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That is the theory,' said Lord Rosse. They always say that a man ought to pay his rent, and to submit to eviction if he make default. But the practice scarcely follows the theory. It is generally prudent on the part of the incoming tenant to buy out his predecessor. In fact, there is a constant endeavour to introduce tenant-right, a system which we always oppose, as it tends to make the tenant the real proprietor, and the landlord the owner of a mere ground
With this compare the following remarks a few days later by Mr. W. S. Trench, the manager of Lord Lansdowne's and other estates in Kerry and King's and Queen's Counties: :
"The Irishman,' said Mr. Trench, murders patriotically. He murders to assert and enforce a principle that the land which the peasant has reclaimed from the bog, the cabin which he has built, and the trees which he has planted, are his own, subject to the landlord's right, by law, to exact a rent for the results of another man's labour. In general he pays the rent, generally he exerts himself to pay it, even when payment is difficult to him. But he resolves not to be dispossessed. He joins a Ribbon lodge, and opposes to the combination of the rich, the combination of the poor.
'He goes further: he asserts the right, not merely to occupy the land, but to deal with it as he thinks fit. He marries at eighteen a girl of seventeen, and subdivides ten acres among ten children. He refuses to allow farms to be thrown together, though both parties may desire it. He refuses to allow them to be squared. He refuses to allow land unfit for tillage to be turned into sheep walks. In short, he forbids improvement, and enforces, as far as he can, a system productive of general misery, famine, and pestilence. But he does not know what he is doing. He firmly believes that he is defending the rights and the interests of the poor against the tyranny
and avarice of the rich.
The English murderer is instigated, not by any feeling of justice, or sympathy, or patriotism, but by base cupidity, or by malignity. He does not murder in defence of a cause or of a principle, but to gain some money to be spent in debauchery, or to revenge some offence against himself. The Irish convict is not necessarily corrupt he may be reclaimed. The English convict is irreclaimable. If I had been born an Irish peasant, and had been brought up in the ignorance and in the prejudices of an Irish peasant, or taught as he has been, I should probably have been a Ribbonman myself.
I have never felt any vindictive feelings against those who have been for so many years conspiring against me. I am almost ashamed to say how much I have sympathised with them. I have often felt that what I was doing in the prevention of subletting and the prevention of subdivision, and for that purpose in forbidding two families to occupy one small house-in
ejecting men from farms which they had been encouraged by my predecessors to reclaim, but which, after the failure of the potato, could not produce any rent, or even subsistence, except in the lowest conditions of animal life-I was doing what must appear to them oppressive.'
We have quoted largely in order to convey the impression of the book as to the root of the Irish land difficulty. We might have quoted much more. There are passages, for instance, in which the interest of the priests in stimulating the popular sentiment is set forth. They may do so out of sympathy, and in order to retain their hold on the people; but they also prefer a numerous though poor population, marrying early and supplying abundant occasions for fees in their marryings, christenings, and burials, rather than a smaller and more comfortable class. But perhaps it is enough to show the popular sentiment itself; and that sentiment insists manifestly on only two points-the preservation undiminished of the tenant's domain, and the right of the tenant "to do what he likes with his own" if he only pays rent. The sentiment is the which knows only one pursuit - agriculerroneous prejudice of a very ignorant class, ture, which sees only a limited area for following it, and dreads anything that aggravates the existing intense competition. The absence of opposition to eviction per se is very significant. It is allowed for nonpayment of rent, because the class is not injured, so long as the number of farms is undiminished and a new tenant is suffered to take the place of the evicted. What is objected to is all evictions emanating in an improving spirit. The murders at Ballycohey are too exceptional in their circumstances to illustrate the feeling well; individual suffering apprehended might have caused the same result anywhere among an ignorant and excitable people: but if Mr. Scully's intention had been to improve he could hardly have escaped resistance, however cautiously he had acted. It is the same idea that the land is their only living which makes the tenants so anxious to farm as they please and not as the landlords please. To permit the landlord's interference would seem a recognition of his right to do more than receive rent, and thus nullify the tenant's own idea of his position. checked for many years, but it is a logical The evil of subletting has been largely outcome of the popular view-that the land is for the tenant class to live upon subject only to an indefinite rent.
If this is a true account of the state of feeling and it is a reasonable account, confirmed by much other evidence- -one
conclusion is obvious. Heroic remedies they are made safer themselves by law. are unsuitable. You will clearly gain noth- At all events, the mitigation of popular dising by making present tenants holders in content will give time for these influences perpetuity, seeing that public opinion does to work, which must teach even Irish tennot object to eviction. You will only fa- ants better political economy. It is probacilitate that subletting and injurious parcel- ble that with small holdings not increasing, ing of the land which landlords have grad- the tenant class will rise, as it is doing alually been able to check, and are at length, ready in the social scale, and will appreciin their contest with popular feeling, al- ate better the value of improved agricullowed to check. But it is equally plain ture. Landlord interference for the sake that Irish law should differ from English of improvements may thus also become law; and how it should do so is also indi- more tolerable. To go upon a different cated in part. There is a fair case for legis- principle and stereotype Ireland as it is by lating to compensate tenants for improve-heroic remedies appears to be as unnecesments, whatever else may be done. Here sary to meet the sentiment of the class afit is the landlords who direct the cultivation fected as it would be fatal to the whole fuof their farms and make improvements; but ture of the country. in Ireland they can only do so in the teeth of the popular sentiment and customs which leave these things to the occupier. It may he said that giving compensation for improvements will not soothe popular sentiment or lead to the full popular recognition of all other landlord rights, but there is some evidence that it will go a long way. The compensation will diminish much of the irritation which arises from the idea that the landlord has unjust powers. To tenant who has spent money on a farm, and who lives among a class believing that he only had a right to do so, it is a manifest and flagrant wrong to be dispossessed suddenly at the mere will of a landlord. It would mitigate his sense of injustice could an independent tribunal assess the compensation to which he is entitled. The amount of compensation will be difficult of adjustment, for the Irish tenant has extravagant notions as to how he should be paid, but an approximation to what he believes his just right will be better than nothing-above all if settled by an arbitrator in whom he can have some confidence. And if the tribunal is set to work on very fair principles, even its justice may in time be acknowledged by the tenant class. The notion of such a tribunal occurred to Mr. Senior, and he discussed it with Lord Rosse, who was not however very hopeful, thinking that harm would be done by encouraging the ignorant notions of the Irish tenant class; but there is a good deal of evidence to a contrary effect, showing that a Bill like Mr. Chichester Fortescue's might accomplish the desired end.
From The Evening Post, 19 Sept. THE steamer Hermann, which arrived here this morning, brings foreign files to the 8th of September, with the following account of the 30lar eclipse, as observed by one of the German astronomers at Aden, in Arabia, and by him communicated to the London Times:
THE GREAT ECLIPSE.
The only astronomers and photographers that have come to Aden are all Germans; three of them, Dr. Weiss, Navigating Lieutenant Rhea, and another gentleman, are Austrians. Their chief object was to make observations on the constitution of the corona. From the observations taken by these gentlemen there can be no doubt that the problem is now solved, several varied experiments proving in a most conclusive manner that the corona merely consists of inflammable gas in a high state of combustion. The North German party consisted of one astronomer, Dr. Thiel, of Bremen, and four Prussian photographers working under the direction of Dr. Fritch, of Berlin. This party devoted their attention chiefly to photographing the various phases of the eclipse, having selected Aden as the most likely spot in the zone of “totality" to be free from clouds,
Several English amateurs, officers of the army and navy, also contributed their help in recording various experiments according to their respective abilities.
It is one advantage of the plan of compensation to tenants that it leaves untouched the opportunity of improving landlords, to whose action we must look for a permanent change in the condition of Ireland. Per- had arrived in the beginning of August haps it will improve their opportunity, ten- from making as many observations as they ants tolerating. them more readily when would have wished. The mornings had
The weather for a week preceding the eventful 18th had been unusually cloudy for Aden, and prevented the savants who
been particularly trying, the sun rising be- | same telescope in the distance between tween thick banks of purple gray clouds. known stars, which can be brought to
On the evening of the 17th almost all the scale. rank and fashion of Aden made an exodus to Marshag Hill, the eastern promontory of Aden, where the German party were established with all their instruments. The night was very cloudy, and much anxiety was felt by all interested in the success of the observations. At gray dawn, however, and just before first contact, the banks of clouds separated into broad bands, occasionally shutting out a view of the eclipse. Totality commenced at 6h. 29m. 28s. A. M., and lasted 2m. 55s., during which interval a most magnificent view of the phenomena was obtained and four most successful photographs were taken.
The only planets and stars observed during the totality were Venus, Jupiter, and Sirius, which at once shows that the darkness was not great.
At the time of totality the height of the tide was seven and one-quarter feet, or for Aden a good average spring tide. The preceding spring tides (about a fortnight before) were very bad, the rise and fall not being more than four feet.
On first separation a most beautifully soft light stole out from behind the moon, lighting up the sea and rocks of Aden in an indescribably beautiful manner.
The sun was unfortunately behind a cloud at the final separation, which could not be, therefore, determined within a ond of time. The times were of:
H. M. 8.
From The Economist, 5 Sept. A PARCEL POST.
MR. CHADWICK, to whose suggestion the addition of the working of telegraphs to the business of the Post Office is partly due, has come forward to urge another addition to the business of the department. Besides forwarding our letters and telegraphic messages, the Post Office he thinks might take charge of small parcels, accommodating the public in this as in other matters by low and uniform charges irrespective of distance. The suggestion has been made at various times more or less effectively, but in a recent letter published in the Journal of the Society of Arts Mr. Chadwick fully sets forth his reasons and describes how the plan might work. The question deserves some attention, and perhaps has a chance of getting it at the present time, when the Post Office is undertaking new duties and people are awake to the principles on which it does
The tenor of the argument for a parcel post is manifestly the same as that for the postal working of the telegraphs. "The public," says Mr. Chadwick, "having an establishment for the collection and distribution of letters of some twelve thousand postsec-al stations, and of twenty-five thousand persons, has the right, and ought for economy, to utilise that great establishment for the collection and distribution of any other matter within its capacity." This was exactly what was said for the telegraphs. The machinery of the Post Office enabled it to supply facilities for the collection and distribuThe German party were delighted with tion of telegraphic messages with which all their experiments, and consider them- private telegraph companies could not comselves amply repaid for their trouble. pete. And the argument that the existing They had most superb instruments, and work of the Post Office will be better done were particularly civil and obliging in ex- by increasing its functions, especially of a plaining their use, mechanism, &c. Among similar kind, is also applicable here. Mr. the most interesting was a photograph- Scudamore insisted very strongly on the suing telescope, which is made self-acting periority of the class who could be got to by means of a most ingenious clock-work act as postmasters in country districts, with mechanism, which, with the help of a sim- every addition to their duties and conseple pendulum and endless wheel, is so deli-quent addition to their pay. The only cately adjusted as to counteract the motion of the earth and to keep the telescope rigidly fixed on the star or planet during the ten or fifteen seconds required to receive the impression.
The corona was accurately measured by means of a telescope with small squares in the diaphragm. These valves can be exactly determined by experiments with the
questions are whether the conveyance of parcels will be an analogous duty, and whether there is sufficient promise of public advantage. But on both points we think there can be no doubt. The book and pattern post is already a species of parcel post, and the proposal is only to extend to all articles the facilities granted to a few, with the farther facility of a still lower charge.
People who are partial to the extreme doc- it would not pay to get sent as parcels trine of private enterprise assert that the or patterns under existing arrangements. Post Office goes too far in carrying parcels Those especially whose business is in the Meeven as it now does; but on general princi- tropolis, and who live in one of the cities more ples there is no reason for carrying letters or less distant, which are virtually a part of or telegraphic messages which does not ap- it, will have a carrier to their hand in the ply to parcels. The interchange of small Post Office with which no existing agency articles is a part of those "communications" can compare. The book post has done much which promote the comfort and convenience already to cut up the provincial book trade, and welfare of society; and the book post but not without advantage to the buyers of practically demonstrates that no other agen- books, and similar results will follow the cy for their collection and distribution is so extension of similar or greater privileges to effective or convenient as a postal establish- other articles. ment. The case is just one where a national agency may intervene to equalise facilities throughout the country, performing in many cases more service than private persons could, and in no cases, or at least very few, performing less.
There are two practical difficulties which will be urged. A halfpenny parcel rate can hardly fail to interfere with the postal revenue; every letter will be called a parcel; and possibly it may be expedient to make the minimum charge a penny, except in the case of printed matter sent in an open cover, about which there can be no mistake that it is not a written letter. This would allow a halfpenny charge for circulars, and so remove some grievance that is undoubtedly felt in consequence of the present postal monopoly. But these are matters of detail, and a regulation as to the mode of making up parcels may suffice to prevent evasion. The other practical objection is and rail
It might be a practical difficulty in establishing the parcel post, though Mr. Chadwick does not allude to it, that certain private businesses will be interfered with. Railways carry parcels, and there are parcel companies, but the Post Office will beat them all out of the field. At the worst, however, this would only give a claim for compensation, though in strict right, in a country where the principle is unlimited competition, there ought to be no compen-way companies say this already of the book sation merely because the Government, that is the whole community, becomes a competitor in a particular business. It cannot be urged, at all events, that railways have so encouraged traffic as to entitle them to complain of threatened rivalry.
and pattern post-that the Post Office will be overwhelmed with work, and letters will be delayed that parcels may be delivered. But this again is a matter of regulation and detail. The public should rather gain even as to their letters by the increase of mails and deliveries as the business of the Post Office increases. Altogether we believe there is no good theoretical or practical objection to a parcel post on the plan proposed, which we trust will soon be carried out. The advantage to be derived may be less than from the State working of the telegraphs, but it is great enough to authorise a little agitation on the part of the public which is to gain. The Government and the Post-Office authorities are not likely to be remiss if public opinion supports them.
The uniform tariff proposed by Mr. Chadwick is twopence per pound- a halfpenny per quarter of a pound- and this, as a rule, will be cheaper than any parcel tariff in existence. It is half the present tariff by book post, and quarter the tariff for the pattern post. If the thing can be worked so as not to cause loss to the department. and we believe the opinion of the PostOffice authorities is that it can - the advantage to the public is apparent. The wants that will be supplied, the small conveniences furnished, which taken altogether amount to a great deal, will be infinite. Mr. Chadwick says: "A son in place in London sends to his mother, by postage stamps or money order, a portion of his wages, and she in return might send him some piece of her own work-a pair of stockings, or some socks, or a comforter"- some small thing which would not bear the expense of the pattern post. But there are multitudes of other transactions between town residents and the country. Every person in the coun"Dr. Goold arrived at New London, Ct., try may order from the Metropolis, or from a few days since, on board a whaling ship, towns, on his own account, articles which from Cumberland Inlet, and states that in
From The N. Y. Evening Post, 19 Sept. SIR JOHN FRANKLIN'S EXPEDITION.
THE Herald prints some interesting information in relation to the expedition of Captain Hall in search of traces of Sir John Franklin. The information is furnished by Dr. Goold, of Dublin, who has been during the past two years in the Polar regions:
August, 1867, he spent some time with Mr. | ing to native information the last six surHall, who was then at Repulse Bay. Mr. vivors built a cairn or rude vault of stones Hall has traced the fate directly of two of on the rocks, and deposited within it some the last survivors of Sir John Franklin's documents and such articles as they had no party, and has obtained valuable informa- further use for, or would have been an ention regarding the relics and some records cumbrance on their journey. For some reported by the natives to have been left by time past King William and his tribe have the lost expedition in King William's Land. been hostile towards the native followers of Captain Hall learned from some of the Es- King Albert, who inhabit the region about quimaux, in 1866, that about two years Repulse Bay, where Mr. Hall was quarprior to that time Captain Crozier and one tered, and would allow no incursions into of the Franklin crew had died in the neigh- their country. The place where this cairn borhood of Southampton Island, while en- is described to be situated is about four deavoring to make their way to that place, hundred and fifty miles northward from in the belief that they would be there able Repulse Bay; and in order to reach it to meet a whaler to convey them back to Captain Hall has formed an alliance with England, or, in fact, anywhere, to escape Albert and his people, and, together with from their Arctic prison. his own escort of Europeans, was preparing an expedition of about ninety persons to march in quest of the records.
Captain Hall is confident of the identity of Captain Crozier with one of the men so described to have perished, as the natives not only gave Captain Crozier's name, but were in possession of certain articles that belonged to him and to his companion. Mr. Hall obtained from these Esquimaux Captain Crozier's watch, a gold chronometer, made by Arnold & Dent, of London, besides some small articles of silver, and trinkets belonging to their outfit. These relics Mr. Hall now holds, and they have been seen and handled by Dr. Goold. Captain Crozier's companion, who died with him, is believed to have been a steward of either the Erebus or Terror, as the natives say he was a server of food, but could not recollect his name.
"It was Mr. Hall's intention to start in February or March of this year, and he had already accumulated supplies of provisions and other necessaries for the purpose. His force will consist of five Caucasians besides himself, and the remainder would be composed of Alfred's men. Of the whites accompanying him two were Irishmen, one German, one Englishman, and one Swede, all of whom were recruited by him from the crew of the Pioneer, which was wrecked in the summer of 1867 at King's Cape. These men are all armed with revolvers and shot guns, and it was mainly through reliance on the Europeans and their weapons that the Albert men were induced to participate in the incursion. Alone they would be unable to cope with King William's forces, who number about two hundred, and could be assembled in a month.
"The natives also state that they have among them, near Southampton Island, a piece of gold lace and a piece of gold bullion which belonged to Captain Crozier, and is believed to have formed part of one Captain Hall would offer no molestaof his epaulettes. They also stated that a tion to King William's people, but, if opnumber of others had started with Captain posed, would give them battle if necessary, Crozier from a place very far north to reach as he was determined to obtain the records Southampton Inlet, but had perished one of the last explorers if possible. He would by one on the way. They had been passed be accompanied also by Joe' and 'Hanfrom one band of Enewits to the other, and nah,' the two Esquimaux or Enewits who, when Captain Crozier had passed through it will be remembered, were a few years two tribes the natives say all further traces were lost, but Captain Hall himself traced the remainder there. Captain Hall also says: The opinion most entertained is that the natives killed them.' They say themselves there was no difficulty in Captain Crozier getting through, because he was accounted among the natives a firstrate hunter for that country, and could at all times keep himself in food.
"The records which Captain Hall hopes to be able to secure are in King William's hand, and considerable difficulty is anticipated in the effort to reach them. Accord
ago educated in this country and exhibited in this city. Joe' and 'Hannah' are man and wife, and now form part of Captain Hall's retinue or household, affording him valuable assistance through their knowledge of the English language in communicating with the various tribes of natives, with whose dialects and peculiarities they are familiar. The entire distance it was expected would have to be traversed on sledges drawn by dogs, of which useful motivepower Mr. Hall has an abundant stock.
"It was Mr. Hall's determination, if successful in finding the cairn, and no un