and without a fear."

Death, which I see approaching step by step, the world, were purchased by the Odescalchi does not alarm me. I await it without a wish family; her books and manuscripts, by a future pope, and they are now to be seen in the Bishop Burnet visited Rome in 1687, and library of the Vatican. The pope had offered she seems to have been very facetious with her 60,000 Roman crowns for the pictures the bustling, learned prelate: she told him hung in her presence-chamber. Pictures she had now become one of the antiquities once belonging to her, now adorn the walls of Rome. She said to him: "Providence had of Stafford House, the Bridgewater Gallery, need have a special care of this Holy See of and the National Gallery. The funeral was ours; for since I have lived here, I have seen celebrated with great pomp in the church of four popes, and (with an oath) all fools and St. Peter, the pope officiating, all the cardinals blockheads." Christina was a great patroness and chief nobility assisting at the ceremony. of music, and even in Sweden had some of the She had desired that her only epitaph should best Italian musicians in her service; and the be these words: Vixit Christina anni LXIII. first theatre for operas in Rome was erected in (Christina lived sixty-three years); but there 1671, partly under her auspices. Dr. Burney is said to be a long Latin inscription on the says: The year 1680 is rendered memorable cenotaph in St. Peter's, erected to her memory to musicians by the opera of L'Onesta d'Amore. by Cardinal Albani. Cardinal Azzolini died ... This early production of Scarlatti was three months after Christina, and thus derived performed in the palace of the queen of Swe- no personal advantage from his vast inheritden." This elegant and original composer, the ance. Christina left behind her several works founder of the Neapolitan School of music, and in manuscript, some of which were lost, and a the precursor of Handel and Purcell, always great collection of letters. Arckenholtz pubremembered her with the most lively gratitude. lished her Reflections on the Life and CharacShe had a perfect passion for medals, and once ter of Alexander the Great. She left some contemplated giving a history of her life in a maxims, after the manner of Rochefoucauld, a series of these, the designs by herself. Nearly few of which we give : — one hundred were indeed engraved, the last of which has her head on one side, a bird of paradise on the other, soaring far above land, sea, and clouds, with an Italian inscription thus translated: "I was born, have lived, and will die free." When sitting to Dahl, the Swedish painter, she asked him what he intended to put in her hand. "A fan, please your majesty." "A fan!" she exclaimed, starting up with a tremendous oath, "a fan!A lion, man! a lion is fitter for the queen of Sweden!" One day, when she was laughing and talking during mass, the pope, as a gentle rebuke, sent her his own rosary. Her reply was a vulgar Italian expression, signifying that she had not become a Catholic to tell her beads.

"Fools are more to be feared than the wicked.

Whatever is false is ridiculous.

There is a species of pleasure in suffering from the ingratitude of others, which is reserved for great minds alone.

We should never speak of ourselves either good or evil.

There is a star above us which unites souls of the first order, though worlds and ages separate them.

To suffer for having acted well, is itself a species of recompense.

Life becomes useless and insipid, when we have no longer either friends or enemies.

We grow old more through indolence than through age.

The Salique law, which excludes women from the throne, is a just and a wise law.

Cruelty is the result of baseness and cowardice.

This life is like an inn, in which the soul spends a few moments on its journey.

It appears that in her last days, wearied of her standing dispute with the pope, she had entered into negotiations with the view of erecting for herself an independent principality in Germany; but the hand of death arrested her, and a malignant fever (with which, from her naturally strong constitution, she To speak truth, and to do good, is to restruggled hard-twice recovering after she semble, in some sort, the Deity we worship." had been given over) at length carried her off, The fragment of her autobiography a late on the 19th of April, 1689, aged sixty-three thought, which she did not live to completeyears and four months. In her last moments, is solemnly dedicated to the Author of her beshe sent to solicit pardon of the pope for her ing, "as having been, by His grace, the most offences against himself; and he, apparently favored of all His creatures." She thanks as forgiving as she was humble, sent her a him for having made subservient to his glory plenary absolution for all her sins. Azzolini and to her happiness, the vigor of her mind, drew up a will, by which, with the exception the possession of health, fortune, royal birth, of a few legacies, he was made sole heir to her greatness, and all that could result from an asproperty, amounting to about £500,000 of our semblage of noble and admirable qualities. money. Her medals and antiques, the finest in To have made her absolute sovereign over the LIVING AGE. VOL. VI. 2


bravest and most glorious nation of the earth, ness, the policy, and the humanity of her was, she says, assuredly the least of her obli- views. When misery and wretchedness folgations to him, since, after having bestowed lowed-when many districts of France were upon her all these blessings, he had called her nearly depopulated when, in one silk-mill, to the glory of making the most perfect sacri- the number of workers was reduced from 700 fice of all her fortune, her greatness, and her to 70, and other manufactories in nearly the splendor for his sake, and greatly restoring same proportion — while, scared and terrified what he had so graciously lent her. She then at the appalling effects of their own work, the gives a list of her faults, which she says she very men who had shouted and exulted, and had the power to dissemble, but did not take led the van in the dire work of persecution, pains to correct. "I was distrustful, suspicious, were many of them sheltering the wretched ambitious, to an excess. I was choleric and Protestants, and assisting them to escape from hasty, proud and impatient, scornful and sar-the fair land of their birth, carrying industry castic." She says she had many other faults, and prosperity to many a barren spot, now to which she passes over in silence, only with this blossom and triumph over desolate France — complacent remark," because there is nothing again Christina could lift her voice and say: perfect in this world.' "I foretold all this." We are glad to give this Christina prided herself much on her pro- testimony to her moderation and her presciphetic powers, and on her vast penetration; ence, saddened however by the regret that on that acute spirit of calculation as to the those qualities did not extend to, or rather springs of human action, and to which she gave begin with, her own conduct and the regulathe name of "terrestrial astrology." It was tion of her own affairs. Wonder, however, we one of her maxims: "Terrestrial astrology is do not, seeing that the wisdom even of the better than celestial." In a letter to Olive-wisest of men is too often exercised exclusive kraus, she says: "Without being an astrolo- of themselves - so rare is the combination of ger, I predicted everything that has happened coolness and insight, the faculty, or the willingto the king of England; and the affair of the ness to use it, of seeing as clearly with the eyes persecution of the Huguenots of France, has of others as with their own. Passion, prejubeen the last fatal blow to this poor prince, dice, or what we think to be our own interest, who, too much of a bigot and too little of a first settles the matter; then comes the mockpolitician, has brought about his own ruin by trial at which the judgment performs no higher allowing himself to be governed by the cursed part than that of a suborned witness. A fresh, race of Jesuits and monks, who always spoil untutored, even unsound mind, nay, a child, everything they meddle with." She saw in may thus pronounce a better sentence for us Cromwell another Gustavus Vasa, and loved than we can for ourselves. Now, Christina we to compare him with her great ancestor; and hold to have been of decidedly unsound mind; ridiculed the pomposity and laborious trifling not of that description of unsoundness which of Louis XIV, at a time when he was either freed her from responsibility, but which, leavfeared or lauded and deified by the whole of ing her still among "the unconfined," renEurope; and Cromwell, on the other hand, dered her dangerous both to herself and othscorned and vilified, denied even the posses-ers. In her very soberest moments, her charsion of talent necessary for the maintenance of acter abounded in the most unexampled conhis usurpation. Then at the time of the revo-tradictions; and when her passions were excation of the Edict of Nantes, when the sage cited, she made a total wreck of reason and and grave Chancellor Le Tellier exultingly humanity. She saw into every inconsistency, left the presence of his master, after receiving and yet was inconsistent to the last degree. his signature to the fatal deed, and before the She left a maxim against egotism, and was the ink was dry, devoutly pronounced the Nunc greatest egotist of her day. She was honest dimittis; when the easy, pleasant, and humane and open to a fault, reckless of appearances Madame de Séveigné was writing to her frigid, and in giving of offence; her frankness startungrateful daughter, in high delight at the ling and abashing mankind, her audacity causnews, saying how fine a thing it was, compared ing them to tremble; and yet from the meanto which no king had ever done or ever could est and most paltry motives, and to serve the or would do aught so memorable; when the most petty ends, she would pursue for weeks highest masters were profaning their sacred and months, a steady, sure, and skilfully-laid divine-lent talent- one drawing pictures of train of dissembling, in which she, the most hideous forms flying at sight of the chalice, impatient of human beings, exhibited all the another representing the writings of Huss and patience we are wont to ascribe to those who Calvin, with an enormous bat covering them have attained an entire mastery over their Over- Christina could proudly say: "I re- passions. She could show the greatest magmonstrated against all this;" and her admira- nanimity, could forgive the offender and raise ble letters to Louis himself, and to the Cheva- the fallen; with untiring benevolence she lier Terlon, are still extant, to attest the clear-could foster genius, and minister to the neces

sities of the poor; and yet she was cruel and effects of her generous piety;" in another place, "the magistrates presented the queen with fish, wine, and oats-presents usually made to all princes and great persons by the imperial cities of Germany." We are told how Holstenius, and Father Malines, the Jesuit, were despatched by the pope to meet the queen at Innsprück, and the letter of His Holiness is faithfully given: "To Our most dear daughter in Christ, Christina, the illustrious Queen of Swedland;" and, concluding, "given at Rome at St. Maries the greater, under the seal of the Fisher," etc. And then how "the queen very reverently received it, and with a modest blush, showed evident signs of the joy in her heart." Then follows an


revengeful, standing like a vulture over its prey, and quite as impervious to pity. She could receive Jesuits at her court, and sent to Spain for others still more famous for skill in controversy; hold long and deep converse with them, affect to be convinced by their arguments, and profess to be guided by their principles; then act out the whole trick of her conversion, in which she neither deceived herself nor the world: and afterwards, when boasting of her insight and the fulfilment of her prophecies, she could unceremoniously set them aside as "a cursed race who spoil everything they meddle with." Not that her insight had not its bounds. We say nothing of her being duped by an impudent, ignorant account of the public profession made by quack like Bourdelot, for that was only for a Christina in this city, at which “the queen time; but to the very last, the false and subtle was cloathed in a gown of black silk, very Azzolini ruled her by a system of such match-plain, and without any ornament but a crosse less duplicity, the very perfection of the art, of five faire and rich diamonds at her breast;' bowing, and cringing, and ensnaring, ruling and how "Father Standacter, a Jesuit preachher absolutely, while she imagined she ruled, er, made a sermon in Dutch, so elegant, learnthat she continued to regard him as one of the ed, and so fit for that action, that it ravisht first of men, and spoke of him as greater than the affections and applauses of all;" and how Oxenstiern, who, with open front and honest "the Te Deum was accompanied by the roarheart, had spoken the truth to her, who had ing of above fifty pieces of artillery, many borne with all her ingratitude, and wept bit-mortar pieces, and an infinite number of muster tears when he put his hand to that deed kets, as likewise with the ringing of the bells." which placed it beyond his power to serve her At the church of St. Dominique, in Bologna, longer. "she beheld the five books of Moses, written There is a curious old book, published some in Hebrew, in thin leather, by the prophet two centuries ago, called The History of the Esdras, and read some of the words." At Sacred and Royal Majesty of Christina Ales- Ancona she saw "the tip of the iron of the sandra, Queen of Swedland, with the Reasons lance which opened the side of the Lord of her late Conversion to the Roman Catho- Jesus; the right foot of St. Anne, the mother lique Religion; as also a Relation of the sever- of the most glorious Virgin Mary; and the al Entertainments given her by divers Princes queen kneeled before them, and kissed them in her Journey to Rome, with her magnificent with great devotion." At Loretto, this devoReception into that City-written, evidently, tion reached its height. "As soon as she disby a devout Catholic, desirous of doing all covered the top of the holy house, she alighted honor to so illustrious a convert. There is out of her litter, and kneeling with very great much amusing prolixity in describing her devotion, kissed often the ground, then regreat devoutness, and the wearisome ceremo- turned into her litter, going on to the bending nies it was necessary to go through on the of the mountain, when afterwards she alighted way. We are told, that when she got beyond again, and walked to the church." Here she the Swedish boundaries, "she was taken with completed her renunciation of all the pomps a plurisy, or stitch in the breast, which forced and vanities of the world by laying down "at her to stay eight daies;" that when she heard the feet of the holy image her crown and her at Brussels of the death of her mother, "she royal scepter, empailed with jewels of great quickly retired to a house without Bruxells, value." called Tervoren, and remained there three We are not here to account for the discrepweeks, to divert her afflictions, returning ancies of authors. We think we have fairly thence afterwards to the city, where all did represented the character and career of Chriscondole with her majestie; she likewise put tina. She has been charged with gross imon mourning in her mind, depriving it of all morality, we are inclined to think, without recreation and passetime;" that at Cullen (Co- reason. It is easy to imagine how such a logne), where she was welcomed by all the charge should arise; difficult, indeed, to see canon on the walls," there, also, "the magis- how she could escape it. Her strange recktrates gave her the accustomed present of lessness and way wardness-her unwomanly twenty-five great bottles of wine, which the ways, manners, and language-all she did, and queen caused to be given to the Carmelite all she left undone, formed one of those unacdiscalceat nuns, together with other almes, the countable medleys to which the vulgar must

add a climax, in their uneasy, restless dislike, we find Catholic authors, in their natural exto everything that is mysterious. Her deser- ultation over a distinguished convert, not only tion of her people when they were still will- concealing the worst of her eccentricities, and ing to have her rule over them, even after she clipping her down into the shape of an ordihad begun to be negligent of their interests; nary mortal, but proceeding thereafter to dress her open contempt for her own sex, and the her up in the garb of a saint, we are entitled sums she lavished on unworthy objects, would to demur. She will ever remain a striking naturally sharpen the imaginations of many example of the worse than uselessness of great to recount wonderful stories after her depar- talents, high station, and splendid opportuniture, which had no previous existence or foun- ties, without that sobriety of mind, that steaddation. Many zealous Protestants, also, must iness of walk, that appropriation and applihave been too seriously offended by her cation, and well-measured use of great gifts, change of faith, to deal out even-handed jus- which can alone render those available. tice to her. But when, on the other hand,

From the Examiner.

ment, and for those master touches which The Encyclopædia Britannica, or Dictionary bring out the true expression of the man. of Arts, Sciences and General Literature. The strength, humor, grace of style, liberality Eighth Edition. With extensive Improve-of tone, keenness of perception, and thorough ments and Additions; and numerous En-relish for the subject manifest in the writing gravings. Vols. I-V. Edinburgh: Adam of this little memoir, indicate plainly enough and Charles Black. the owner of the signature T. B. M. by whom the Encyclopædia has been in this case enriched.

THE republication of this standard work goes on in a manner worthy of the reputation which Mr. Macaulay represents to us vividly and began with its first appearance about eighty in few words, the boy, John Bunyan, born years ago. Then, much knowledge of which tinker, with a powerful imagination and keen it now treats was in its infancy, and three sensibility excited by religious terrors, growquarto volumes were enough to hold its sum- ing up to a tormented youth. Of the depramary of literature, art, and science. With vity and profligacy commonly attributed to every edition since, the work has been made him, on his own testimony, as characteristic of to keep pace with the world, and as men are his tinker days, so far as such words have a in these days not satisfied with meagre heads real meaning in our own ears, he is here of information that would have perfectly satis-proved guiltless. His four chief sins were fied the curiosity of their forefathers, the dancing, ringing the bells of the parish church, result is, that of this eighth edition of the En-plying at the tip-cat, and reading the history cyclopædia five thick quartos have been issued, of Sir Bevis of Southampton. Another sin and we are still only finishing the letter B. indeed is named which appears somewhat more real to us, but his habit of swearing was cured by one reproof. "A Rector of the school of Laud," Mr. Macaulay observes, "would have held such a young man up to the whole parish as a model. But Bunyan's notions of good and evil had been learned in a very different school; and he was made miserable by the conflict between his tastes and his scruples."

Let us look simply at the volume last issued. There, under the head of Botany, we find the treatise by Professor Balfour to be a complete work by itself, in which none of the latest advances in that science seem to be left unrecorded. Britain, again, furnishes the topic for a very important detailed history of the United Kingdoms of England and Scotland. And yet even such articles as these-books of themselves-form but a comparatively small proportion of the volume to which they belong.

At seventeen Bunyan enlisted in the parliamentary army, and served during the campaign of 1645. Then it was that his imagination became stored with those impressions of the pomp and circumstance of war, which furnished afterwards so many of his illustrations,

The smaller articles seem all to have been revised with care, and are remarkable for their fulness and general accuracy. Many new heads have been introduced, or old papers and supplied him with his Greatheart, his Capreplaced with better from the ablest hands. tain Boanerges, and his Captain Credence. Among these we have been most struck with The campaigning over, he went home and a delightful short biography of Bunyan, which married. And then his fancy again became in a few pages presents that quaint old worthy the prey of the religious excitement and fanato us as a breathing figure, in a sketch admir- ticism prevalent, and his terrors, temptations, able for its picturesque and thoughtful treat-and self-accusations bordered on insanity.

compare his Pilgrim, was his old favorite, the legend of Sir Bevis of Southampton. He would have thought it a sin to borrow any time from the serious business of his life, from his expositions, his controversies, and his lace tags, for the purpose of amusing himself with what he considered merely as a trifle. It was only, he as sures us, at spare moments that he returned to the House Beautiful, the Delectable Mountains,

and the Enchanted Ground. He had no assist

As he grew older, reason strengthened, and a spirit of sound sense got vigor enough to subdue, or nearly to subdue, the wildness of these fantasies. He joined a Baptist Society at Bedford, and after a time began to preach; yet we are told it was long before he ceased to be tormented by an impulse which urged him to utter words of horrible impiety in the pulpit. With the Restoration there came persecu-ance. Nobody but himself saw a line till the tion of dissenters, and Bunyan's well-known whole was complete. He then consulted his imprisonment in Bedford jail lasted, with pious friends. Some were pleased; others were some intervals, during twelve years. He was much scandalized. It was a vain story, a mere told that if he would give up preaching he romance about giants, and lions, and goblins, should be set free; but not even his strong do- and warriors, sometimes fighting with monsters, and sometimes regaled by fair ladies in stately mestic affections tempted this brave fellow from palaces. The loose atheistical wits at Will's the path that seemed to him the path of duty might write such stuff to divert the painted JezHe had several small children, and among ebels of the court, but did it become a minister them a blind daughter, whom he loved with of the gospel to copy the evil fashions of the peculiar tenderness. "He could not, he said, world? There had been a time when the cant bear even to let the wind blow on her; and of such fools would have made Bunyan miseranow she must suffer cold and hunger; she must ble. But that time was passed, and his mind beg; she must be beaten; yet," he added, "I was now in a firm and healthy state. He saw that in employing fiction to make truth clear and must, I must do it." goodness attractive, he was only following the example which every Christian ought to propose to himself, and he determined to print.

The Pilgrim's Progress stole silently into the world. Not a single copy of the first edition is known to be in existence. The year of publication has not been ascertained. It is probable char-that, during some months the little volume circulated only among poor and obscure sectaries. But soon the irresistible charm of a book which gratified the imagination of the reader with all the action and scenery of a fairy tale, which exercised his ingenuity by setting him to discover a multitude of curious analogies, which interested his feelings for human beings, frail like himself, and struggling with temptations from within and from without, which every moment drew a smile from him by some stroke of quaint yet simple pleasantry, and nevertheless left on his mind a sentiment of reverence for God, and of sympathy for man, began to produce its effect. In puritanical circles, from which plays and novels were strictly excluded, that effect was such as no work of genius, though it were superior to the Iliad, to Don Quixote, or to Othello, can ever produce on a mind accustomed to indulge in literary luxury. In 1678 came forth a second edition with additions, and then the demand became immense. In the four following years the book was reprinted six times. The eighth edition, which contains the last improvements made by the author, was published in 1682, the ninth The help of the enin 1684, the tenth in 1685. graver had early been called in, and tens of thousands of children looked with terror and delight on execrable copperplates which represented Christian thrusting his sword into ApolLyon, or writhing in the grasp of Giant Despair. In Scotland, and in some of the colonies, the Pilgrim was even more popular than in his native country. Bunyan has told us, with very pardonable vanity, that in New England his dream was the daily subject of the conversation

That he studied during this imprisonment the Bible and the Book of Martyrs, and that he there began to write, all the world knows. In his first writings he had not found his whole power, but at last he began the "Pilgrim's Progress," a work of which Mr. Macaulay thus strikingly relates both the history and


Before he left his prison he had begun the book which has made his name immortal. The history of that book is remarkable. The author was, as he tells us, writing a treatise, in which he had occasion to speak of the stages of the Christian progress. He compared that progress, as many others had compared it, to a pilgrimage. Soon his quick wit discovered innumerable points of similarity which had escaped his predecessors. Images came crowding on his mind faster than he could put them into words, quagmires and pits, steep hills, dark and horrible glens, soft vales, sunny pastures, a gloomy castle of which the court yard was strewn with the skulls and bones of murdered prisoners, a town all bustle and splendor, like London on the Lord Mayor's day, and the narrow path, straight as a rule could make it, running on up hill and down hill, through city and through wilderness, to the Black River and the Shining Gate. He had found out, as most people would have said, by accident, as he would doubtless have said, by the guidance of Providence, where his powers lay. He had no suspicion, indeed, that he was producing a masterpiece. He could not guess what place his allegory would occupy in English literature, for of English literature he knew nothing. Those who suppose him to have studied the Fairy Queen might easily be confuted, if this were the proper place for a detailed examination of the passages in which the two allegories have been thought to resemble each other. The only work of fiction, in all probability, with which he could

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