« VorigeDoorgaan »
narration with a smile of ironical incredulity, | family, and is taught to the first-born. My son shrugged his shoulders when he had finished. was three years old when he learned it. If he "The story is very ingenious," said he, in a has not forgotten it, if he can repeat even a few scornful tone," and might find men credulous words, doubt is impossible, for it is known only enough to believe it; but before replying to the to ourselves." reverend monk, I pray the council to hear the archer, from whom I learned the researches of the Lady of Varennes."
The Chancellor ordered him to be introduced, and Exaudi nos presented himself.
"St. Clotilde! thou who hast no child in Paradise, take mine under thy protection; be He affected a respectful timidity, which dis-near him, when I shall be no more, here and posed the Council favorably. After having reassured him, the Archbishop of Rheims asked him to declare what he knew, and Richard related how, on learning the search the Lady of Varennes was making, Father Cyrille had thought of presenting Remy in the place of the lost child, and had proposed to him to enter into the plot. This declaration was made with so much composure and precision, that the Council seemed shaken by it; but Jeanne, who had with- all my joys, to give him a hundred times as drawn apart to pray, as was her custom, ap-many!" proached at the moment, and, hearing the last words of Exaudi nos, exclaimed:
"St. Clotilde! I give thee my son, little, that thou mayest make a man of him; and weak, that thou mayest make him strong. Take away three days from my life, to add ten to his, and
"And if you escaped," added the monk," it is to the child, under God, that you owe it; for the voice, heard in the church of La Roche, was his." "If it is indeed thus," exclaimed Jeanne, "our noble king will not refuse to aid me in discharging a just debt."
This incident had produced a sudden re-action. The accusation against Exaudi nos, by Jeanne, had completely destroyed the effect of his testimony, and the service rendered to the heroine by Remy had evidently wakened the interest of the Council in his favor.
And seeking, with a glance around her, him who might be her son, the widow began to murmur, in a tremulous tone:
"If I dared speak before so many learned men," resumed Jeanne, "I would ask why the Lady of Varennes has not been summoned ? she may be able to recognize her son."
The members of the Council made a sign of assent; they consulted together for a moment, and after having caused the monk and Remy to withdraw behind the tapestry, they sent for the
mistress of the chateau."
By the true cross, I know this witness; it is he who traitorously plotted my death, when I" was on my way to the king."
At this unexpected declaration, there was a general movement; the surprised judges turned; Exaudi nos became pale, and Father Cyrille approached Jeanne.
"Yes, it is indeed he," resumed the latter, her glance resting upon Richard. "Aided by the messenger, he intended to drown me as I crossed the bridge."
The latter presented herself, accompanied by her almoner: she was a woman of forty years, who had been beautiful, but was now pale with sorrow and austerity. She wore the deep mourning of a widow. Informed that her son was in question, she believed him lost,-and her first exclamation demanded where he was. The Chancellor attempted to tranquillize her.
"He who claims this name has not proved his right to bear it," said he.
"Let him come forward," hastily replied the lady; "I have an infallible means of recognizing him, on the prayer of St. Clotilde, which has been transmitted from mother to mother in our
She stopped, palpitating, as if she had expected a reply to this species of appeal. Suddenly, a youthful and firm voice was heard, and continued:
The Lady of Varennes uttered a cry, extended her arms, and fell on her knees.
"He knows the prayer!" stammered she. It is he, my son !"
"My mother!" replied a voice.
And the curtain, hastily drawn aside, revealed Remy, who sprang into the arms of the widow!
Such scenes cannot be described. There were sobs of joy, names interchanged, embraces mingled with tears. The members of the Council were affected. Jeanne prayed and wept, and Father Cyrille, beside himself with joy, exclaimed: "I was sure of it-the horoscope had announced it. Persecuted by Taurus, succored by Virgo and Mars. Virgo and Mars is Jeanne, the pure and warlike Jeanne, sicut erat Pallas. Now, God save France! I have saved my little goatherd."
In assuming the name and rank belonging to his birth, Remy did not forget the past. Father Cyrille always remained, in his eyes, his benefac tor and spiritual father. The Lady of Varennes and himself retained him at the chateau, where they gave him a tower for a laboratory. As for Jeanne, she pursued her mission of deliverer, and after having conducted King Charles to Rheims, she continued to drive the English from province to province and from city to city. Learning at at last that Compiegne was besieged, she repaired thither.
But Messire de Flavi, who was governor of Compiegne, had not forgotten that it was especially to Jeanne that he was indebted for the loss of the fortune of the Lady of Varennes. In a sortie in which she had repulsed the enemy with her accustomed valor, she was left behind those who re-entered, and found the gates of the city closed! Taken prisoner by the English, she was judged, condemned as a sorceress, and burned alive at Rouen. When Remy learned her end, he wept at once for his benefactress and the deliverer of France. As for Father Cyrille, he sighed, but did not seem astonished.
"Very well," murmured he, "the horoscope is fulfilled: always the hostility of Taurus! Alas! no one can escape the judgments of God or the evil influences of his star!"
From the New Monthly Magazine. THE LION-KILLER OF ALGERIA.
Already at that time (he says, on an occasion when he was applied to by the people of Mahuna to disembarrass the tribe of a family of lions who had taken up their summer quarters in their
M. JULES GERARD is one of those extraordinary men who seem to have sprung from the French occupation of Algeria. In his own particular department, he can only be compared to the Changarniers, the Cavaignacs, the Lamoricières, the St. Arnauds-the élite of the African army in theirs. Still in the territory, and who much abused the rights of prime of life, he is in military rank only a hospitality), I had spent upwards of a hundred lieutenant of Spahis; but as le tueur de Lions nights alone and without shelter, sometimes his reputation has spread all over Europe and lions, at others beating the pathless woods. seated at the bottom of a ravine frequented by Africa; the Arabs go in quest of him from the most remote duars or encampments, in order to enlist his services against their most formidable enemy. Travellers and romancers have vied with one another in giving currency to his exploits. We are not quite sure if the inimitable Dumas does not boast of having shared a cotelette de lion with the African chasseur.
Only experience had taught me that two balls seldom sufficed to kill an adult lion, and every time that I started on a fresh excurson, I remembered, whether I liked it or not, that such a night appeared too long, either because I was overtaken by an attack of fever which made my hand shake, We grieve to find that so resolute a lion-ex-storm had broken over me, at the most inopporwhen I bade it be firm, or that some sudden terminator complains of wear of constitution by tune moment, and had prevented me seeing aught toil, privation, fatigue, exposure, and excite- around me for hours together, and that at the ment. My limbs," he tells us," are no longer very moment when the roar of a lion answered supple, my rifle weighs heavily in my hands. to the rolling of the thunder, and that so close to My breathing is oppressed on ascending the me, that I looked upon one flash of lightning as most trifling eminence-my eyes alone have a piece of good luck, for which, could it only remained good. The whole machine has have been prolonged a moment, I would have worn itself out in the field of honor; may you given half the blood that flowed in my veins. one day be able to say as much. But I shall nevertheless go on to the end, too happy if Saint Hubert grants me the favor of dying in the claws and the jaws of a lion.*
it out of spirit of nationality, in order to lower And yet I cherished this loneliness-I sought the hateful pride of the Arabs, whom I was happy to see humble themselves before a Frenchman, not so much for the services which he rendered them gratuitously, and at the peril of his life, but because he accomplished by himself that which they did not dare to do in numbers.
M. Jules Gerard has, according to his own account, spent six hundred nights alone in the African wilderness, exploring the ravines most favored by the king of beasts, or waiting at the most frequented passes and fords; he has in that time only seen twenty-five lions. a rencounter is not a thing of every day; it requires a vast fund of assiduity, endurance, and perseverance, and not the least curious part of such devoted enmity to the lion tribe is its origin-one which a traveller in the East can almost alone be expected to sympathize with. The spirit of the "Lion-Killer" was of that select nature which cannot bear to succumb
Thus, not only was every lion that fell, a matter of wonder to them,-but still less could they understand how a stranger could venture alone, of the country avoided even by broad daylight. and at night, in those ravines which the people
tolerate. He became resolved to teach them that a Frenchman could do what they could not-attack and slay a lion single-handed, by night, alone:
before man or animal-the very proof of this is his readiness on the other hand to bow down before the Creator, or to worship him through Saint Hubert-his patron saint. But he could not bear to be called a dog of a Christian. He saw that the Arabs were courageous-far more so than it is given to Europeans to bebut he saw also that they looked with supreme contempt and the most insufferable disdain at their French conquerors, and this he could not
La Chasse au Lion et les autres Chasses de l'Algerie, par Jules Gerard, precedees d'une introduction par M. Leon Bertrand, Directeur du Journal des Chasseurs.
DXXXIII. LIVING AGE. VOL. VL. 18
I had met with troops of marauders and with lions, and with the help of God and of Saint Hubert I had always got through successfully.
In the eyes of the Arabs, brave in war, brave everywhere, except in the presence of the master who they say holds his force from the Creator, the hunter did not require to awaken the duars of the mountain, by a distant explosion, in order to obtain a triumph.
It was sufficient that he should leave his tent
at the fall of night, and that he should return at break of day safe and well.
of this feeling among the Arabs made it a law It will be easily understood that the existence with me to continue in the career which I had marked out for myself, and that it was even of great help to me against emotions which were sometimes all-powerful, and against, I am not ashamed to add, the anguish of solitude by night in a country bristling with dangers of all kinds.
The national pride which had made me enter upon this career, once satisfied by repeated successes, I might have allowed myself to be accompanied by a few men, of great courage and devotedness, whose presence alone would have
rendered my task one of less irksomeness; but whom you will be always ready to make an alliI had so excited myself in favor of these noctur-ance, whatever may be the form under which he nal expeditions, face to face with my rifle, that shall present himself; in the second, the esteem, it often happened to me to pass my night in the the affection, the gratitude, and even more, of a woods, even when I had no hopes of meeting a multitude of people who are, and who will relion, wandering at haphazard till day would main hostile to all of your country and your relibreak upon me, far away from my tent, harassed gion; and, lastly, reminiscences which will give with fatigue, stumbling from sleepiness, and yet youth to your old age. proud of the manner I had passed my time, pleased with myself, and ready to begin again in the evening.
I scarcely believe that one of my readers will understand this impulse, for I doubt that I could have sympathized with it myself until I had experienced it.
If you do not return, which will grieve me both on your own account and mine, you may be sure that, at the spot where the Arabs shall find your remains, they will raise —not a mausoleum, as they say with us-but a heap of stones, on the top of which they will place broken pottery, rusty iron, a stray cannon-ball, a heap of things, which with them take the place of an epitaph, and signify: Here perished a man.
Should one of my numerous brethren of Saint Hubert come with me from evening till morning, for a whole month, in these savage glens which seem to be made for lions only, and should he have the good fortune to hear that magisterial voice which imposes silence and dread on all created beings, that man would certainly experience emotions which were before unknown to him; but still the presence of a fellow-creature no other." by his side would prevent his feeling, or even understanding, what is experienced by the hunter Before we describe in the words of the who is completely isolated. "Lion-Killer" how he dealt with the monarch
"You must understand that, with the Arabs, it is not sufficient to cultivate a pair of mustaches, or have a hirsute chin, to be a man, and that with them such an epitaph means a great deal more than many a well-set phrase. I only know that, so far as I am personally concerned, I wish for
From the moment that the first stars twinkle of the wilderness, it will be well to say in the heavens, till break of day, the latter is obliged to be perpetually on the look-out; to something as to how the Arabs vanquish this perceive and to distinguish every noise, to de- most formidable enemy to their flocks; and cide at once if he does not mistake stones for this again must be preluded by a few words marauders, or marauders for stones; to penetrate concerning the lion itself. It appears, then, with his eyes the thickness of the forest and the from the experiences obtained by M. Jules gloom that hangs over his pathway; to stop and Gerard, that lions are much more numerous listen, to be sure that he is not followed; in one than lionesses; hence it is not an uncommon word, to remember that he is momentarily in thing to meet one of these ladies accompanied danger of death, without hope of assistance; and, by three or four pretenders, who ever and as a sequence, he is always in a state of excite-anon indulge in a little skirmish, until dis ment, and yet ready to fight with that calmness and steadiness which do not always save him in so unequal a struggle, but without which he is lost, without a chance or a resource.
gusted at seeing none of these gallants bite the dust in her cause, the lioness conducts the trio into the presence of some great old lion, whose courage she has appreciated by hearing him roar.
Such are the very things that aroused in me the passion for hunting lions by night, and alone. If among the sportsmen for whom I have written these lines, there should be one who would wish to enter the lists; to make him understand the pleasures which may indemnify him for the moral and physical fatigues which any one following such a pursuit must of necessity be exposed to; I should say to such an one : lists are open to all; have yourself bravely in
"But away with all traps and pitfalls, all ambuscades, as practised by the Arabs!
Away with all daylight-hunting and the presence of witnesses, before whom you dare not be afraid!
"Wait for night, and at the first roar of the lion be off, but alone and on foot !
"If you do not find the lion, begin again next night, if you can, and then another, till your expedition has had a conclusion.
"If you come back from it, which I earnestly desire may be the case, so that I may give up my place to you, I promise you, in return for what you shall have gone through in the first place, for the future an utter indifference to death, with
The lovers resign themselves bravely to the combat, and arrive with the lioness in presence of their formidable rival.
No discussion takes place; the results of such a meeting are infallible. Attacked by the three pretenders, the old lion receives them without moving a step; with the first bite he kills one, with the second he grinds a leg of another, and the third may think himself well off if he gets away with one eye, leaving the other in the claws of the conqueror.
When two grown-up lions meet under similar circumstances matters take a different turn:
Muhammed, great hunter of all kinds of animals except lions, was, one fine moon-light night, perched upon an oak, waiting for a hind he had seen in company with some stags. The tree upon which he had posted himself, stood in the midst of an extensive glade, and close by a pathway.
THE LION-KILLER OF ALGERIA.
About midnight he saw a lioness arrive, fol- that time. The Arabs also try to capture the lowed by a yellow lion with full mane. The lion cubs, watching for a moment when the lioness left the pathway, and came and laid down parents are away. This is a feat not unacat the foot of the oak; the lion remained upright, companied by danger; witness the following
and seemed to listen.
Muhammad then heard a distant roaring-so distant as to be scarcely perceptible, but the In the month of March, 1840, a lioness cubbed lioness answered it. The lion then began to roar in a wood called Al Guala, situated in the mounso lustily that the terrified Arab let his fall gun whilst laying hold of the branches to prevent him-tain of Maziyun, among the Zirdasah. The chief of the country, Zaidan, summoned Sidak ban self from tumbling down from the tree. Umbark, shaikh of the tribe of Bani Furral, his neighbor; and on the day appointed thirty men day of each tribe met on the Maziyun by break of
As the animal which had first been heard came nearer, the lioness roared still more loudly, whilst the lion paced backwards and forwards, looking now and then furiously at the lioness, as if to impose silence on her, and then turning round, as if to say: "Well, come, I am waiting for you."
The sixty Arabs, after having, surrounded the bush in every direction, hurrahed lustily, and seeing no lioness make its appearance, they pushed into the cover, and captured two cubs.
They were returning noisily, thinking that they had nothing further to apprehend from the the mother, when Shaikh Sidak, who had remained a little behind, saw her coming out of the wood and making right towards him.
He hastened to call his nephew, Maka-ud, and his friend, Ali ban Braham, who ran to his assistance. The lioness, instead of attacking the shaikh, who was on horseback, rushed upon the nephew, who was on foot.
The latter waited for her without flinching, and only pulled his trigger when the animal was Whilst bones were cracking under the ful jaws of these terrible adversaries, their claws upon him. The old weapon flashed in the pan. Maka-ud then threw down his gun, and presentwere tearing out their entrails, which lay palpi-ed his left arm to the lioness wrapped in his burtating on the grass, and stifled angry moans spoke at once of their passion and their suffer-nus. The latter seized it and ground it to pieces, whilst the gallant young fellow, without recoilings. ing a step, or uttering a single groan, seized a pistol which he carried under his burnus, and obliged the lioness to let go, by putting two balls into its belly.
At the expiration of an hour, a lion black as a boar (the lion with a black mane appears, as in Southern Africa, to be stronger and more ferocious than the lion with a yellow mane) made his appearance in the glade. The lioness rose up to meet him, but the lion at once placed himself between her and the new-comer. Both stooped to take their spring, bounded simultaneously against one another, and then rolled upon the greensward in the midst of the glade, to rise no more.
The struggle was long and frightful to behold by the involuntary witness of this duel.
The lioness had lain down on her belly from the beginning of the combat to the end; and she testified, by wagging the tip of her tail, how much pleasure she experienced at seeing these two lions destroying one another for her sake.
When all was over, she cautiously approached the two bodies to smell them, after which she slowly took her way to other districts, without condescending to reply to the rather coarse epithet which Muhammad could not prevent himself (for want of a ball) applying to her, and not without some justifiable reasons.
A moment afterwards the lioness threw her
self upon Ali ban Braham, who sent a ball into her throat with little effect; he was seized by the shoulders and thrown down; his right hand was ground to atoms, several ribs were laid bare, and he only owed his safety to the death of the lioness, which expired over his body.
Ali ban Braham survived this adventure, but a lame and useless man; Maka-ud died twentyfour days afterwards.
What De Balzac was to the Parisians, M. Jules Gerard is to the lionesses. This example of conjugal infidelity applies itself, he tells us, to the whole sex. Yet nothing can exceed the cares and the attentions of the wedded lion. He always walks behind his lady; if she stops, he stops also. If they arrive at a duar which is to furhish supper she lies down, whilst he bravely throws himself over the inclosure, and brings her whatever she has *The Arabic of Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco selected as most worthy of her; nor does he (Mughribu-l-Aksa and Mughribu-l-Ausat, whence venture to eat himself till she has satisfied her our Moors) differs materially from that of Egypt appetite. Such attentions deserve a better and Arabia Proper; hence we have adopted, when available, Count Graberg's vocabulary, published fate. When a lioness is about to cub, she re-in the seventh volume of the Journal of the Royal pairs to some isolated and little-frequented ra- Geographical Society. The French write el for al, vine. The lion keeps watch at a short dis- the: oun for un, as in ain, ayun, spring, springs; cheik tance. The cubs, especially the females, suf- for shaikh; douar for duar, encampment: Ouled for Ulut tribe; and oued for wad, a river, plural audifer much from dentition, and many perish at yah, rivers; or in Morocco, widan.
The cubs begin to attack sheep or goats that stray into their neighborhood by the time they are from eight months to a year old. Sometimes they even try a cow, but they are so unskilful that often ten are wounded for one killed, and the father is obliged to lend a helping paw.
It is not, indeed, till they are two years of age that young lions know how to strangle a camel, a horse, or an ox, with a single grasp at their throats, or to bound over the hedges about a couple of yards in height, which are supposed to protect the duars.
At this period of their life lions are truly ruinous to the Arabs. They kill not only to obtain food, but to learn to kill. It can be easily understood what such an apprenticeship must cost to those who have to furnish the elements. The lions are adult at eight years of age; the male has then a full mane, and the Arabs distinguish the chief with a black mane, al adriya, the most formidable of all; the yellow lion, al asfar; and the gray lion, al zarzuri. The yellow and gray lions wander over wide tracts of country, but the black lion has been known to reside for thirty years in the same spot. Lions do not feed by day—the time at which travellers have passed such, or met with them with impunity. At night-time such a rencounter would, our experienced hunter asserts, be most assuredly fatal to any one except to so practised a shot as M. Jules Gerard himself, or to so gallant a sportsman as Mr. Gordon Cumming:
Some years before the occupation of Constantine by the French, among the prisoners in the town there were two condemned to death, two brothers, who were to be executed the next
These men were ham-stringers on the highway, and many traits of their strength and daring were related. The Bey, fearing an evasion, had had a foot of each united in the same iron shackle, and this riveted on the flesh.
No one knows how it happened, but certain it is, that when the executioner presented himself in the morning, the prison was empty.
In the mean time, after many ineffectual at tempts to rid themselves of their horrible shackle, the two brothers had taken to the open country,
to avoid all untoward rencounters.
When the day broke they hid themselves among the rocks, and when night came they continued their journey. About midnight they met with a lion.
The two robbers began by throwing stones at him, shouting at the same time as lustily as they could, to endeavor to frighten him, but the animal couched himself before them and never
Finding that insults and opprobrious epithets were of no avail, the brothers had then recourse to prayers; but the lion bounded upon them, threw them down, and without further to do set to work eating up the elder by the side of his brother, who simulated death.
devil who remained behind sought for some place to hide himself; and, luckily, finding a hole, he dragged himself and his brother's leg into it. Shortly afterwards he heard the lion the hole in which he was hid. At last day broke, roar passionately, and pass several times near
and the animal went away.
At the moment when the unfortunate man was getting out of his hole, he found himself in presence of several of the Bey's horsemen, who were on the look-out for the lost prisoners. One of them took him up behind, and he was conveyed back to prison.
The Bey not being able to credit the story as related to him, he ordered the man to be brought before him, still dragging with him his brother's leg. Notwithstanding his reputation for cruelty, Ahmed Bey, on seeing the man, ordered his shackles to be let loose, and set him at liberty.
M. Jules Gerard calculates that every lion and sheep, to the value of 300l. consumes annually, horses, mules, camels, oxen lions, he says, which in the present day are to be The thirty met with in the province of Constantine, and which will be replaced by others from Tunis or Morocco, cost annually 4000l. The Arab who pays five franes taxes to the state, pays fifty francs to the lion. These poor people have burnt down half the woods in Algeria to rid themselves of these destructive neighbors. The authorities have inflicted heavy fines for such destruction of forests; but the Arabs have clubbed together to pay the fines, and continue to fire the woods.
The most striking features in the lion's character are, according to our experienced lion-killer, idleness, impassibility, and audacity. As to his magnanimity, he is no believer in such a thing, which is, indeed, opposed to the animal's instincts-the more powerful as influences, save satiety, indifference, or cauthey are uncontrolled by any counteracting tion. The Arab proverb says, "When you start for a journey, do not go alone, and arm yourself as if you were going to meet a lion."
The Arabs, according to Mr. Jules Gerard, have found by experience that the gun alone is a means of destruction more dangerous for man than for a lion;so they have adopted snares instead; but it is manifest that snares to catch lions must have been in use before even guns were invented.
The snare most in use is the pit. During the spring, summer, and autumn months, the Arabs can establish their duar at some twenty or thirty miles from the lion-frequented mountains and forests; but in winter they are obliged to come nearer to both for fuel and shelter. This is a period when the lions enjoy
When he came to the leg that was held by the shackle, the lion, feeling an obstacle, he cut it off below the knee. This done, being satisfied themselves exceedingly. The Arabs, too lazy or thirsty, he took himself off to a neighboring to work themselves, get the Kabyles to come spring. Thinking that the lion would come back and dig a pit for them in the very centre of
the moment he had satisfied his thirst, the poor