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it is produced, may lose that value when carried cause, so far as they know, it either has not even to short distances ; that is to say, the expense solved or cannot solve that difficulty. On the of conveying it a very few miles may make it a other hand, any one, who should declare that our dearer application than a purer material would be present knowledge of this branch of applied scimore portable or nearer at hand. A simple illus- ence enables us already to solve every difficulty, tration will make this plain. A farmer contracts would display as much rashness, and a degree of with a gas company for all their white gas-lime, ignorance almost as inexcusable, as those who containing very little sulphur, for so many months, deny its intrinsic claims upon our consideration. at sixpence a ton. This he carts six miles; and A familiarity with the actual state of science will he thinks it much cheaper than the quick-lime keep us from both extremes. There are still, no which he can purchase at the lime-kiln, two miles doubt, many points in regard to which our ignofrom his farm, for five shillings a ton.
But on a
rance is very great; many more of which our chemical examination, the gas-lime is found to con- knowledge is very imperfect; but the acknowltain half its weight of water : so that two tons edgment of this does not weaken the just pretencontain only one of dry lime, for which, therefore, sions of science to the intelligent gratitude of the he pays a shilling. But, besides, the lime is agricultural community. It is at this moment found to be chiefly in the state of carbonate-the busily laboring to remove these dark places from dry matter containing about two fifths-say only the surface of our knowledge; and deserves to be one third-of carbonic acid. Deducting this car- encouraged, not only because of what it has done, bonic acid, we find that in three tons of the refuse but on account of what it is striving and underthere is only one of pure or quick-lime, which, taking hereafter to accomplish. How little hiththerefore, costs the farmer eighteen-pence. If his erto agricultural bodies have for their part done to return carts carry it home at the low rate of four- secure the aids of science almost every farmer can pence a ton per mile, each ton of pure lime will tell ;-while to reproach science that, amid all cost him a shilling a mile for carriage. On this discouragements, it has not done more for a too supposition, its ultimate price will be seven-and- thankless class, is not the most likely way of ensixpence a ton when delivered on his farm. At suring its more zealous services for the future. the same rate of carriage the line from the kiln To return, then, to the point from which we would be laid upon his land for five shillings and started. Many persons are apprehensive of injury eightpence a ton ; and, being caustic, or newly to the husbandry of the country, in consequence burned, one half the quantity would produce an of the abolition of our corn laws; and are asking equally sensible effect. Thus the apparently by what substitute the prosperity of agriculture is cheaper material is in reality much the more cost- to be sustained. We have said that more knowlly of the two.
edge, especially of elementary science, is one of Many cases of this simple chemico-economical the ways hy which this end is to be attained. kind have come under our own notice; and they But how, it is replied, will the possession of illustrate very intelligibly the way in which ex- such knowledge aid us? The rejoinder to this is ceedingly simple chemical inquiries may bring simple. It will enable us, either as individuals about a great saving to the farmer. The study of or as a nation, to beat in the race all other indi. waste materials, while it shows that some sub- viduals or nations who, placed in similar circumstances, though really containing what is valuable stances with ourselves, possess a less degree of to the plant, will prove dear to the farmer at any knowledge. Nay more-arm all parties alike price, has also shown that many other refuse ma- with the whole knowledge of the day, and we terials, which have been hitherto thrown away or still believe that our native energy will bring us allowed to run to waste, might be collected with through. We may possibly be left to depend on great profit for agricultural purposes.
our home productions—or we may be called on to We might proceed to another line of inquiry, compete with the productions of the world. In the prevention of disease in plants and of destruc- the one case, we shall be able to maintain our tion from the attacks of insects—on which, also, whole population more easily and with cheaper science has entered and made no small progress. corn ; in the other, we shall be more likely to But we must conclude our argument, which, cumu- triumph in the fight, even over countries more falative in its nature, has already been sufficiently vored by nature than ourselves. varied to meet the knowledge and to touch the ex- There is, perhaps, a stronger argument still for perience of almost every reader. And we do think our encouragement of the application of science. we may now venture to say that in the face of all It is this. If we allow other nations to add the our illustrations, it can no longer be said, with any advantage of higher knowledge to their more degree of truth, that science is not of any direct favored natural circumstances, the decline of our money value to the practical farmer; and, if to agricultural prosperity must then become almost him, then to the owners of land also from whom certain. Above all other countries, the United the farmer holds.
States of America and our own colonies—born of Half-read men are prone, in farmers' clubs and the same blood, and inspired with the greater agricultural meetings, to exaggerate the impor- ardor of young nations are most to be feared by tance of some trifling practical difficulty, and to our home farmers. They are rapidly advancing lessen the value and usefulness of science-be- in knowledge, and are eagerly seeking it from
From the National Ere.
BY JOHN G. WHITTIER.
every quarter; and if, while they enjoy so many | what, as hopeful men, may we not expect from it other advantages, they can raise themselves even when it is really stimulated to exert itself to the to an equality in agricultural skill and resource uttermost in our behalf? with ourselves-what will be the result to Great In conclusion, while we speak thus of the uses Britain it is not difficult to conjecture.
of science, and the services it may be made to The eighth section of Count Strzelecki's “ Phys- render us, we do not hold them up as infallible ical Description of New South Wales and Van nostrums for all possible evils. We are not to Diemen's Land" is a striking exposition of what entertain unfounded expectations from it, as if is doing in those two countries for the improve- sudden and great discoveries were to be made on ment of their agriculture, and of the skill and the occurrence of every new emergency. All energy which we may expect to see developed in scientific progress is slow, but it is also sure, our other colonies. As regards the United States, and its benefits are lasting. Nor do we recomwe may add another observation. The desire of mend the diffusion and enlargement of such their several governments to promote the applica- knowledge as the only things to be done, or as tions of science to agriculture has been shown by precluding any other means of improving the the numerous surveys they have lately caused to be prospects of the agriculturist. But they are made, and by the reports—similar to that of Dr. methods which ought to be tried, and which must Jackson, the title of which we have placed at the and will be tried sooner or later. We had better head of this article—which have been printed and try them early, in the hope by their means of circulated at the public expense. The anxiety maintaining our existing position. It will be of individuals also to obtain further information, harder work to employ them hereafter, in the and their estimation of its money value, may be attempt to regain a position which we may then judged of from the recent visit of Mr. Colman to have lost. this country. This gentleman was, in a certain sense, commissioned by his countrymen to inspect and report upon British agriculture; inasmuch as, before he embarked for England, he had already The south land has its fields of cane, received upwards of three thousand subscribers for The prairie boasts its heavy grain, his intended work. His published volumes on
And sunset's radiant gates unfold British Agriculture are full of kindly and benevo
On rising marts and sands of gold. lent feeling. From being written for the most Rough, bleak and cold, our little state part while in England, and published piecemeal,
Is hard of soil, of limits straight; they are somewhat sketchy and unmethodical,
Her yellow sands are sands alone, and, in this respect, suffer by comparison with the
Her only mines are ice and stone! smaller and more condensed work of Von Weck- From autumn frost to April rain, herlin*, Director of the Agricultural School at Too long her winter woods complain; Hohenheim, in Wurtemberg; yet they contain an
From budding flower to falling leaf,
Her summer time is all too brief. outline of what was attracting most attention among us during the period of his visit, and can But on her rocks and on her sands scarcely fail to be productive of good.
And stormy hills the school-house stands, In respect to this visit of inquiry, also, we may
And what her rugged soil denies, remark that the welcome reception and ready
The harvest of the mind supplies. communications on all subjects which Mr. Colman The treasures of our commonwealth everywhere experienced among us—as is shown Are free, strong minds, and hearts of health, by his published letters—are not only gratifying
And more to her than gold or grain, to ourselves, as they must have been to himself,
The cunning hand and cultured brain ! but will prove, we trust, to our kindred on the For well she keeps her ancient stock other side of the Atlantic that we are still influ
The stubborn strength of Pilgrim Rock ; enced by the old adage, that "blood is thicker
And still maintains, with milder laws than water." Let such of them as doubt this
And clearer light the good old cause ! come among us with open hearts, and try.
Nor dreads the sceptic's puny hands, To return from this brief digression, we would
While near her school the church-spire stands; say that here, as in America and elsewhere, to
Nor fears the blinded bigot's rule,
While near her church-spire stands a school. avail ourselves of all the resources which science has already placed within our easy reach, is not
NEW BOOKS. enough. We should also secure its more extended and zealous services for the future. In
Messrs. Ticknor, Reed & Fields have sent us a this way only are the difficulties, from which so copy of the second edition, revised and enlarged, of much is apprehended, to be overcome. If with
ANGEL VOICES : or Words of Counsel for overcomlittle encouragement, science has already, in so
ing the World. After the mode of Richter's “Best many ways, promoted the interests of agriculture, Hours.” We have looked far enough into this to
think it a sweet little book. There may be somo * Ueber Englishche Landwirthschaft, und deren Anwendung auf Landwirthschaftliche Verhältnisse insbe good lines left out of it, but so far as we have read sondere Deutschlands. Stuttgard : 1845.
we like very much what is here. We take the
opportunity of copying a favorite poem by the Rev. Ralph Hoyt.
By the wayside, on a mossy stone,
Sat a hoary pilgrim sadly musing ;
Coat as ancient as the form 't was folding,
There he sat!
No one sympathizing, no one heeding,
Age and care;
Dapper country lads, and little maidens,
• Here's A Fool!” It was summer, and we went to school. When the stranger seemed to mark our play,
Some of us were joyous, some sad-hearted.
Would not stay!
Ah! to me her name was always heaven!
Earthly hope no longer hath a morrow;
Down it rolled!
On the pleasant scene where I delighted
To the core'
E'en this old gray rock where I am seated
With a tear!
There's the very step so oft I mounted ;
For the game!
Long my happy home that humble dwelling; There the fields of clover, wheat, and corn,
There the spring with limpid nectar swelling ;
They were planted just so far asunder,
When my mates and' I were boys together,
Past its prime!
Round the pasture where the cows were grazing,
Traps and trails-
Pond and river still serenely flowing ;
Brook, and bridge, and barn, and old red stable
Yon green meadow was our place for playing ;
She is dead!
Tracing silently life's changeful story-
There on high-
Guided thither by an angel mother;
Gone to God;
When our souls drank in the nuptial blessing,
There I stand-
Early life no longer hath a morrow;
Down it rolled,
Sat a hoary pilgrim sadly musing ;
1. The Presidents of France and America, Walter Savage Landor,
385 2. Russia,
386 3. France and the Roman Question,
388 4. Kavanagh, and Evangeline,
388 5. There and Back Again,
392 6. The Modern Orator,
401 7. Gesta Romanorum,
407 8. Court and Reign of Francis the First,
413 9. Agriculture and Science,
417 ILLUSTRATION.-Hudson, the Railway King, off the Rail, 416. Poetry.–Irish Temperance Hymn, 391.-Hope and Memory, 400.—The Farmer's Plough;
Beneath the Wayside Tree, 412.-It cannot last, 413.— Massachusetts, 430. New Books, 430.
PROSPECTUB.- This work is conducted in the spirit of | now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor- of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ou) twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonizatias, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages Sutisfy the wants of the American reader.
and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble acquaint our readers with the great depariment of Foreiga criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement-to Statesmen, Divines, Lae the sparkling Eraminer, the judicious Athenæum, the yers, and Physicians—to men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their wives and Children. We believe that tian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and ani Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, Neno Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we ihink it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnowing the wheat from the from the new growth of the British colonies. schaff,” by providing abundantly for the imagination, and
The steamship has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a word nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all narts of the world ; so that much more than ever it aspire to raise the standard of public taste.
Terms.—The LIVING AGE is published every Satur- Agencies.- We are desirous of making arrangements day, by E. LITTELL & Co., corner of Tremont and Brom- in all parts of North America, for increasing the circula field sis., Boston; Price 121 cents a number, or six dollars tion of this work--and for doing this a liberal commission & year in advance. Remittances for any period will be will be allowed to gentlemen who will interest themselves thanksully received and promptly attended to. To in the business. And we will gladly correspond on this insure regularity in mailing the work, orders should be subject with any agent who will send us undoubted refes addressed to the office of publication, as above.
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advantage in comparison with other works, containing in Binding.–We bind the work in a uniform, strong, and each part double the matter of any of the quarterlies. good style ; and where castomers bring their numbers in But we recommend the weekly numbers, as fresher and good order, can generally give them bound volumes in fuller of life. Postage on the monthly parts is about 14 exchange without any delay. The price of the binding cents. The volumes are published quarterly, each volume is 50 cents a volume. As they are always bound to one containing as much matter as a quarterly review gives i pattern, there will be no difficulty in matching the future eighteen months. volumes.
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WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1845. Or all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and somprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind the utmost expansion of the present aga
J. Q. ADANA
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.No. 290.-3 DECEMBER, 1849.
From the Edinburgh Review. the arc which the one describes determines the 1. Rudimentary Electricity; being a concise Expo- space through which the other must travel. The
sition of the General Principles of Electrical terrified gazer at comets, and implicit believer in Science, and the Purposes to which it has been astrology, made himself amends, accordingly, by applied. By Sir W. Snow Harris, F.R.S. denouncing as a wizard the man who showed him
London : 1818. 2. Regulations of the Electric Telegraph Company, tree turned upside down in a camera obscura ; so
the sun's spectrum on a wall, or the image of a London : 1849. 3. Traité de Télégraphie Electrique, renfermant son that even the contemporaries of Newton thought
Histoire, sa Théorie, et la Descripiion des Ap- it prudent to hide, under anagrams and verbal pareils. Par M. l'ABBÉ Moigno. Paris : enigmas, their more striking discoveries from the 1849.
vulgar observer. His faith was unlimited in one The curiosity of the British people, which the direction, and his intolerance in another; and he wonders of science have fed so profusely for the allowed each full play. To slay one's enemies last fifty years, has latterly not only spread over a was not only a lawful but honorable thing; to larger area as knowledge has diffused itself, and hang, draw, and quarter a traitor was the duty of increased in intensity as it grew by what it fed on, a loyal subject; to shut up a man stricken with but has also remarkably altered its direction. From the plague, and leave him to his fate, was the the days of the Stuarts down to a comparatively most tender mercy which he could expect; but to recent period, the unscientific portion of the nation dissect the dead body of foe, traitor, or plaguewas chiefly interested by marvellous natural phe- patient, was a crime against God and man! The nomena ; and concerned itself litile in even the credulous believer in a thousand imaginary natural most practical applications of the experimental sci- and supernatural phenomena, unconsciously re
In our own day a totally opposite feeling venged himself for his credulity, by a fixed disbeprevails. A worthy naval captain comes home to lief in man's power to conquer physical nature ; announce that he has seen a great sea-serpent. His and would not have stirred from his door to witaccount is scarcely published before it is depre- ness the most curious mechanical invention-or ciated, criticized, and derided, from one end of the have wished it success, or expected good from it. island to the other. The “Gentlemen of England But these things have been long completely who sit at home at ease," may differ among them- changed. The popular mind, like a magnet struck selves as to what the good captain did see, but are with lightning-which reverses its poles, so that quite at one as to what he did not see. In the it points to the south with the end which formerly seventeenth century any number of sea-serpents pointed to the north—has been so electrified by would have been credited ; and the bigger and the triumphs of experimental science, that it has more uncouth they were, so much the better. whirled round like the disordered compass-needle ; None, indeed, of the treasures of natural history and what it formerly admired it now despises, and which the British Museum can now exhibit, are what it once despised it now admires. Had it half so strange as a Londoner could take his coun- been wise, it would have kept much of its old try cousin to in the times of the Commonwealth faith, (to which it will yet return,) and would have and the Restoration. Feathers could then be pro- been content with adding to its previous beliefs duced which had dropped from the tail of the whatever it found admirable in the youthful or Phænix. Ostriches were to be seen which, un- regenerated sciences. But at present, when there like the birds of the present day, had not pecked seems no end to the achievements of experimental their way into the world through an eggshell, but science, these achievements alone engross attenhad been born alive. Bones were plentiful, of tion; and the public has not yet had time to count giants compared with whom Goliath was a dwarf. the cost, or grow weary of its new toy. It was Petrified babies were not very rare; or solid thun- not at all necessary, however, that botany or derbolts, or unicorns' horns—or barnacles which zoology should be thrown aside, because chemishad first been shell-fish, and then changed into try and electricity had recently abounded in wonSolan Geese! Our forefathers rejoiced for the ders. A nettle or limpet, the meanest weed or most part in believing such things ; and the few humblest insect, still more a nautilus or a humo that were sceptical could only hazard a doubt. ming-bird, is, after all, at least as curious a thing Credulity, however, never absorbs the entire man. as gun-cotton or chloroform ; and a torpedo or It appears, on the contrary, to necessitate a coun- gymnotus is in reality a much more wonderful matervailing scepticism. Credulity and scepticism, chine than a voltaic battery. Many-voiced, howindeed, are two blind imps playing at see-saw. ever, as the public is, it is not many-sided. It has Neither sees his opposite—although each would be latterly remorselessly narrowed its taste to a very Aung off if not counterbalanced by the other; and few scientific subjects; and the present period