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hand, the superior manufactures of England, which | Central Hungary is doomed irrevocably to be they would gladly have purchased with their corn, isolated from the commerce of the rest of the wine, hemp, tobacco, wool, &c., were excluded world, and the maxim of the Austrian Bureauby the enormously high tariff which was main-cracy is to be carried out in its full extent, that tained by the government of Vienna, in spite of “ Hungary must be stifled in her own fat." their repeated remonstrances; while, on the other hand, the coarse and exorbitantly dear manufactures of the Austrian provinces were admitted into Hun
From the Economist, 8 Sept.
gary at a nominal duty, at the same time that the THE ADHERENCE OF HAMBURG TO THE ZOLLraw Hungarian produce, with which alone they
could make their payments, was loaded with heavy THE decision of Hamburg to join the confederdifferential duties. The line of custom-houses ation of German States, under the Berlin constibetween Austria and Hungary was in fact main-tution, must be regarded as one of the most tained for the protection of Austrian wine-growers, important events which has happened since the and the imperial manufacture of tobacco; the pro- commencement of the revolutions of 1848; and esduction of tobacco being free in Hungary, whilst pecially so, as this step may be considered the cerin Austria it is a monopoly in the hands of the tain forerunner of the accession of the other Hanse government. After repeated attempts of the Hun- towns, and of the whole of the German states on garian Diet to obtain a more equitable arrange- the Baltic, including Hanover. We are not disment, some of the Hungarian Liberals conceived posed to view the result of the struggle in Hamthe plan of reprisals, by which the Austrian gov- burg, as some of our contemporaries do, as any ernment might be brought to terms. To obtain evidence of a reactionary spirit against free trade English manufactures seemed hopeless; and they in the community, nor even as disadvantageous to therefore resolved, at any rate, to exclude Aus- the advance of that cause which we have so much trian manufactures, except upon the condition that at heart. We know that many persons supported Austria would admit Hungarian raw produce upon moderate terms. Such was the origin and tendency of the Vedegyelet, or Defensive Union, which was formed in 1844, with Count Casimir Batthy-more liberal commercial policy for Germany, but any as president, and Kossuth as director.
the course adopted by Hamburg, with a firm belief that they were taking the best, if not the only, means which now exists, not only for securing a
also for avoiding that hopeless confusion, anarchy, and for a time at least, that military despotism, to which the policy and designs of Austria towards Germany must lead, unless opposed by a firm and united government in the north.
This view of the case is amply confirmed by the proceedings of the Hungarians, as soon as they obtained, by the concessions of April, 1848, a responsible Hungarian ministry. In June of that year Klauzel, the Hungarian minister of com- For our own part, knowing how much the citmerce, sent a note to Baron Krauss, the Austrian izens of Hamburg value the privileges of commerminister of finance, proposing a liberal modifica- | cial freedom, and seeing the important and inflution of the tariff. The answer of the Austrian minister was, that the Austrian government was then engaged in a revision of the tariff, and that its intentions would be communicated to the Hungarian ministry in the month of September. But before the month of September arrived, Jellachich seized upon the Hungarian seaport of Fiume, and early in that month invaded the main territory of Hungary.
It is also matter of notoriety that, in the spring of this year, Kossuth's government adopted a most liberal commercial tariff, and communicated it to England by an accredited envoy.
Such are the facts of the case. It seems hardly conceivable that in spite of them an attempt should be made to fix upon the Hungarian liberals the charge of a narrow and restrictive commercial policy.
ential position which they will occupy in the new Germanic Confederation; and, moreover, having confidence in the liberal commercial tendencies of those who are now most influential in the councils of Prussia, we cannot but hail this event as the best guarantee for the advancement of free trade in Germany. The city of Hamburg itself may be called upon to make some concessions of a distasteful kind. A city that has been so long a free port, will not relinquish those advantages without much reluctance and regret. But so far as regards the commerce of Hamburg, the change will be much more nominal than at first sight it appears. Since those days when the advantages of free ports, as places of foreign commerce, were so much valued, the modern warehousing system has been introduced, by which, so far as regards the great bulk of foreign trade, every port, whatever duties may be payable for consumption, has all the advantages which free ports alone possessed in former times.
What the exact nature of "the very first boon that has been solicited for Hungary" may be, it is impossible to say till we receive further details. Since the bonding system was introHungary, in its full territorial integrity, and with duced into England by Sir Robert Walpole, Lona really independent line of custom-houses, (or don has possessed every advantage as a great absence of them, if it so pleased the Hungarians,) entrepot of trade, and for the re-distribution of forwould indeed be a boon which we do not see the eign produce to neighboring markets, that has been slightest reason to expect. If there be any truth enjoyed by Hamburg. So far as regards its trade in the report, it probably means that a portion of as a great importer and re-distributor of foreign
produce, Hamburg, by means of the bonding system, will preserve all the advantages which she now possesses, and this applies to at least seven eighths of her trade.
It must not be forgotten, that although the merchants of Hamburg have hitherto enjoyed the great facilities of importing and warehousing foreign produce and manufactures of every description, upon payment of a merely nominal duty, yet that more than seven eighths of all the goods so imported, were for the consumption of neighboring countries, and the greatest portion by far for that of the German states which form the new Zollverein; and, therefore, although they met with no impediment from import duties at Hamburg, yet they were, nevertheless, exposed to them in a more aggravated and inconvenient form, when they reached the Prussian frontier. Those goods only which were consumed within the very limited state of Hamburg, escaped the burden of customs duties. Seven eighths of the Hamburg trade has really been subjected to customs duties hitherto, and levied in a shape at once both irksome and uncertain; much more so than if collected at the place of importation.
No one can entertain the slightest doubt that the adherence of Hamburg to the Zollverein, will greatly extend the influence of the free trade party in the Germanic Confederation, and will thereby lead to important modifications of the general tariff, which will be of infinitely greater importance to the commerce of Hamburg, and of those countries intimately connected with Germany by trade, than any concession which the citizens of Hamburg will be called upon to make, in adopting the constitution of Berlin; while the adoption of the bonding system will place them in exactly the same position with regard to their trade with other ports of the North of Europe in which they at present stand. Their great trade, however, is German. In future, in place of paying high duties on the frontier, exposed to the harassing competition of smugglers, if they can, as we have no doubt they will, succeed in materially reducing those duties, paying them at the place of importation, but not until they are required to be forwarded for consumption, we shall regard the change as a great step in advance for the commercial freedom of Germany. We shall have occasion again to return to this important subject.
From the United Service Magazine. FRENCH PRISONERS ON BOARD THE SPANISH PRISON SHIPS IN THE BAY OF CADIZ, 1810. FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF CAPTAIN J. F., ROYAL HOSPITAL, CHELSEA.
WHEN the French army of General Dupont surrendered to the Spaniards at the battle of Baylen, in 1808, both men and officers were sent on board of old Spanish men-of-war, fitted up as prison ships in the harbor of Cadiz. As large boats from these vessels came frequently to the sandy beach between Cadiz and Fort Puntales, while I was stationed at
the latter place in 1810, I was led by curiosity to see what they came for, and found that it was to bury the dead prisoners, as a great mortality prevailed on board these ships.
I was present when one of these large boats full of naked bodies (lying like logs of wood, one upon another) arrived at the beach. The bodies were rolled over the gunwale of the boat into the sea, and then dragged on shore with a boat-hook, and thrown into a hole dug in the sand above high-water mark, previous to which, Spanish children would throw handfuls of sand into their mouths, and otherwise insult them. I could not look on the bodies of these unfortunate strangers, buried by their enemies in this disgusting way, without some queries arising in my mind as to what were their names, who their relations, friends, &c.
This occurrence was afterwards brought to my recollection on reading the following lines by the late Mr. Malcolm, (42d regiment,) as applicable to what I had witnessed, though not intended by him for that particular occasion :—
LINES ON A DEAD SOLDIER.
Wreck of a soldier passed away,
Thou form without a name ;
And dreamt of future fame.
Though from that head, late towering high,
Yet death's dark shadow cannot hide
To break her heart for thee?
These unfortunate men considered their being confined on board of ship as an infringement of the terms by which they had surrendered, and availing themselves of a gale of wind in their favor, they mastered the Spanish guards, cut the cables of the vessels, that they might be driven across the bay to the Trocadero, then occupied by their countrymen blockading Cadiz. Supposing the vessels to have drifted by the wind, our gun-boats were ordered to their assistance, but when alongside they were saluted with cold shot (on board as ballast) thrown by the prisoners into the boats, upon which, orders were given to our men-of-war to fire into the prison ships; accordingly, a heavy fire was directed upon the vessels, also from Fort Puntales; however, one succeeded and grounded near the Trocadero. The prisoners in it were liberated by their countrymen, who brought down boats from Puerto Real for that purpose.
I WOULD NOT LIVE ALWAY.
WE find the following poem in the Christian Intelligencer, given as the original version of the hymn in the prayer-book :
I WOULD not live alway, live alway below!
Would I shrink from the path which the prophets of God,
Apostles and martyrs, so joyously trod?
I would not live alway-I ask not to stay
Leaves its brilliance to fade in the night of despair;
There, too, is the pillow where Christ bowed his head;
Oh, soft are the slumbers of that holy bed!
Who, who would live alway? away from his God,
And the noontide of glory eternally reigns;
That heavenly music! what is it I hear?
ensures its popularity.-Also, History of the NATIONAL CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY. By J. F. Corkran, Esq.-Also, a LITERAL PROSE TRANSLATION OF DANTE'S INFERNO. By John A. Carlyle, M. D. For people who cannot read Italian, and yet wish to know this great poem, such a translation is far better than a versified paraphrase. From the same house we have: Mr. Seymour's MORNINGS AMONG THE JESUITS AT ROME: being notes of conversations held with certain Jesuits on the subject of religion in the city of Rome. We have marked for the Living Age a full review of this interesting work. PICTURES OF THE VIRGIN AND HER Son, by Charles Beecher with an Introductory Essay by Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. This is an original work. SCENES WHERE THE TEMPTER HAS TRI
Mr. Geo. P. Putnam has published, in excellent shape, BULWER & FORBES ON THE WATER CURE. Edited, with additional matter, by Roland S. Houghton, A. M., M. D.
LAMARTINE'S NEW HISTORY.-With a promptness quite unequalled, the new History by Lamartine has been translated, and well translated, and published in this city. The American edition thus takes the lead of any English edition, while the grace and ease of its style is such as will not be improved upon, if a translation should be attempted in London, as was promised. The translation has been very carefully made by Messrs. Francis A. Durivage and Wm. S. Chase, of Boston.
There are few persons who did not follow with wonder Lamartine's career during the first three months of last year's French revolution. In a large measure then, he must have owed the popularity which gave him his position to the deserved success of his History of the Girondists. It was which he was so great a part in 1848, should be natural therefore that his history of the events of awaited as uniting claims to interest which seldom meet; for one of the first authors of the time, who has shown himself one of the first men of the time, here resumes his pen to write his own history. It will be called egotistical. But it could hardly fail to be so. If Cromwell had written an account of some of the more stirring days of the protectorate, or if Jefferson had left on record the discussions of the committee who reported the declaration of independence, such narratives would have been as egotistical. It would have been absurd for Lamartine to fail to write this sequel to his other work, simply because he, of all men, knew most of what transpired in the period of which he writes.
9. John Howard and the Prison-World of Europe,
10. The Modern Vassal, Chap. III.,
11. Canada and the British American League,
POETRY-O'er the Hill, 166.-Northampton, 185.-Original of "I would not live alway," 191. SHORT ARTICLES.-Mystical Theology, 163.-Man Born to Slavery, 175.-Sentimental, 185. -French Prisoners and Spanish Prison Ships, 1810, 190. NEW BOOKS, 191.
PROSPECTUS. This work is conducted in the spirit of Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favorably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give spirit and freshness to it by many things which were excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to satisfy the wants of the American reader.
The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, the sparkling Examiner, the judicious Athenæum, the busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Christian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, Fraser's, Tail's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make ase of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and from the new growth of the British colonies.
The steamship has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, into our neighborhood; and will greatly multiply our connections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with all parts of the world; so that much more than ever it
now becomes every intelligent American to be informed of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And this not only because of their nearer connection with our selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening through a rapid process of change, to some new state of things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute or foresee.
Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections; and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign affairs, without entirely neglecting our own.
While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid progress of the movement-to Statesmen, Divines, Lawyers, and Physicians-to men of business and men of leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that we can thus do some good in our day and generation; and hope to make the work indispensable in every well-informed family. We say indispensable, because in this day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite must be gratified.
We hope that, by "winnowing the wheat from the chaff," by providing abundantly for the imagination, and by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work which shall be popular, while at the same time it will aspire to raise the standard of public taste.
tion of this work--and for doing this a liberal commission will be allowed to gentlemen who will interest themselves in the business. And we will gladly correspond on this subject with any agent who will send us undoubted refer
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Or all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind in the utmost expansion of the present age. J. Q. ADAMS.
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE-NO. 285.-3 NOVEMBER, 1849.
From the Dublin University Magazine. MEMOIR OF SIR ROBERT MURRAY KEITH, K. B.* THIS is the memoir of an upright diplomatist, a character which we are disposed to hope is not altogether so rare as many think; at all events,
the work before us shows that there once lived an
envoy who, with a sound judgment and a perfect acquaintance with his position, combined the directness of a soldier, and the honor of a true
knight. The character of Keith is developed by the most satisfactory of all methods, the exhibition of his own letters, together with those of his correspondents, and in this manner laid open to the light of day, it commends itself unfailingly to our admiration and esteem. In his private relations he was exceedingly amiable. Although possessed of but a moderate fortune, he saved little from his emoluments as ambassador, conceiving that it was
his duty to maintain, by a generous expenditure,
quiry respecting the secret-service money placed at his disposal was, that in the twenty-five years during which he had been employed in various missions, he had never charged a shilling to the account of government for secret service. The correspondence embraces letters from the celebrities of the day: from Frederick the Great of Prussia; from
that Admirable Crichton of real life, whom even Walpole praised, Marshal Conway; from the toofamous Duchess of Kingston; from Mr. Bradshaw, treasurer of the navy, and afterwards one of the lords of the admiralty; and from other House of Commons' men and habitues of the clubs. The story of the memoir is not devoid of interest, but
tember, 1730, was the eldest son of Robert Keith, who was for some time ambassador at the courts line of the Keiths of Craig, in Kincardineshire. of Vienna and St. Petersburg, and of the ancient His mother was a daughter of Sir William Cunningham of Caprington, a family in which there Sir Robert Keith Dick Cunningham of Prestonwere two baronetcies, both now represented by field, near Edinburgh. Robert Murray's brother of Jamaica; and his sister was Mrs. Anne Murray was Sir Basil Keith, who died in 1777, governor
Keith, the friend of Sir Walter Scott, and whose engaging character the novelist, as he himself Bethune Baliol, in the "Chronicles of the Canontells, endeavored to portray under that of Mrs.
Keith was early thrown upon the world. His father's duties kept him much abroad, and at the early age of eleven he lost his admirable mother, to whose training, even up to that period,
his family ascribe much of the tenderness and del-
the dignities of his station; and not only was his personal honor unquestioned, but, what we wish could be said of every minister in every land, in all his transactions he never sought to sap the integrity of others. His simple answer to an in-don, with, apparently, the object of being prepared for the army, as in a letter of this date to his uncle, Sir Robert Dick, he says My present studies fortification, music, and drawing." He seems, are, riding the great horse, fencing, French, however, to have been well-instructed in the classics, as he was, in after life, enabled to make use of Latin as a means of intercourse in parts of Europe where he could not easily have availed himself of any other tongue. His acquirements in modern languages were, at that time, quite unusual. French he wrote and spoke like a native, and he was almost equally conversant with Dutch, German, and Italian. These acquisitions attest that early diligence, without which distinctions whole of his polyglot store, as we find him subare not often gained; nor did they embrace the leaving school he obtained a commission in a sequently alluding to his "ten tongues." On Highland regiment in the Dutch service, known by the name of the "Scotch-Dutch," and remained there until he was two-and-twenty, when the corps was disbanded. After having graduated in the Scotch-Dutch as a captain, he transferred his services to one of the German states, with the object of improving himself in military science. Whatever knowledge he then acquired was dearly purchased by the hardships and privations to which he was exposed. The allowances were so insufficient that there was not enough of fuel, and the necessity which Keith was under of keeping guard over his store of firewood, during the depth of a severe winter, brought on in him, we are told, a habit of somnambulism. Keith served in an active campaign under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick,
its other points of interest are almost absorbed by
the stirring circumstances connected with the
Danish revolution of 1772, when the life and rep
And saved, from outrage worse than death,
It was a proud and happy hour for our ambassador,
Robert Murray Keith, born on the 20th of Sep"Memoir and Correspondence of Sir Robert Murray Keith, K. B." Edited by Mrs. Gillespie Smyth. 2 vols. 8vo. London: Colburn. 1849.
The Castle of Cronenburgh, near Elsinore, supposed to be the scene of Shakspeare's tragedy. CCLXXXV.
VOL. XXIII. 13