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ters of religion, and that does not obtain in the mat- the virtue of his atoning sacrifice, and the utter ters of ordinary prudence: yet a helplessness which helplessness of man without the Spirit of God, not forms no excuse, lying, as it does, in the resolute to reform merely but to renew, not to amend but to and by man himself unconquerable aversion of his regenerate, not to fan into vitality the latent sparks will to God and godliness. There is nothing in of virtue and goodness which may be supposed origthis to break the analogies on which to found the inally to reside in the human constitution, but to negative vindication that forms the great and un- quicken him from his state of death in trespasses doubted achievement of this volume, and with which, and sins, so that from a child of the world he may perhaps, it were well if both its author and its read- be transformed into one of the children of light, ers would agree to be satisfied. The analogy lies who, aforetime alive only to the things of sense, here-that if a man wills to obtain prosperity in becomes now alive to the things of faith—alive to this life, he may, if observant of the rules which God. There is nothing I feel less disposed to exexperience and wisdom prescribe, in general make ercise than the office of a jealous or illiberal inquisit good; and if he will to attain to blessedness in the itor upon one who has wielded so high the polemic next life, he shall, if observant of what religion arm in the battle of the faith. But I would caution prescribes, and in conformity with the declaration you, when I meet with such an expression as that that he who seeketh findeth, he shall most certainly of the Holy Ghost given to good men, against the make it good. It is true that in the latter and larger delusion of this preternatural aid being only given case the condition is universally awanting; for man, for the purpose of helping further onward those in his natural state, has no relish and no will for who have previously, and by dint of their own inthat holiness without which we cannot see God. dependent exertions, so far helped themselves. I But to meet this peculiar helplessness, there has would have you to understand that the intervention been provided a peculiar remedy; for God makes a of this heavenly agent is the outset of conversion, people willing in the day of his power, and gives and accompanies all the stages of it. He is not his Holy Spirit to them who ask it. only given in large measure to good men, but He makes men good.
Dr. Chalmers oftener than once recurs to the topic the Anti-Calvinism of Butler finds no favor in his eyes; and at last he seems to intimate, that, however eminent as a defender of the faith, the bishop personally was in a dubious way.
It were great and unwarrantable presumption to decide on the personal Christianity of Butler; but I may at least remark on the possibility, nay, I would even go so far as to say, the frequency of men able and accomplished, and zealous for the general defence of Christianity, being at the same time meagre and vague in their views of its subjectmatter. I might state it as my impression of our great author, that when he does offer his own representations on the form and economy of that dispensation under which we sit, he seems to me as if not prepared to state the doctrines of our faith in all that depth and peculiarity wherewith they are rendered in the New Testament. That man achieves a great service who, by strengthening the outworks of our Zion, places her in greater security from the assaults of the enemy without; but that man, I would say, achieves a higher service who can unfold to the friends and disciples who are within, the glories of the inner temple. Now I will say of Butler, that he appears more fitted for the former than for the latter of these achievements. I would trust him more on the question who the letter comes from, than I would on the question what the letter says; and I do exceedingly fear, that living, as he did, at a period when a blight had descended on the church of England-at a time when rationality was vigorous but piety was languid and cold-at a time when there had been a strong revulsion from the zeal and the devotedness, and withal the occasional excesses, of Puritanism-I do fear, I say, that this illustrious defender of the repository which held the truth would have but inadequately expounded in all its richness and personal application the truth itself. I think it but fair to warn you, that up and down throughout the volume there do occur the symptoms of a heart not thoroughly evangelized, of a shortness and a laxity in his doctrinal religion, of a disposition perhaps to nauseate as fanatical those profound impressions of human depravity and the need of a Saviour, and]
LIFE AND PEOPLE AT THE BERMUDAS.
THE Bermudas, named from Juan Bermudas, are thus described in a letter from Mr. Foote to the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser:
Great Britain has neglected nothing to increase their natural strength, and make the islands perfectly secure as a naval station. Every height or projecting headland is fortified and bristles with cannon; but the reef that encircles the whole group at the distance of from one to ten or more miles, constitutes their real substantial defence. There is but one entrance within this reef, practicable for sea-going vessels, and even when within, if the buoys marking the channel were removed, a vessel, unless enjoying the advantages of the very best pilotage, would almost inevitably strike on some sharp coral bank. As it is, no one ever thinks of taking in a vessel in the night.
Ireland's Island is a mass of soft white limestone, with an area of perhaps fifty or seventy-five acres, the whole of which is nearly covered with barracks for the troops, governmental offices and storehouses, and a few shops and dwelling houses. A mole, beautifully made of the limestone, about one thousand feet in length and a hundred yards or so from the shore, makes a small harbor, within which lies the hulk for the convicts. The precise number of the convicts now here, I could not learn; but there are probably over a thousand. They do not look like very desperate characters, and appear to have a pretty easy time. Their chief employment is getting out and dressing stone, at which they work in squads, under the eye of an overseer, about eight hours a day. They are lively and chatty, and many of them, I dare say, are better off than they ever were before in their lives. In their leisure hours they occupy themselves in reading such books as are furnished them, or in making toys and ornaments of various kinds, out of coral and a beautiful species of spar that is found abundantly in the hollows and cavities of the rock, and bears a very high polish. These they sell slily to visiters at a moderate price.
The troops stationed here are the 42d Highland
ers-a fine body of men, but not as stalwart nor so | est white villas everywhere gleaming through the martial in their bearing as the 93d, stationed in palmettoes, bananas, limes, or cedars, here skirtCanada a few years since-and two or three com-ing the beach on which the blue sea gently breaks, panies altogether of artillery and sappers and or rounding some easy swelling eminence, and you miners. Strict discipline is maintained, and the can have some idea of the drive to the Groopers' utmost vigilance is at all times observed. Some Pond. But no effort of the imagination can supply months ago, when Mitchell, the Irish patriot, was the soft, delicious atmosphere that it was luxury to here, and there was insane talk in the States about breathe, while the delicate purple that it gave to rescuing him a job that would have proved about every distant headland and rounded hill lent addias possible as sculling a boat up Niagara Falls- tional charm to the beautiful landscape. the guns were all shotted and manned, with fires lighted, ready for instant service if needed, on the approach of any vessel in the offing. Defended as the Bermudas are by nature and high art, they may be considered almost impregnable. Fortunately, war between the U. States and England is an almost impossible event, but if, by any misfortune, it should occur, these islands would be a perfect hornet's nest to us. With the exception of St. Helena, they are more isolated, that is, further removed from any other land, than any spot on the globe. The nearest land is Cape Hatteras, which is five hundred and eighty miles distant.
The precise number of islands and islets composing the group has never been distinctly ascertained, but is popularly said to be three hundred and sixty-five. Many of them, of course, are nothing but mere points of rock, a few yards square, Bermuda, the principal island, is some six or eight miles long, with an average breadth of perhaps a mile. The chief town or capital of the group, Hamilton, is on this island. We ran up to it, about six miles from our anchorage, the day after we arrived. The boats in use here are of a very peculiar construction, built of cedar, exceedingly light and buoyant, excellent sea-boats and sail like witches. The run up to Hamilton was delightful. The morning had been very warm, thermometer at 80° in the shade, but about 9 o'clock a fresh breeze sprung up, bringing with it light fleecy clouds, covering the whole group and the encircling reef, as if a vast pavilion had been specially raised, and radiant at times with the most gorgeous colors, as the sun's rays were refracted by the masses of
The island, as we sped merrily up the sound, was dotted all over with neat houses, all built of the soft limestone, and all, with scarcely an exception, of the most intense, brilliant white, even to the roofs, which were composed of thin slabs of stone. Some of these houses in the vicinity of Hamilton, embowered in shade, would be considered charming villas in any country. The town of Hamilton may have fifteen hundred inhabitants. The buildings make no architectural pretensions, but look comfortable, and altogether the town has a very inviting appearance. I saw here a very beautiful shrub that attains about the same height our lilacs do, bearing a very large flower, of the purest snow white in the morning. At noon the flower changes to a delicate pink, and at sunset it changes again to a crimson, shrivels up and falls. I did not hear its name. The oleander flourishes magnificently-some of them, in fact, are alınost
The great lion of the islands is a small pond artificially stocked with fish, about six miles from Hamilton. The drive to it is the most delightful that can be conceived. Imagine a road perfectly white and as smooth as the most nicely tended walk in a gentleman's garden-the walks within the fort at Michilimackinac are just like it-shaded by every variety of luxuriant semi-tropical vegetation, mod
We drew up by the side of a low stone structure about fifteen yards square, and here our driver told us was the pond. On the other side of the road the tiny waves of a shallow cove were leaving a light line of foam almost against our carriage wheels. A man came out of a neighboring house, unlocked a door in the wall, and we entered. Within the enclosure was a hole in the rock about thirty feet long by twenty wide, and twenty or thirty feet deep. Into this hole the sea found its way by fissures in the rock, and this was the famous pond. The water was clear as crystal, and floating in it were eight hundred groopers, of from five to fifteen pounds' weight each. The average, I should think, was not far from eight pounds. They rose to the surface of the water as we stepped upon the rim of their cup, and with prominent, codfish-like eyes and open mouths garnished with ugly looking teeth, watched all our movements. If one of our party made a splash in the water with his hand, instead of retreating, the fish would make a dash to seize his fingers. One gentleman drew out a fish that would weigh ten pounds, that had seized the crooked handle of his cane. A man's life, if in the pool with them, would be worth less than if thrown into a den of ravening panthers.
The fish are caught off the shore, which they visit at irregular intervals, and thrown into the pond, whence they are taken when required. When in the pond, there is no difficulty in catching any one that may be pointed out. All that is necessary is to wait till he is a little separated from his fellows, and then cast the hook before him. It matters little whether the hook be baited or not. It is sure to be caught at greedily. We saw several so caught, and for flavor and texture we can vouch that they are not surpassed by any fish that swims. We returned by a different road, one that skirted the sea nearly the whole distance, passing by the governor's house, the Lunatic Asylum, and many other places of local note. There was a gay party that evening at dinner at the Yacht Hotel in Hamilton.
I NEVER could find a good reason
Why sorrow unbidden should stay,
That leave scarce a ripple behind.
Which looks upon all for the best;
To Providence leaves all the rest.
From the Examiner."
writer combines a craving for stronger and rougher stimulants. She goes once again to the dales and fells of the north for her scenery, erects her "confessionals" on a Yorkshire moor, and lingers with evident liking amid society as rough and stern as the forms of nature which surround them. She has a manifest pleasure in dwelling even on the purely repulsive in human character. We do not remember the same taste to the same extent in any really admirable writer, or so little in the way of playful or tender humor to soften and relieve the habit of harsh delineation. Plainly she is deficient in humor. In the book before us, what is stern and hard about Louis Moore is meant to be atoned by a dash of that genial quality. But while the disagreeable ingredient is powerfully portrayed in action, the fascinating play of fancy is no more than talked about.
Shirley. A Tale. By CURRER BELL, author of "Jane Eyre." Three vols. Smith and Elder.* THE peculiar power which was so greatly admired in Jane Eyre is not absent from this book. Indeed, it is repeated, if we may so speak of anything so admirable, with too close and vivid a resemblance. The position of Shirley and her tutor is that of Jane and her master reversed. Robert and Louis Moore are not quite such social savages, externally, as Mr. Rochester; but in trifling with women's affections they are hardly less harsh or selfish, and they are just as strong in will and giant in limb. The heroines are of the family of Jane, though with charming differences, having wilful as well as gentle ways, and greatly desiderating masters." The expression of motive by means of dialogue is again indulged to such minute and tedious extremes, that what ought to be devel- Is there, indeed, in either of these books, or any opments of character in the speaker become mere of the writings which bear the name of "Bell," exercitations of will and intellect in the author. one really natural, and no more than natural, charAnd, finally, the old theme of tutors and govern-acter--a character, we mean, in which the natural esses is pushed here and there to the tiresome is kept within its simple and right proportions? point. The lesson intended is excellent; but works of art should be something more than moral parables, and should certainly embody more truths than one.
We suspect it would be hardly an exaggeration to answer this question in the negative. The personages to whom Currer Bell introduces us are created by intellect, and are creatures of intellect. While we thus freely indicate the defects of Habits, actions, conduct are attributed to them, Shirley, let us at the same time express, what we such as we really witness in human beings; but very strongly feel, that the freshness and lively the reflections and language which accompany these interest which the author has contrived to impart actions, are those of intelligence fully developed, to a repetition of the same sort of figures, grouped and entirely self-conscious. Now in real men and in nearly the same social relations, as in her former women such clear knowledge of self is rarely work, is really wonderful. It is the proof of gen- developed at all, and then only after long trials. ius. It is the expression of that intellectual fac- We see it rarely in the very young-seldom or ulty, or quality, which feels the beautiful, the ever on the mere threshold of the world. The grand, the humorous, the characteristic, as vividly sentient and impulsive preponderates, at least in after the thousandth repetition as when it first met this stage of existence; at the utmost, the intelthe sense. We formerly compared the writer to lectual only struggles to emerge from it. It is Godwin, in the taste manifested for mental analy-impossible to imagine that Shirley and her lover sis as opposed to the dealing with events; and could have refined into each other's feelings with might have taken Lord Byron within the range of such keen intellectual clearness, as in the dialogues the comparison. As in Jane Eyre, so in Shirley, and interviews detailed, yet remained ignorant so the characters, imagery, and incidents are not im- long of what it most behooved them both to know. pressed from without, but elaborated from within. But even in the children described in this book we They are the reflex of the writer's peculiar feel- find the intellectual predominant and supreme. ings and wishes. In this respect alone, however, The young Yorkes, ranging from twelve years down does she resemble the two authors named. She to six, talk like Scotch professors of metaphysics, does not, like Godwin, subordinate human interests and argue, scheme, vituperate, and discriminate, to moral theories, nor, like Byron, waste her like grown up men and women. strength in impetuous passion. Keen, intellectual analysis is her forte; and she seems to be, in the main, content with the existing structure of society, and would have everybody make the most of it.
As well in remarking on Jane Eyre, as in noticing other books from the same family, if not from the same hand, we have directed attention to an excess of the repulsive qualities not seldom rather coarsely indulged. We have it in a less degree in Shirley, but here it is. With a most delicate and intense perception of the beautiful, the * Reprinted by Harper and Brothers.
Yet in spite of this, and of the very limited number of characters and incidents in this tale as in the former, the book before us possesses deep interest, and an irresistible grasp of reality. There is a vividness and distinctness of conception in it quite marvellous. The power of graphic delineation and expression is intense. There are scenes which for strength and delicacy of emotion are not transcended in the range of English fiction. There is an art of creating sudden interest in a few pages worth volumes of common-place description. Shirley does not enter till the last chapter in the first volume, but at once takes the heroine's place.
Louis Moore does not enter till the last chapter of the second volume, yet no one would dream of disputing with him the character of hero.
them, and occasional glimpses of ideal imagination of a high order, are visible throughout. The writer works upon a very limited range of rather homely materials, yet inspires them with a power of exciting, elevating, pleasing, and instructing, which belongs only to genius of the most unquestionable kind.
| pathy with toryism and high church. The writer sees clearly that they are things of the past, but cannot help regretting them. The tone assumed to the Story there is none in Shirley. The principal dissenters and manufacturers is hardly fair. Their continuous interest of the book attaches to two high qualities are not denied, but there is a dispobrothers, and two girls with whom they are in sition to deepen the shadows in delineating them. love. The Gérard Moores, Robert and Louis, are There is cordiality when the foibles of rectors of mixed descent, (from a Belgian mother and and squires are laughed at, but when the defects Yorkshire father,) and good family, but in reduced of the commercial class are touched there is bitcircumstances; the one a manufacturer in the terness. The independence and manlier qualities West Riding, the other a tutor in a wealthy gen- of even that class are nevertheless appreciated, tleman's family. The chosen of Robert is a dis- and some truths are told, though told too sharply, tant relation whom he calls cousin, Caroline Hel- by which they may benefit. The views of human stone, a niece and poor dependant of the Vicar of nature which pervade the volumes, notwithstandBriarfield—her father having perished in dissoluteing the taste for dwelling on its harsher features courses, after grossly maltreating his wife, and already adverted to, are healthy, tolerant, and endriving her from her home and child. The be-couraging. A sharp relish for the beauties of loved of Louis is the heroine, Shirley Keeldar, an external nature, no mean power of reproducing orphan heiress just come of age, her own mistress, a relation of the family in which he is tutor, and herself heretofore his pupil. Robert's disputes with machine-breakers, (the time of the story is that of the reign of King Lud,) his struggles to bear up against the stagnation in trade consequent on the "Orders in Council," and his hesitation between the attractions of wealth in Shirley, and of love in Caroline, make up his part in the story. The elements of that of Louis are still simpler. They are no more than the struggles of a proud mind before it can stoop in poverty to confess its affection for a rich heiress. But the women will be the favorites with all readers. Both are charming. Caroline is a gentle, loving nature, who long loves hopelessly, and "never tells her love,' though she lets it be seen. Shirley is, as the "wildly witty" Rosalind, clear, decisive, wilful, self-dependent, yet also most womanly and affectionate; too proud to woo her inferior in station, whom she nevertheless wishes to woo her. The staple of the three volumes is made up of the thinkings, sayings, and doings of these four per- Stranger! afar from thy native land, sons; presented to us less in the manner of a con- Whom no one takes with a brother's hand, tinuous tale, in which incidents spring from char-Table and hearthstone are glowing free, acter, and reflections are suggested by incidents, Casements are sparkling, but not for thee: than in a series of detached and independent pic-Jesus of Nazareth passeth by." There is one who can tell of a home on hightures, dialogues, and soliloquies, written or spoken. So instinct with life, however, are these pictures, dialogues, and soliloquies; so replete with power, with beauty, and with subtle reflections, that the want of continuity in the tale is pardoned. Tediousness is felt before the author's purpose comes distinctly in view; but when it does, the interest becomes enchaining. We could not lay down the third volume.
[We omit the extracts, as the book will be so generally read, and copy the conclusion of the Examiner's Review. In the predilection and general conclusions of the author of Shirley we will not pretend to concur. There is a large and liberal tolerance in them, and a rational acquiescence in the inevitable tendencies of society. But this acquiescence we suspect to be reluctant. There is a hankering, not to be suppressed, after the fleshpots of Egypt-a strong sym
We have not hesitated to speak of the writer as a woman. We doubted this, in reading Jane Eyre; but the internal evidence of Shirley places the matter beyond a doubt.
JESUS OF NAZARETH PASSETH BY."
BY MRS. L. H. SIGOURNEY.
WATCHER! Who wakest by the bed of pain,
Sad one, in secret bending low,
A dart in thy breast that the world may not know,
Mourner! who sitt'st in the churchyard lone,
In thy vein of fire and thy wasted cheek,
From the United Service Magazine.
IN submitting the following sketches of sporting life in the East, I have simply to premise that I have constantly resided in India during the last twenty years, and have been actively employed for some portion of that time in the Nepaul territory, which is an independent state, having a British representative at its court, with the title of Resident, aided by an assistant resident, and a medical officer, with an escort of 110 men. I have been induced, at the request of several friends, to make known some few incidents which have occurred to me personally, in the course of various sporting excursions in that unexplored territory of India, and I trust that the novelty and originality of the facts, to the faithful representation of which I confidently pledge myself, may be found of some interest, especially when it is considered that, from the nature of our treaties with the Nepaul government, and their extreme jealousy towards all Europeans, opportunities similar to those which have fallen to my lot have never been afforded to any other British officer.
in water, and every kind of sickness or ailment is invariably laid to the charge of that element; and being great consumers of that beverage, they certainly ought, generally speaking, to be good judges. Be this as it may, the Chittagong elephants are decided water drinkers, and so are those in the upper country; we may therefore infer that the Chittagong water must be the better suited for these animals. It is, however, injuriously operative upon humanity, as witness the frightful enlargement of human legs in that district, arising from elephantiasis, a disease which causes a moderate-sized person's leg to become increased to the dimensions of a muscular Yorkshireman's thigh, his wretched toes appearing like a fringe to his bloated limb. The catching and taming of wild elephants furnish a large source of revenue to the Nepaul government. The mode of taking them is this: The Taroos, or elephant catchers, having marked down a wild herd of 300 or 400 elephants, the following preparations are made. About 200 Taroos collect together, mounted upon elephants, and accompanied by two large "taking elephants," highly fed, and kept always musth, (sensual,) and when in that state their ferocity is such, that no one but their keeper dares to approach them. The herd of wild elephants having been started, they get away trumpeting and whistling into the thickest part of the forest, hotly pursued by the mounted Taroos, each of whom is provided with three or more nooses, called the moosack, which is made of very strong raw hide, well soaked in oil, and so ingeniously contrived that, when once attached to the elephant, the hind legs are gradually drawn together at every step they take, until he is brought to a complete stand-still. The chase continues frequently for twenty miles at full speed, until, in fact, the wild herd becomes blown and brought to a stand. The danger then commences, from the wild ones dashing at their pursuers, in their turn causing the most intense excitement during half an hour, until the arrival of the two musth elephants, whose bulk prevents their keeping up with the more active ones, ridden by the Taroos. These two elephants, each having three keepers upon their backs, dash into the herd. Their appearance, accompanied by the powerful nauseous odor emitted by musth elephants, creates an immediate panic among the wild ones, and soon paralyzes their efforts of resistance. The active little Taroos now slide down from their steeds, and under cover
The Terai, or more properly the Turiyanee, a long belt, or strip, of low level land, lying along the border of the provinces of Oude and Bahar, consists for the most part of forests nearly seven hundred miles in length, and varying from ten to fifteen miles in breadth. The chief natural produce of the forest are the oak, the pine, the rattan, and the bamboo, all of enormous size, affording cover for almost every animal known in India, from the stately elephant to the savage tiger, the pursuit of which occasions much excitement, although often attended with considerable danger. In many parts of the forests these animals abound, particularly the elephant, and as the death of one of these magnificent animals will form the principal subject of the present sketch, I will here offer a few remarks upon their nature, and the course pursued by the Nepaulese in obtaining possession of them, which differs greatly from the means employed for similar purposes by the British government in the Chittagong districts, where the elephants are taken by pitfalls and khedahs. The former method is objectionable, because of the enormous bulk of the animals. When falling into the trap, about seven out of ten of them are generally severely injured, and are thus rendered useless to the government. The khedah or enclosure ensures only the taking of small or half-grown male elephants. Remark- of one of the musth elephants, who pushes himably fine and full grown females are frequently captured in this manner. In the Chittagong district are to be found by far the finest and the largest elephants caught in India, but the difficulty of acclimatizing them to upper India is so great that seldom more than four out of ten, when sent to the upper provinces, are preserved; change of food, and, what all natives declare to be a greater evil still, change of “pawnee," (water,) are supposed to be the main causes of premature mortality. The natives of India are firm believers
self forcibly against the wild one selected from the herd, they, in a most dexterous and daring manner, slip the moosack on to each of the hind legs, which performance occupies about three minutes. The noosed elephant is then allowed to depart, and he goes off evidently delighted; but as the noose becomes contracted at every stride, he finds his intended flight brought to a close, at a distance of sixty or seventy yards. After operating upon about fifty wild elephants in a similar manner, the Taroos permit the remainder of the