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misery. This shews us, therefore, that the misery of the unhappy sinners who die out of Christ, is aggravated by each other's former acquaintance; and, having been temptations to each other in the ways of Satan, are tormentors of one another. If so, horv plain the reverse in the world of bliss !
SECOND LETTER FROM DR. FRANKLIN
TO THE REV. MR. WHITEFIELD.
New York, July 2, 1756. I RECEIVED your favour of the 24th of February with great plcasure, as it informed me of your welfare, and expressed your continued regard for me, I thank you for the pamphlet you inclosed to me.
As we had just observed a provincial fast un the same occasion, I thought it very seasonable to be published in Pennsylvania; and accordingly reprinted it immediately:
You mention your frequent wish that you were a chaplain to an American army. I sometimes wish that you and I were jointly employed by the crown to settle a colony on the Olsio. I imagine that we could do it effectually, and without putting the nation to much expence;-but I fear we shall never be called upon for such a service. What a glorious thing it would be, to settle in that fine country a large, strong body of religious and industrious people! What a security to the other colonies, and advantage to Britain, by increasing her people, territory, Strength, and commerce! Might it not greatly facilitate the introduction of pure religion among the heathen, if we could, by such a colony, shew them a better sample of Christians than they commonly see in our Indian traders? the most vicious and abandoned wretches of our nation! Life, like a dramatic piece, should not only be conducted with regularity, but, methinks, it should finish handsomely. Being now in the last act, I begin to cast about for something fit to end with. Or, if mine be more properly compared to an epigram, as some of its lines are but barely tolerable, I am very desirous of concluding with a bright point. In such an enterprize I could spend the remainder of life with pleasure: and I firmly believe God would bless us with success, if we undertook it with a sincere regard to his honour, the service of our gracious king, and (which is the same thing) the public good.
I thank you cordially for your generous benefaction to the German schools. They go on pretty well; and will do better, when Mr. Smith, who has at present the principal care of them, shall learn to mind party-writing and party-politics less, and his proper business wore ; which, I hope, time will bring about.
ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF SOCIAL PRAYER. 51 I thank you for your good wishes and
your good wislaes and prayers; and am, with the greatest esteem and affection,
ON THE PROPER IMPROVEMENT OR
To the Editor. It has often, and, I think, very justly, been said, that prayer is the breath of spiritual life. No time is so important as that which is spent in intercourse with God: in no other engagement is the manner in which our minds are employed of equal consequence. It is necessary to kcep this in remembrance, when we converse in secret with our heavenly Father; it is not less so, when we join with fellow Christians in public, domestic, or occasional devotion. A great majority of your readers, I trust, are often called to unite in that kind of worship which is conducted by one among them for the profit of the rest. Those of them who, in public prayer, are accustomed to the form of sound words prescribed by the religious establishment of this country, are nevertheless, probably, used, in familyworship, to follow the effusions of the heart, offered up by those who are charged, not only with supplying their temporal wants, but likewise, in a great measure, with the care of their souls. Many of your readers are, doubtless, almost strangers to any other social prayer than that which is conducted, without a premeditated form, by one person, in the name of others present.
Being myself favoured with frequent opportunities, both of leading and of following others in united prayer, I have been convinced, by experience, that it is far more difficult to worship spiritually in the latter case, than in the former. When speaking in prayer, the necessity of fixed and connected thought affords å help to devotion ; for want of which, the mind, when committed to the guidance of another, is often wandering or listless. In conversation with friends, I have learned that this was their experience also; and such a degree of observation, as cannot easily be avoided in dissenting congregations, is sufficient to excite an apprehension, that the defect is too general. However spiritual and well qualified the minister may be for conducting the devotions of an assembly, it is obvious, that many present are rather inattentive hearers thin fervent fellow-worshippers.
I have never met with a publication in which the spiritual improvement of social worship is more profitably treated, than one on public prayer, published by Buckland in 1700; which is now, I believe, very scarce. A portion of it, which relates to the proper actings of the soul is those who join public praver, has been peculiarly useful to me, and to others with whom I have conversed on the subject. At the desire of one of those friends, who hoped it might be of general benefit, I inclose to you the following extraets. The authors (for I understand it to have been the joint composition of two respectable ministers) recommand,
“ ist, To fix or engage our thoughts in such a manner, as to go along with the prayer of the coinmon speaker. A roving mind, or fancy, in full chace after vain and carnal things, utterly inars the best worded prayer; yei, renders it a heap of shameful absurdities and proplaneness in the eye and esiecin of the heart-searching God.”-Some instances are then produced, of the manner in which a rambling imagination may distort and pervert a leading expression of the speaker, by connerting it with worldly and tritling objects; and the writer
proceeds, " What a ridiculous profane medley is prayer, when intermingled with such carnal tbonghts as these! Wbo durst offer nje such a prayer w Ciod, it the whole of it were clothed in words? But does not every carnal worshipper bring as absurà a odley-offering as this before God, in almost every prayer be joins in? God grant this familiar representation may make us ashamed of every thing like it, and for ever deter us from it!
“ But how inuch sooner may an evil of this sort be seen and disapproved, than redressed! In nothing is the corruption and weakness of the human nature more lamentably experienced, than in depravity and ungovernableness of the thoughts in devotional exercises. When the soul should rise to God in prayer, how otien doth it send forth swarns of vain thoughts, which, like locusts out of the bottomless pit, hang in clusters upon each praying request! To expel them effectually, is a more difficult task thaii Ibraham undertook, in driving away those numerous socks of
which darted down upon his sacriticos; but it must be done, it we would aut. have those holy offerings which we bring to God's altar devoured before our very faces, by these vermin utispring of the heart. Let our Christian zeni, therefore, arm itself with the utmost resolution and watchfulness gaisist these sacrilegious enemies, which would sit once rob Ciod of his dne, and our own souls of all edification and lanetit by prayer. When we find our hearts overpowered by these intruders, let us lift up a, secret cry to Heaven, and call Omnipotence to our help :-“O Lord, I am oppressed; undertake for nie!"
ON TIIE IMPROVEMENT OF SOCIAL PRAYER 53 " At the beginning of every praying exercise, let us endeavour, after such an awful sense of the omnipresence and omniscience of the divine Majesty, that our hearts may not dare to play the fool before Him. In the process of this duty, persons of 'weak capacities will find it a singular help to fix their thoughts, and keep up their attention through every part of the exereise, if they follow each word in the speaker's prayer with the silent language of their lips. Again, In order to render prayer a delightful, profitable, or even practicable service, the heart must be previously tinctured with a spirit of true piety and devotion. For how can spiritual thoughts flow from a carnal heart? “ Doth a fountain send forth, at the saine place, sweet water and bitter?” Finally, If we would more easily and effectually fasten our thoughts to spiritual things in our public devotions, we must habituate ourselves to a spiritual train of thinking in common lite. If vain, worldly, sensual thoughts (Oh! dreadful consideration !) fill our whole minds all the six days, it will almost be impossible to clear the room all at once, and find it filled with such contrary guests as holy and spiritual thoughts in God's house of prayer."
It is obvious, that the tenor of our daily thoughts will have a proportionate influence on domestic devotion. The limits of Four Magazine can only adunat an abstract froin the substance of what remains. The writer incaleates, odly, The necessity of an exercise of spiritual afl'ections in praver. To understand, and to accompany with our thoughts, the prayer we hcar another offer up, is not praying, except it be attended with the fervent desires of our hearts. Thus the breathings, the pantings, the pourings out of the heart and soul before the Lord, are exemplified in the Scriptures. “ The heart of him who silently joins in prayer, should be in as much active motion as the lips of the speaker. When he offers adoration to God, we should not only think of the Divine Being and attributes, but be affected with ad:niration and reverence.
When sin is confessed, our hearts should be filled with humiliation and griet; and in thanksgiving, will love, hope, and joy."
3dly, There is a language of the soul requisite to interna prayer. " It consists not only in making the several e preye sions of the common speaker their own, but in yielding an assept at the conclusion of ench sentence ;” till then, we cannot be certain of its full import. Short ejaculations, or even a ferrent amen! silently uttered to avoid disturbing the devotion of fellow-worshippers should second each affecting clanse. To fix our own attention and excite our atlections, wc may imitale Hannah, whose "v lips moved, though her voice was nothie ard even 10 whisper.
After recommending a dependence on the intuence of the Holy Spirit, not upon the correctness or cloquatice of vores; and on the intercession of our glorious High Priest, instead of the acceptance of the speaker, before God, the writer closes with a direction, that “ social prayer should be always attended with social dispositions.” Our views must not terminate in ourselves, when joining in prayer with others. The design of social worship is, to draw our hearts nearer to each other, as well as to God. “A harmony of hearts is more necessary in public prayer, than a harmony of voices in public praise.” When Christians join in worship, they should cherish mutual peace, brotherly love, and sympathy. “ If we feel not for each other as for ourselves; if we do not cordially desire the welfare of all our fellow-worshippers as we do our own, we cannot sincerely join in putting up one general prayer, in which we request
the very same favours for them that we do for ourselves.”
If the preceding extracts are acceptable, I may, perhaps, in future add, from the same work, some advice to those who conduct social prayer, for the performance of that duty, in such a manner as may be best adapted to the profit of persons who join with them in worship.
QUERIES AND OBSERVATIONS
Is it to be supposed, that the first and chief Being is bound to do all be possibly can to prevent the existence of evil, both patunl and inoral If so, then, since evi: does exist, we must suppose,
either that he was not almighty, or not infinitely wise, and so could not have prevented its existence; or else that, through a defect of goodness, he forbore to exert himself to prevent its existence, wlien he was well able to have hindered it from taking place.
Yea, if it be supposed that the Supreme Being is absolutely bound to prevent the existence of moral evil, then (unless we admit that it may have taken place altogether against his will) there can be no such thing as moral government: for, by the supposition, no being can be under law but the Supreme Being; forasınuch as, it is supposed, that, if any being does amiss, it must be his fault to let him do it.
But, if the Supreme Being be not bound to prevent the existence of evil, then surely it is infinitely better for him to regulate, and set exact limits to the whole business, than for it to be under no controul, or to be under the controul of inferior beings.
Let me appeal to any intelligent being who has the least confidence ia the, wisdoun and goodness of the Most High, - Since