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year 1862.

naked eye.

placed the matter beyond a doubt. M. to take part in the search for asteroids. It Goldschmidt had accidentally discovered a requires some knowledge of astronomy, and new asteroid.

especially some practical acquaintance with The reader may wish to know whether the details of observatory work, to appreDaphne was ever re-discovered. For sev- ciate the intensity of application, the anxeral years it baffled the skill of astronomers, ious watching, which are required before and remained obstinately hidden. At one of these minute bodies can be detected. length, however, Dr. Luther detected it in Inexperienced persons are often disposed to the

imagine that the discovery of a new celesEqually singular were the circumstances tial object is no great feat. They point to attending the discovery of the planet Erato. the circumstance that it was merely by an MM. Forster and Lesser, of the Berlin accident that Sir W. Herschel detected Observatory, having received intelligence Uranus, and they add that such an accident of the discovery of the planet Olympia, ought not to lead us to attach any particular made a series of observations on a planet value to an astronomer's work. Perhaps no which they found in the place indicated. instance could better serve to illustrate the When these observations were published, magnitude of the labours which ordinarily and compared with those made by other ob- lead up to accidents of this sort. Before servers, à reinarkable discrepancy was ob- he detected Uranus, Sir W. Herschel had served. On a careful revision of their ob- scrutinized every square degree of the servations, MM. Forster and Lesser came to northern heavens, discovering upwards of the conclusion that they had been uncon- two thousand new nebulæ, and counting, sciously following the wrong planet; in star by star, twenty times as many orbs as other words, they had detected a new as- are visible, on the clearest night, to the teroid.

Something similar happened in the case Every asteroid that has been discovered of the planet Feronia. On May 9, 11, and may be looked upon as representing weeks 12, 1861, Dr. Peters made observations on and months of harassing labour. And, the planet Maia, which he had discovered therefore, we cannot refuse to assign great a month before. After the 12th, clouds credit to those who have been successful in and moonlight interfered for awhile with adding to the list of minor planets. It his observations. On the 29th of May, would perhaps be invidious to draw a dishowever, he resumed his labours, and con-tinction — nor, indeed, is it very easy to do tinued to track the planet Maia, as he sup- so. The circumstances under which differposed, for several days. But towards the ent astronomers have laboured are so variend of the year, Mr. Safford, of the Cam- ous, that the mere number of planets disbridge (U.Š.) Observatory, in comparing covered by each hardly affords satisfactory his own observations of Maia with those of evidence of the amount of work which each Dr. Peters, found that all the latter, after has applied to the search. The astronomer May 29th, were discordant with his own. who has actually discovered most of the On a further examination of Peters’ later minor planets is Dr. Luther, who is credited observations, it turned out that he had got with no less than fifteen. Next comes Goldon the track of a new planet.

schmidt with fourteen; then Hind with ten; It has happened once, and once only, that De Gasparis with nine — and so on. the same observer bas detected two planets But the palm for energy and determinaon the same night. On the 19th September, tion in the search for asteroids would doubt1857, M. Goldschmidt discovered the planet less be accorded, as readily by Dr. Luther Doris. As soon as he had convinced him-as by the other astronomers, to the late self of its planetary nature, he turned his M. Goldschmidt. The fourteen asteroids attention to a star which he had noticed discovered by the latter were all detected earlier in the evening. He found the star within a period of 85 years, whereas 145 had moved away from its place, and search- years were occupied by Dr. Luther in the ing for it, quickly detected the planet Pales. detection of fifteen asteroids. But this is The two planets at the time of discovery not all. Goldschmidt worked with instruwere separated by a distance equal to about ments which most astronomers, and even one tenth part of the moon's apparent di- many amateur observers would regard with ameter.

contempt. Instead of the magnificent reIn the week which began on September fractors of 7, 8, 10, or even 12 inches aper14, 1860, no less than four minor planets ture, which other observers made use of, be were discovered.

used telescopes of 2, 23, and 4 inches aperThe honour of adding a new world to the ture. Nor were these mounted in the proplanetary scheme has led many astronomers per manner for observatory-work. The Rev. R. Main, of the Radcliffe Observatory | the supposition that internal forces should at Oxford, remarks that “ none of M. Gold- bave produced the effects imagined by Olschmidt's telescopes were mounted equato- bers. There is nothing in the analogy of rially, but that in the greater number of in- our own earth to warrant the supposition stances they were pointed out of a window, that such a catastrophe is possible. Widewhich did not command the whole of the spread as the destructive effects of volcasky;” and he adds, that he leaves astrono- noes and earthquakes may appear to the mers to form their own opinion “ of that inhabitants of the disturbed districts, they fertility of invention and resource, that are in reality of insignificant extent when steady determination to conquer apparently viewed in relation to the magnitude of the insurmountable difficulties, the untiring in- terrestrial globe. The lofty Himalayas, dustry, and the never-failing zeal, which which may be looked upon as the most girealised such splendid results with such in- gantic known results of subterranean forces, adequate means."

are so minute in comparison with the earth's The search for minor planets grows daily volume, that they would be scarcely percepmore difficult, and nothing but the 'steady tible if figured on the true scale upon a siximprovement in the construction of tele- feet globe. But we have the clearest eviscopes, and the equally steady increase in dence that these mountains, and all the the number of skilled observers, enables large mountain-ranges of the earth, have astronomy to record year after year the dis- been due - not to the sudden action of covery of several of these minute bodies. subterranean forces, but to a process of upThe four planets first discovered had an heaval occupying thousands of years. To average brilliancy exceeding that of an conceive, therefore, that forces have existed eighth magnitude star, while the average within another planet, sufficient to scatter brilliancy of the ten last discovered falls its mass into fragments and to propel these short of that of a star of the eleventh mag-forth upon independent orbits, may suit the nitude. In fact, the majority of the aste- fanciful theorizer, intent only on finding a roids recently discovered are altogether in- ready solution for a perplexing phenomvisible, even at their brightest, in all tele-enon — but certainly such a speculation rescopes of less than four inches aperture. quires much stronger evidence than has yet Thus the days have passed when amateur been forthcoming before more sober reasonobservers might hope to take part, with ers can feel themselves justified in acceptsmall telescopes, in the search for minoring it. planets.

In conclusion, we must remark that modern astronomers do not attach much value

From The Bremen Weser Zeitung, 23 May, 1868. to Olbers' tlieory, that the asteroids are

THE APOLLO BELVEDERE IN A NEW fragments of a shattered planet. If we grant the possibility that a planet might be rent into fragments by some great internal “The statue of Apollo is the highest artconvulsion, or else by collision with some ideal among all the works of antiquity that visitant from the interstellar spaces, we have escaped destruction.” With these seem still to find a difficulty in accepting words Winckelmann introduced his spirited Olbers' theory. For the careful investiga- description of the Vatican Apollo, a detion made by Mr. Newcomb, an American scription which he desired to lay at the feet astronomer, 'into the motions of the aste- of the statue, “ like the wreaths of those roids, appears to negative the supposition who could not reach the head of the divinithat these bodies could ever have had or- ties they would have crowned.” At the bits intersecting in one point- - as would time Winckelmann thus wrote, the sculphave been the case for some time after the ture of the epoch of Phidias, destined to supposed catastrophe. But in reality the work so substantial a change in the notion great objection to Olbers' theory lies in the of the state of Greek art, was not yet nature of the catastrophe itself, not in any known; and what he said of his favorite of its consequences. mass large statue was the common judgment of his own enough to smash a planet into fragments and of previous times. Since then opinion had ever visited the planetary system, it as to the artistic merit of the Vatican Apollo would have disturbed (by its overpowering has assumed quite a different aspect, and attraction) the whole economy of that sys- from being excessive in praise has of late tem; and there should no longer have ex- become often too severe in fault-finding; isted those orderly motions and symmetrical yet in spite of a multitude of criticisms, in relations which we now admire. On the spite of the obscurity of the motif repreother hand, there is immense difficulty in 1 sented, the traditional preference for the

LIGHT.

If a

naked eye.

placed the matter beyond a doubt. M. to take part in the search for asteroids. It Goldschmidt had accidentally discovered a requires some knowledge of astronomy, and new asteroid.

especially some practical acquaintance with The reader may wish to know whether the details of observatory work, to appreDaphne was ever re-discovered. For sev- ciate the intensity of application, the anxcral years it baffled the skill of astronomers, ious watching, which are required before and remained obstinately hidden. At one of these minute bodies can be detected. length, however, Dr. Luther detected it in Inexperienced persons are often disposed to the year 1862.

imagine that the discovery of a new celesEqually singular were the circumstances tial object is no great feat. They point to attending the discovery of the planet Erato. the circumstance that it was merely by an MM. Forster and Lesser, of the Berlin accident that Sir W. Herschel detected Observatory, having received intelligence Uranus, and they add that such an accident of the discovery of the planet Olympia, ought not to lead us to attach any particular made a series of observations on a planet value to an astronomer's work. Perhaps no which they found in the place indicated. instance could better serve to illustrate the When these observations were published, magnitude of the labours which ordinarily and compared with those made by other ob- lead up to accidents of this sort. Before servers, a remarkable discrepancy was ob- he detected Uranus, Sir W. Herschel had served. On a careful revision of their ob- scrutinized every square degree of the servations, MM. Forster and Lesser came to northern heavens, discovering upwards of the conclusion that they had been uncon- two thousand new nebulæ, and counting, sciously following the wrong planet; in star by star, twenty times as many orbs as other words, they had detected a new as- are visible, on the clearest night, to the teroid.

Something similar happened in the case Every asteroid that has been discovered of the planet Feronia. On May 9, 11, and may be looked upon as representing weeks 12, 1861, Dr. Peters made observations on and months of harassing labour. And, the planet Maia, which he had discovered therefore, we cannot refuse to assign great a month before. After the 12th, clouds credit to those who have been successful in and moonlight interfered for awhile with adding to the list of minor planets. It his observations. On the 29th of May, would perhaps be invidious to draw a dishowever, he resumed his labours, and con- tinction - nor, indeed, is it very easy to do tinued to track the planet Maia, as he sup- so. The circumstances under which differposed, for several days. But towards the ent astronomers have laboured are so variend of the year, Mr. Safford, of the Cam- ous, that the mere number of planets disbridge (U.Š.) Observatory, in comparing covered by each hardly affords satisfactory his own observations of Maia with those of evidence of the amount of work which each Dr. Peters, found that all the latter, after has applied to the search. The astronomer May 29th, were discordant with his own. who has actually discovered most of the On' a further examination of Peters' later minor planets is Dr. Luther, who is credited observations, it turned out that he had got with no less than fifteen. Next comes Goldon the track of a new planet.

schmidt with fourteen ; then Hind with ten; It has happened once, and once only, that De Gasparis with nine — and so on. the same observer has detected two planets But the palm for energy and determinaon the same night. On the 19th September, tion in the search for asteroids would doubt1857, M. Goldschmidt discovered the planet less be accorded, as readily by Dr. Luther Doris. As soon as he had convinced him- as by the other astronomers, to the late self of its planetary nature, he turned his M. Goldschmidt. The fourteen asteroids attention to a star which he had noticed discovered by the latter were all detected earlier in the evening. He found the star within a period ef 85 years, whereas 145 had moved away from its place, and search- years were occupied by Dr. Luther in the ing for it, quickly detected the planet Pales. detection of fifteen asteroids. But this is The two planets at the time of discovery not all. Goldschmidt worked with instruwere separated by a distance equal to about ments which most astronomers, and even one tenth part of the moon's apparent di- many amateur observers would regard with ameter.

contempt. Instead of the magnificent reIn the week which began on September fractors of 7, 8, 10, or even 12 inches aper14, 1860, no less than four minor planets ture, which other observers made use of, be were discovered.

used telescopes of 2, 23, and 4 inches aperThe honour of adding a new world to the ture. Nor were these mounted in the proplanetary scheme has led many astronomers per manner for observatory-work. The Rev. R. Main, of the Radcliffe Observatory the supposition that internal forces should at Oxford, remarks that “ none of M. Gold- bave produced the effects imagined by Olschmidt's telescopes were mounted equato- bers. There is nothing in the analogy of rially, but that in the greater number of in- our own earth to warrant the supposition stances they were pointed out of a window, that such a catastrophe is possible. Widewhich did not command the whole of the spread as the destructive effects of volcasky;" and he adds, that he leaves astrono- noes and earthquakes may appear to the mers to form their own opinion “ of that inhabitants of the disturbed districts, they fertility of invention and resource, that are in reality of insignificant extent when steady determination to conquer apparently viewed in relation to the magnitude of the insurmountable difficulties, the untiring in- terrestrial globe. The lofty Himalayas, dustry, and the never-failing zeal, which which may be looked upon as the most girealised such splendid results with such in- gantic known results of subterranean forces, adequate means."

are so minute in comparison with the earth's The search for minor planets grows daily volume, that they would be scarcely percepmore difficult, and nothing but the steady tible if figured on the true scale upon a siximprovement in the construction of tele- feet globe. But we have the clearest eviscopes, and the equally steady increase in dence that these mountains, and all the the number of skilled observers, enables large mountain-ranges of the earth, have astronomy to record year after year the dis- been due not to the sudden action of covery of several of these minute bodies. subterranean forces, but to a process of upThe four planets first discovered had an heaval occupying thousands of years. To average brilliancy exceeding that of an conceive, therefore, that forces have existed eighth magnitude star, while the average within another planet, sufficient to scatter brilliancy of the ten last discovered falls its mass into fragments and to propel these short of that of a star of the eleventh mag- forth upon independent orbits, may suit the nitude. In fact, the majority of the aste- fanciful theorizer, intent only on finding a roids recently discovered are altogether in- ready solution for a perplexing phenomvisible, even at their brightest, in all tele- enon - but certainly such a speculation rescopes of less than four inches aperture. quires much stronger evidence than has yet Thus the days have passed when amateur been forthcoming before more sober reasonobservers might hope to take part, with ers can feel themselves justified in acceptsmall telescopes, in the search for minoring it. planets.

In conclusion, we must remark that modern astronomers do not attach much value

From The Bremen Weser Zeitung, 23 May, 1868. to Olbers' treory, that the asteroids are fragments of a shattered planet. If we

THE APOLLO BELVEDERE IN A NEW grant the possibility that a planet might be rent into fragments by some great internal "The statue of Apollo is the highest artconvulsion, or else by collision with some ideal among all the works of antiquity that visitant from the interstellar spaces, we have escaped destruction.” With these sem still to find a difficulty in accepting words Winckelmann introduced his spirited Olbers' theory. For the careful investiga- description of the Vatican Apollo, a detion made by Mr. Newcomb, an American scription which he desired to lay at the feet astronomer, into the motions of the aste- of the statue, “ like the wreaths of those roids, appears to negative the supposition who could not reach the head of the divinithat these bodies could ever have had or- ties they would have crowned.” At the bits interserting in one point — as would time Winckelmann thus wrote, the sculphave been the case for some time after the ture of the epoch of Phidias, destined to supposed catastrophe. But in reality the work so substantial a change in the notion teat objection to Olbers' theory lies in the of the state of Greek art, was not yet nature of the catastrophe itself, not in any known; and what he said of his favorite of its consequences.

mass large statue was the common judgment of his own enough to smash a planet into fragments and of previous times. Since then opinion had ever visited the planetary system, it as to the artistic merit of the Vatican Åpollo would have disturbed (by its overpowering has assumed quite a different aspect, and attrartion) the whole economy of that sys- from being excessive in praise has of late tetn; and there should no longer have ex- become often too severe in fault-finding; isted those orderly motions and symmetrical yet in spite of a multitude of criticisms, in relations which we now admire. On the spite of the obscurity of the motif repreosher hand, there is immense difficulty in sented, the traditional preference for the

LIGHT.

If a

Vatican statue has maintained itself. If on | statue, and could not be dispelled, till the account of its numerous defects it could no beginning of the present decade, by means longer be esteemed a work of the highest of a statue which then became known. order, all the more jealously were its excel- Of course all who have sought to explain lences vindicated; amateurs, artists, and the action of Apollo as here exhibited the learned in art found it an inextinguish- have proceeded on the presumption that he able source of enjoyment as well as occa- held a bow in his left hand; the majority sion for the most serious study, and it may thinking that the moment immediately sucbe affirmed that to-day the Apollo Belve- ceeding the discharge of the arrow was repdere is still the best known work of ancient resented; Anselm Feuerbach alone endeavstatuary. The current decade has brought oring to prove that the god was only on the revelations which have fully insured the un- point of shooting, or at least had the air of derstanding of the motif represented, and just meaning to let fly. The mark was materially advanced the question as to the supposed to be the dragon Pytho, or the originality of the statue, and its place in children of Niobe, or the Eumenides, who, the development of art. It may therefore in the pursuit of Orestes, had intruded upon be appropriate to set forth, briefly and in the sanctuary of the god. But all these atconnection, these revelations, and the re-tempts at explanation could not stand besults deduced from them by archæologic fore an unprejudiced criticism of the statue science.

and of the attitude bestowed upon it by the The Apollo was found in the neighbor-artist. The god's gaze is turned in one dihood of the harbor of Porto d'Anzo, the an- rection, his steps in another — a want of cient Antium. Antium, situated in a charm- unity in the treatment for which no satising region on the coast of Latium, was, in factory hypothesis could be framed from the the last days of the Republic, a favorite re- former interpretations. Moreover the god sort of the Roman nobility, and later of the is represented at a moment when of a sudfirst emperors ; flourishing at its height un- den he checks a motion which was evidently der Nero, who, like Caligula, born here, re- rapid and continuous, as shown by the stored the harbor and embellished the place backward-bent body and the vertical fall of with palaces and sumptuous villas. The the mantle. He has not reached the quiet coincidence of many circumstances hag made position necessary for shooting, and if he it highly probable that the Apollo was for- would prepare for it, at least the right hand merly used to adorn a villa of Nero's, per- must make a movement towards the bow, haps not without reference to that emperor, or show traces of an arrow in the same who loved to compare himself to the Pyth- plane with it, neither of which is the case. ian god, and to be portrayed in his image. On the other hand it cannot be assumed The statue was secured by Cardinal Julius that Apollo has already discharged the de Medici and carried to the Palazzo Colon- arrow; for when could that have happened ? na, but afterwards, when the Cardinal had It is physically impossible to shoot while become Pope Julius II., was set up in the walking; or had the god perhaps shot beVatican in the palace Belvedere, from fore the beginning of the motion, and durwhich it has since been commonly called. ing this have kept his arms in so unnatural

It was in a very fair state of preservation, a position ? - a position deprived of the the head - incontestably the finest part – necessary unity in so far as the left arm being entirely uninjured; the legs were ma- would still be found in the shooting posture, terially damaged; the fingers of the right while the right arm had already abandoned hand were lost; the right arm was broken it. in two places, and lay originally, in its There was not a single duplicate of the lower portion, somewhat nearer the body; Vatican Apollo, no statue which would have the left fore-arm, from where the mantle shed light on its motif, and the interpreters rests upon it, was wanting, and like the rest saw themselves entirely shut up to the analwas restored by Montorsoli in 1532. ysis of the statue. Only the French author

The god wore at his back a quiver, of Pouqueville, who in 1806-1815 was Consulwhich some parts are unquestionably an- general at Janina, mentions in his “ Jourcient, and Montorsoli accordingly placed ney in Greece " that a certain Dr. L. Frank in the left hand a piece of a bow, which, as had been presented by Veli Pasha with an was customary in ancient art, was thus Apollo one-quarter life size,“ resembling only slightly indicated. Scarcely any other the Belvedere," a Gorgon-head, and several restoration could have appeared possible, other objects, of the state of which Pouqueand yet it was the beginning of an error ville could give no information. which, for more than three centuries, has Not before the year 1860 did the archæprevented a true interpretation of the ologist Stephani, of St. Petersburg, make

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