 'is the less to light and pleasant verse. The Roy- ultimate effect of what the Lady said. And alists are lost if once they put themselves in there is always something of idyllic possicomparison with Milton.
bility in his writings. Byron, to return to him, had no simplicity; and, partly through fastidiousness and partly through the in
sincerity which put an obstructing meFrom The London Review.
dium between him and his facts, never A VIEW OF LORD BYROX.* got the true feel of life. He always wore
gloves A BEAUTIFUL complete Byron for a shil
speak metaphorically — of ling! This sounds rather too much like his rollicking vein. Then we must admit he
some kind or other, except when he was in the Holborn eating-house keeper's placard, is infinitely amusing, Don Juan,” “Bep“A devilish good dinner for fourpence;" but really this beautifully printed volume, two cantos translated from the Morgante
Vision of Judgment,” and the containing all Byron's poetry, tempts one to exclamations of some kind.
Maggiore of Pulci, are certainly a splendid
Indeed, the publishers have not only presented us tire of laughing over them, whatever we
bequest of fim from one man, and we never with all Byron's poems at that price, but, with reckless and impassioned liberality, may think of their spirit. they have given the public one poem
Perhaps we may interest some readers
twice over, as they will discover if they turn to facts of Byron's life. Most people believe
by referring to a few of the less known the verses • To a Lady” on page 40, and he had one club foot. But Mr. Trelawney the same verses (repeated with the altera- has carried our knowledge upon that meltion of a word or two in the last line) on
ancholy subject a good deal further. When page 57.
Fletcher sent for him to see his master's If anybody will take the pains to inquire at the cheap booksellers' shops, he will the room to fetch a glass of water, and in
corpse, Mr. Trelawney asked him to leave learn what many people would doubt, that his absence lifted the covering. Both the there is a large, steady sale for Byron. feet were clubbed, and both legs withered He is a great favourite with lads at the desk
to the knee: a pitiable siglt indeed! and the counter; with the sort of people who think Canterbury Hall a heavenly place; reader knows little, is the valuable influenco
Another point upon which the general and with most Irishmen. The same class of the poet Shelley upon Byron, both as a of persons who admire Dr. Johnson will usually be found, unless they are very se- book rather than a review, but the fact is,
man and as a poet. This is a subject for a rious, to admire Byron. Ard, indeed, that while Shelley, like the little boy he alhis Lordship was as much a rhetorician as a poet. A poet he was, full of energy, ac- Lord Byron's creations (and his letters
ways was, was wrapped in simple wonder at tion, and animal spirits, and with a splen- abound in expressions of almost abject wondid mastery of rhyme. Yet even his verse der and homage), Lord Byron was sucking is frequently harsh as well as turgid; and Shelley's brains, and deriving from him those never, except in his bursts of animal spirits suggestions which gave their peculiar colour and fun, impresses us with the remotest sense
to some of his later poems.
* Heaven and of the writer's truthfulness. Simplicity he
Earth would have been a very different * The Poetical Works of Lord Byron. Reprinted poem but for Shelley, if it had ever been from the Original Editions. With Explanatory written at all. Notes, &c. (Chandos Classics.) London: F. Warne
Few of Byron's admirers have any idea