« VorigeDoorgaan »
BY A TRADESMAN IN THE VICINITY.
impediment to its being immediately and univer- | To some doomed breast the noxious vapor flies, sally adopted for the public weal. We ought to
Some luckless lung the deadly reek inspires ; remark, that fires or heating apparatus are not at Ev’n from the tomb morbific fumes arise,
Ev’n in men's ashes live disorder's fires. all necessary; and that, as the specification expresses it, “ this action is not prevented by making For thee, who, shocked to see th' unhonored dead, the shorter leg hot while the longer leg remains
Dost in these lines their shameful plight relate ; cold, and no artificial heat is necessary to the longer If, chance, by sanitary musings led, leg of the air-siphon to cause this action to take
Some graveyard-gleaner shall inquire thy fate; place.” Extraordinary as this may appear, we Haply some muddle-headed clerk will say, have witnessed the experiments made in various
We used to see him at the peep of dawn, ways, with tubes from less than an inch to nearly Shaving with hasty strokes his beard away,
Whene'er his window-curtains were undrawn. a foot in diameter, and we can vouch for the fact being perfectly demonstrated. Light gas does de-There would he stand o’erlooking yonder shed, scend the shorter leg when heated, and ascend the
That hides those relics from the public eye, longer leg, where the column of air is much colder And watch what we were doing with the dead,
And count the funerals daily going by. and heavier.
One morn we missed him in the 'customed shop;
Behind the counter, where he used to be,
Another served ; nor at his early chop,
The next, by special wish, with small array,
To Kensall Green we saw our neighbor borne ;
Thither go read (if thou can'st read) the lay The sexton tolls the bell till parting day ;
With which a chum his headstone did adorn. The latest funeral train has paid its fee; The mourners homeward take their dreary way,
And leave the scene to Typhus and to me. Here rest with decency the bones in earth, Now fades the crowded graveyard on the sight,
Of one to Comfort and to Health unknown ; But all, its air who scent, their nostrils hold,
Miasma ever plagued his humble hearth,
And Scarlatina marked him for her own. Save where the beadle drones, contented quite,
And drowsy mutes their arms in slumber fold. Long was his illness, tedious and severe; Save where, hard by yon soot-incrusted tower,
Hard by a London churchyard dwelt our friend ; A reverend man does o'er his port complain
He followed to the grave a neighbor's bier, Of such as would, by sanitary power,
He met thereby ('t was what he feared) his end. Invade his ancient customary gain.
No longer seek corruption to enclose Beneath those arid mounds, that dead wall's shade, But far from cities let our dust repose,
Within the places of mankind's abode; Where grows no turf above the mouldering heap,
Where daisies blossom on the verdant clod. All in their narrow cells together laid, The former people of the parish sleep.
(JEWISH RESURRECTION.] The queasy call of sewage-breathing morn,
The ox, urged bellowing to the butcher's shed, “ The Jews commonly express resurrection by The crowd's loud clamoring at his threatening horn, regermination, or growing up again like a plant. No more shall rouse them from their loathly bed. So they do in that strange tradition of theirs ; of
the Luz, an immortal little bone in the bottom of For them no more the chamber-light shall burn,
the Spina dorsi ; which, though our anatomists are The busy doctor ply his daily care,
bound to deride as a kind of Terra incognita in the Nor children to their sire from school return, lesser world, yet theirs (who know the bones too And climb his knees the dreaded pest to share.
but by tradition) will tell ye that there it is, and
that it was created by God in an unalterable state Good folks, impute not to their friends the fault,
of incorruption ; that it is of a slippery condition, If memory o'er their bones no tombstone raise ; Where there lie dozens huddled in one vault,
and maketh the body but believe that it groweth up No art can mark the spot where each decays.
with, or receiveth any nourishment from, that;
whereas indeed the Luz is every ways immortally No doubt, in this revolting place are laid
disposed, and out of whose ever-living power, ferHearts lately pregnant with infectious fire; mented by a kind of dew from heaven, all the dry lands, by whose grasp contagion was conveyed, bones shall be reünited and knit together, and the As sure as electricity by wire.
whole generation of mankind recruit again.”—John
Gregorie, p. 125.
(THE GREENDALE OAK.]
LIORACE WALPOLE mentions cabinets and glasses
at Walbeck “ wainscoted with the Greendale Oak, Some district surgeon, that with dauntless breast which was so large, that an old steward wisely cut
The epidemic 'mongst the poor withstood, a way through it, to make a triumphal passage for Some brave, humane physician here may rest, his lord and lady on their wedding, and only killed Some curate, martyrs to infected blood.
it.”—Letters, vol. 2, p. 8.
1. Memoir of Sir Robert Murray Keith,
Dublin University Magazine,
193 2. United States Bank-note Circulation,
201 3. The Modern Vassal, Chap. IV.,
202 4. From the Great Salt Lake,
215 5. Napoleon, and the Son of Madame de Stael, Journal of Commerce,
218 6. Trouble about Convicts at the Cape,
United Service Magazine,
225 7. Louis Philippe on Government,
226 8. French Expenditure always increasing,
228 9. Canadian Independence and Annexation,
231 10. The New German Federal Empire,
232 11. Condition and Prospects of Germany,
234 12. Position of Rome and her Church,
236 13. Russian Preponderance,
237 ILLUSTRATION. – Adopted Cubs of the Russian Bear, from Punch, 224. POETRY. - Early to Bed and Early to Rise, 222. Elegy in a London Church Yard, 239. Short ARTICLES. Block Printing, 211. — Practical Christianity ; Travelling in Italy, 212.
The Great Sugar Discovery, 213. — Clerical Combinations against the Press, 214. Lucy Osborn, 215. — Grace Mysterious in its Mode of Operations, 217. – Works by Natural Means, 222.- English Repudiation, 227. — Ventilation, 238.
PROSPECTUS.—This work is conducted in the spirit of | now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor- of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with our twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.
and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreiga criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish io keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement—to Statesinen, Divines, Law. the sparkling E.raminer, the judicious Athenæum, the yers, and Physicians-lo men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that tian Obserrer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we ihink it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite 7se of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnowing the wheat from the from the new growth of the British colonies.
chaff" by providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship, has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work gections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all narts of the world; so that much more than ever it / aspire to raise the standard of public taste.
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.—No. 286.–10 NOVEMBER, 1849.
From the Christian Observer.
tween the two churches, but that I could not do so SEYMOUR'S MORNINGS AMONG THE JESUITS. under a false color—that I was devotedly attached Mornings among the Jesuits at Rome: being Notes land-ihat I looked on her as the Church of God in
in judgment and in feeling to the Church of Engof Conversations held with certain Jesuits on the subject of Religion in the City of Rome. By the England, and the most pure, most apostolic, most Rev. M. H. SEYMOUR. London: Seeley.
scriptural of all the churches of Christendom—that,
without unchurching other churches, she was still We consider this work of Mr. Seymour's as one the church of my judgment and of my affections ; that is likely to be of much service in the Romish and that I had never for a moment harbored the controversy. Circumstances appear to have favored thought of abandoning her for any other church, Mr. Seymour in obtaining for him free and unre
and especially for the Church of Rome. served communication with some of the leading duct proved them to be, seemed surprised at the
My new friends, for such their subsequent conJesuits at Rome, and he seems to have availed him- decision of my opinions; and expressed their wonself with much tact of the opportunity thus afforded der that I could refuse to hold communion with him of ascertaining their precise views, and the the Church of Rome. strength of their arguments in various important I stated that I felt very strong objections, as they points on which we are at issue with the Church appeared to me, against that church; but that, if of Rome.
those objections were removed—if they, who were Mr. Seymour informs us, in his Introduction, priests of the Church of Rome, could remove them
-if they, living at the fountain-head of that church, how this happened, and as it might appear, without could prove them futile, in that case they should his own explanation, that he misled the parties with find me free to act, and prepared to act on my enwhom the interviews were held as to his real state lightened convictions, and I would without hesitaof mind, we give his own account of the matter. tion join their communion.
They generally asked me to state my objections, During my constant attendance at all the services as they felt assured that they would be able to reof the Church of Rome, I was observed by a Roman
move them. gentleman who held office in the papal court; and, This invitation led to a series of conferences or being acquainted with him, he remarked one day to conversations with some of these gentlemen. (pp. my wife, that I seemed much interested in these 3—5.) things; and asked whether I would not like to make the acquaintance of some of the clergy. Hav- In these interviews Mr. Seymour displays, we ing learned from her my wishes to that effect, he think, much acuteness in drawing out his oppo called some days after to say he had been with his nents so as to obtain from them a clear admission personal friend the Padre Generale—the father-gen
as to the real character of Romish views on various eral of the Jesuits—and had mentioned to him my wish to enter into communication with the clergy, important points on which generally much reserve and he seemed to intimate that this was sure to is adopted by Popish controversialists in their comconvert me to the Church of Rome. He added that munications with Protestants ; and we are not surthe father-general had directed two members of the prised, when we read the account here given of order to wait on me, to give me any information their conversations with Mr. Seymour, to find him which I might desire. These gentlemen came in making the following remarks :due course. They soon presented me to others. They introduced me to the professors of their estab- I have learned, and must bear about me forever lishment, the Collegio Romano, and thus a series of the memory of the lesson, never again to regard the conversations or conferences, on the subject of the extremities of credulity as inconsistent with the points at issue between the Churches of England most scientific attainments ; or to suppose that and Rome, commenced and were carried on, as oc- what seems the most absurd and marvellous supercasion offered, during the whole period of my resi- stition is incompatible with the highest education; dence at Rome. A portion of my notes of these or to think that the utmost prostration of the mind conversations constitutes this present volume of is inconsistent with the loftiest range of intellectual “ MORNINGS AMONG THE JESUITS at Rome." power. There was in some of my friends an ex
I dealt with all frankness with these several gen-traordinary amount of scientific attainments, of tlemen, as to the object of their visit. They were classical erudition, of polite literature, and of great under the impression, which they were at no pains intellectual acumen ; but all seemed subdued and to conceal, that I was disposed favorably towards held, as by an adamantine grasp, in everlasting their church ;—that I was one of those Anglican subjection to what seemed to them to be the reliclergymen, who neither understand nor love the gious principle. This principle, which regarded Church of England, and who, in a restless dissatis- the voice of the Church of Rome as the voice of faction and love of change, are prepared to abandon God himself, was ever uppermost in the mind, and her communion for that of Rome, and who only held such an influence and a mastery over the whole wait a little encouragement, and perhaps instruc- intellectual powers, over the whole rational being, tion, before taking the last step. I was very care- that it bowed in the humility of a child before everyful to undeceive them, stating that I should be most thing that came with even the apparent authority happy to confer with them on the differences be-l of the church. I never could have believed the
extent of this, if I had not witnessed it in these tance than those which related to its Mariolatry remarkable instances. They seemed to regard the and saint and image worship, and we quite agree canons of the church preeisely as we regard the with Mr. Seymour in thinking that the position decisions of Scripture; and just as we regard any taken by his Jesuit collocutors on this point, is unbelief of the statements of Holy Scripture as infidelity, so they regard every doubt as to the worth especial notice, as showing the present state judgment of the church as the worst infidelity. It of feeling in the Church of Rome respecting it, seemed as if a doubt of it never cast its shadow and demonstrating that the tendency is towards the across their minds. (pp. 5, 6.)
growth and increase of this superstition. There One of the first subjects of conversation natu- are bold declarations of doctrine and expressions rally was the Tractarian movement in the English of feeling in the conversations on this point, for Church.
which we should have been equally unprepared He then begged of me to explain my idea of the with Mr. Seymour, and which combined with the manner in which the movement was likely to op- recent Letter of the Pope on the subject of the
Immaculate Conception) seem to show that that I answered, that the Anglican church stood be- church is sinking even into more degrading depths tween two systems—between Romanism and dis- of superstition and false doctrine. sent. These were the two extremes, to one or other of which all who loved extremes were likely to
I stated, says Mr. Seymour, that there appeared cipitate themselves. The party of the movement to be many things that seemed not only extravagant, desired to draw her nearer and nearer to Rome—to but even impossible, from their palpable absurdity; give her more and more a similarity to the Church things that at times seemed so gross that no reaof Rome ; and by that very course had led their sonable credulity could stand them; and had the opponents to run into the opposite extreme. It had effect of raising an insurmountable objection against evoked an antagonistic spirit, that was sure to lead any communion with the Church of Rome, if, innearer and nearer to dissent; and I added that my deed, these things were part and parcel of her sys. own conviction was, that the real evil, the impend- tem, or in any way essential to her completeness ; ing danger, was, the people forsaking the Church and I added, that if they were not essential they of England, as a church declining towards Rome; ought to have been got rid of as offensive to so many and then utterly overthrowing and destroying her persons. -a danger like that which arose out of the pro
He replied, that he quite felt that there were ceedings of Archbishop Laud, in the time of Charles many things to which my remarks would very I., namely, the utter subversion of the Church of justly apply, but that there were many others that England.
were extravagant or absurd only in appearance ; He intimated that he had not seen the movement and that it not unfrequently occurred that those in that light, but rather regarded it as one likely to things that at one time seemed liable to insurlead the Church of England towards the Church of mountable objections, were afterwards adopted by Rome—that all parties of all churches seemed converts without the least scruple or difficulty. agreed that the movement could not stop where it He therefore wished me to specify some illustrawas—that the active movers would come over, and tion. if honest in their statements, and sincere in their
I referred in return to the miraculous picture of opinions, must come over, to the Church of Rome; the Virgin Mary in the church of S. Maria Magand that so far at least the Church of Rome must giore-to the miraculous image of our Lord as a be a gainer ;-that, however it might end for the child in the church at Araceli-to the miraculous Church of England, it must prove a gain to the image of the Virgin Mary in the church of the Church of Rome—that they could not remain as Augustines; and to several other pictures and inthey were, but must go further; and he felt that ages, which were said to be miraculous, and which the course taken by such good men was certain to were worshipped with a special and peculiar devo exert a great weight and influence upon others.
tion—were crowned and carried in procession preI was silent, except so far as assenting to his cisely as the ancient heathens of Rome used to opinion respecting the parties engaged in the move- carry the images of their gods. I stated that these ment. He observed this, and continued to say, that things seemed very gross, and that usually in there was a large section of the Church of England England the advocates of the Church of Rome got —and that too an increasing section-steadily and rid of all objections derived from them by dissurely inclining to the Church of Rome; and thus avowing all these things as abuses, as exagger. a great division existed in the very heart of the ations, as bad or superstitious practices, which Church of England, and that thus there were many were not acknowledged or practised by the wellwho would embrace, and were embracing, the very informed, and were not approved by the church. I system against which I objected ; and he added, therefore would take the opportunity of asking him, that although I might not be aware of the fact, yet living as he did at the fountain head, and capable he knew it from sources of information that were of informing me with some authority, whether not accessible to all, that multitudes in England others or myself could be justified in setting the were privately coming over to the Church of Rome. objection aside in that way-namely, by attributing (pp. 18, 19.)
these things to the ignorance of the foolish and su
perstitious. We quote this principally for the testimony He answered without the least hesitation, and in contained at the close of it, and wish it may tend a manner that took me by surprise. He answered 10 open the eyes of some who would fain keep that I had taken a very wrong view of these par them closed to everything but what appears on the ticulars, in regarding them as extravagant or ab
surd; for, although they might appear strange to surface.
me, as at one time they had appeared to himself, Among the conversations on the doctrine of the so strange indeed as sometimes to be absolutely Church of Ronie, nono seem to us of more impor- loathsome to his feelings, and although he felt hino
self unable to justify them in themselves, yet there yet again other miracles wrought by God, and so was no doubt of their being approved in practice these images and pictures became miraculous. He by the church; that they were no exaggeration or added, that the picture of the Virgin at S. Maria caricature, but real verities, which at one time Maggiore was such—that the image of Mary at the were a stumbling-block and offence to his own church of the Augustinians was such—and that the mind. He added that there was much that might picture of St. Ignatius praying to the Virgin in the be said in their favor, for that the Italians were a church of Gesu was, with many others, also mipeople very different from the English ; that the raculous. English loved a religion of the heart, and the I must frankly confess that I was wholly unpreItalians a religion of the senses ; the English a re- pared for this. In all my former experience of conligion of the feelings, and the Italians a religion for troversy in Ireland and England, I had been told that the taste; the English an inward and spiritual re- all those were the mere abuses of the superstitious, ligion, and the Italians an outward and visible re- and not sanctioned by the learned ; if, indeed, such ligion; and that it was the intention of the church, things were believed or practised anywhere. I had as well as her duty, to arrange all the rites, cere- often heard them denounced as mere fabrications, monies, acts, services of religion, so as to be suitable pure inventions to injure the character of the Church to an outward and visible religion, and calculated of Rome, and I felt much surprise to find them not for the mind of Italy; and thus those particulars only believed and practised, but defended. I felt concerning the crowning and processions of mirac- that it was opening out to me a new state of things, ulous pictures and miraculous images, however a new phase of mind, and a totally new system of strange and absurd to the English, have been sanc- faith or credulity, which I had never anticipated. tioned by the church as both natural and wise to A mind must be in a peculiar state to believe in the Italians.
the miraculous powers of a picture or image. I expressed in strong terms my surprise at the His explanation led me to advance a step in our position he had taken, expecting that he would have argument, and to say that his statements seemed to denied or softened these things, instead of asserting imply that there was something peculiar to those and defending them. And I took the opportunity images and pictures, something inherent in them of alluding to the coronation of the picture of Mary, as compared with others, something not in the in S. Maria Maggiore-a coronation by the present saint or angel represented, but in these very picPope, (Gregory XII.,) who crowned it amidst re- tures and images themselves. I endeavored to illigious services with his own hands; I also alluded lustrate my meaning by suggesting two pictures to the procession which conducted the same picture of the Virgin Mary placed side by side, and asking throngh the streets, in order to suppress the chol- whether one being supposed to be miraculous, the era—a procession in which the present Pope joined people would pray before that one rather than the bare-footed—and I asked whether we were to regard other; and whether he believed the Virgin Mary these acts, in which all the chiefs of the church, as would interfere with a miraculous answer for those the Pope, Cardinals, Bishops, &c., took an active who prayed to her before that one rather than the part, as the acts of the church, sanctioning the other. I added, that, if such was the case, it went opinions that pictures could work miracles, and to prove a belief that there was something peculiar, that the procession of a picture of the Virgin Mary some virtue or power, something miraculous in could possibly stay the virulence of the cholera, and such a picture, in one rather than the other; and that any particular picture was entitled to any spe- that the distinction proved that the people did look cial or peculiar devotion, as a coronation-in short, for something, in pictures and images, more than entitled to more veneration than other pictures. the persons whom they were designed to represent.
To this he replied with frankness and decision, He gave the fullest assent to this, saying, that saying that he had no doubt, and that there could they looked first of all to the saint represented in be no doubt whatever, as to the miraculous powers the picture or image, and that then, in case there of some images and pictures; and he explained was a miraculous character, they looked also to the matter thus. It sometimes occurred, he said, that power or virtue. He added, that his full bethat some persons were affected, specially af- lief was, that the Virgin Mary was more partial to fected or moved, by some pictures or images more some representations of herself than to others; and than by others; that in praying before these, that, in order to induce the devout to pray before their feelings were more touched, their sensibil- these her favorite ones, she heard and answered ities more excited, and their devotional affections the prayers so offered, while she neglected those more drawn out in prayer; that, in answer to that were offered elsewhere—answering the prayers such prayer, God not unfrequently gave responses offered before one picture which she liked, and rewhich were more marked than ordinary, and were fusing those offered before a picture which she did to be regarded as miraculous answers to prayers not like. made before miraculous pictures or images.
This was a degree of credulity, not to say superI could not avoid showing my incredulity as to stition, for which I was wholly unprepared ; and I all this, and I certainly was as surprised as I was felt that there must be something in the atmosphere incredulous.
of Italy, or something in the training of the mind He observed this, but only continued to express of Italy, that could lead an intelligent, a travelled, himself more strongly, stating that there was no and educated man to such a state of credulity. (PP. doubt whatever as to the reality of many miracles 35—41. of this nature in answer to such prayers; and that My clerical friend, after a pause which I was when the report of these miracles spread abroad, unwilling to break, lest I should express myself as when the public heard of them, when the minds of strongly as I felt, resumed the conversation, and the devout were excited by the fame of them, then said, that the worship of the Virgin Mary was a multitudes of persons naturally flocked to such pic- growing worship in Rome—that it was increasing tures and images to pray before them ; and their in depth and intenseness of devotion; and that feelings being excited, and their affections being there were now many of their divines, and he the more drawn out by the circumstance, there were spoke of himself as agreeing with them in senti