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ANSWER TO A QUERY. places imports the continuance of the action, in others the cortainty, in others the importance, and frequently the degree of the action.
Montanus uniformly, as far as I have observed, renders the expression either by the gerund in do, or by the participle of the verb. But though Calvin renders it in the saine manner; per he frequently translates it by profecto, indeed; certe, certainly; valde, greatly. Poole, in his Synopsis, frequently does the same; and says, this mode of expression signifies certainty, vchemence, and acceleration. Leigh, in the Preface to his Critica Sacra, says, “ The repetition of the Hebrew is emphatic.”
Blackwall, in his Sacred Classics, on Acts vii. S4, where I w ador is a quotation from Exodus iii. 7, says, in the Septuagint and the New Testament writers, it is a vigorous repetition, after the Hebrew dialect; but which he proves to be pure Greek, by citations from Herodotus, Thucydides, and Plato.
Wolfius, in his Cura Philologica (on Hebrews vi. 17, and Acts vii. 34.) says, this repetition is not a mere Hebraism : and Vitringa, in his Animadversiones, remarks the same, citing examples, from which it does not appear that succession is the meaning intended, but an emphatic or increased degres of the action expressed by the verb.
The analogy of the Hebrew language seems to teach us, that the repetition of the verb is emphatic of its meaning, and not confined to any one idea. The duplicate verbs, that is, verbs which have the last, or the two last radical letters doubled, heighten the meaning of the verb *. Thus the repetition of the noun heightens the sense of it: “ Thou wilt keep him in peace, peace" (that is, perfect peace) “ whose mind is stayed on theet."
They say, peace, peuce” (that.is, great or perfect peace) " when there is no peace I.” “ Deal no more so exceeding proudly ll. “ That which is altogether just shalt thou follow q. The repetition of the particle is emphatic :-“ The land is an exceeding good land $.” “ The stranger that is with thee, shall get up above thee very high, and thou shalt come down very low **". As the repetition of letters, of the noun, and of the particle, heightens the sense of the word without any one specific idea being attached to it, why should it not be so with the repetition of the verb? The places where the verb is used with its infinitive, are numerous. I have noticed more than two hundred; but to cite them all is unnecessary. It is worthy of
* See Parkhurst, under 78 and in his Grammar, page 14. + Isaiah xxvi. 3. I Psalm cxix. 165. # 1 Sam. ii. 3. See Pool's Synopsis on this passage, and Gen. XXV. 39. Num.ii.g. Jud. v. 22. Isa. xxv.7. 2 Kingsiii. 16. Deut. ii. 27. xvi. 20.
& 2 Samuel vi. 2. See Zena's edition of Noldius on the Hebrew Parti. cles, No. 701, and 1582 of his Annotations at the end of his Concordance. Num. xiv. 7. 2 Kings X. 4. Deut. xxviii. 43.
Genesis xvii. 6, 20. Exodus i. 7,
remark, that when this mode of expression is used, it is never, as far as I have noticed, used with a reduplicate verb; that being an increased sense of the verb itself, of course it is nog necessary for the verb to be repeated.
It is remarkable, that when the idea of continuance is evidently intended, a particle is added to this expression, to denote continuance. “ Is Ephraim my dear son: for though I speak against him, I do earnestly renieinber him still."*
Dr. Owen † says, “ This reduplication is a pure Hebraism, vehemently aitirming the thiog promised, and hath in it the nature of an oath. It also intends and extends the matter promised: Blessing, I will bless thee: I will do so without fail; I will do so greatly, without measure; and eternally, without end." This is very just, as it applies to this subject, collecting thie sense from the verb and its connection; but it will not apply as the radical and constant sense of this mode of expression, is will appear froin several of the passages cited below
But what, I think, renders it evident that the phrase is not to be limited to any one sense, is the use of the same verb in this form; and at other times (to express the same idea, and sometimes the very same action) the verb isjoined with a word used adverbially, as will appear from a comparison of the following
Jer. xxxi. 20. Prov, xxi. 26. t On Heb. vi. 14. That our translators did not understand the phrase to have any one precise meaning, appears from the variety of forms used in translating it. They have sometimes rendered it by a word implying continuance; but more frequently by words expressing the certainty of the action, than by any other. That the certainty of the action is sometimes the meaning of the expression, is evident from Jer. xxxviii. 15. Jeremiah said unto Ze. dekiah, “ Wilt thou not surely piti me to death? And he sware unto Jeremah, I will not put thee to death." In other places the form of expression is thus variously rendered :-"Of every tree in the garden thou mayest freely eat,'' Gen. ii. 16.-" I will greatly multiply thy sorrow," Gen. iii. 16.-1 will multiply thy seed exceedingly,” xvi. 10.--" They said, this one fellow will needs be a judge.”—Thou sore longest after thy father's house,” xxxi. 30.-" Joseph is without doubt torn in pieces," xxvii. 33.-" The mau did soleminly protest unto us,” xliii. 3.-“ For in. deed I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews,” xl. 15.
-" The man asked us straitly of our state." xliii. 7.-“ Wat ye not, that such a man as I can certainly divine?" xliv. 15.-"I know that Aaron can speak well," Ex. iv. 14.-“He hathi triumphed gloriously,” xv, 21.-“ Diligently he arkın,' xv. 26.-" If thou aftlict them in anywise, and they cry at all untu nie, I will surely hear their cry,” xxii. 23.--" He that blasphemeth the nanie of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death." Lev. xxiv. 16.'Thou shalt fretly tithe all the increase of thy seed,” Deut. xiv. 22.—“Her father said, I virily thought that thou hadst vilerly hated her,” Judges xv. 2. "It her father had ont spit in lier face, should she not be ashamed seven days?" Vum. xii. 14.—“ Boaz said unto her, it hath fully been sherun me all thu thou hast done.” Ruth jl. 11.-David earnestly asked Icave of me to go to Bethlehem.” 1 Sam. xx. 6. “ For it is told me, that he dealeth very sutrilly.” xxiii. 22. —"I have grievously rebelled." Law, i 20.- "We have dealt very corruptly.” Neb. i. 7. &c. &c.
ANSWER TO A QUERY.
249 texts. The first in each couplet expressing the verb, with its infinitive; and the second, the same verb with an adverb:
Deut, XV. 4,
“ The Lord shall greatly bless thee in the land."
We remember the Hesh we did freely ear in Egypt." Gen. iii. 16. “ I will greatly multiply thy sorrow.” Deut. xvii. 17. “ Neither shall he greaily multiply to himself silver," &c. Dent. vi. 17. “Ye shall diligently keep the commandments of the Lord.” Psalm cxix. 4. “ To keep thy precepts diligently.” Prov. xxii. 1. “Consider diligently what is before thee.” Jer. ii. 10. “Consider diligerily if there be such a thing.”
" The Father of the righteous shall greatly rejoice." Zech. ix. 9. " Rejoice greatly, o daughter ct Jerusalem !" Gen. xvi. 10. “I will multiply thy seed exceedingly." Gen. xxvii. 2. “ I will multiply thee exceedingly.”' 1 Sam. i. 10. " And Hannah wept sore." I saiah xxxviii. 3. “Hezekiah wept sore." 2 Sam. xvii. 16. “ Lodge not in the wilderness, but quickly pass over." 2 Sam. xvii. 21.
Arise, and quickly pass over the water." I hare entered thus largely into this subject, because, if continuance or succession be the radical meaning of the phrase, our translators have not been accurate in giving it so many different explanations, but should have made use of some word or phrase expressing that sense ; but from what has been observed, I think it appears that the mode of expression has no one fixed and radical meaning. Our translators, therefore, have done right in collecting its import from the verb, and its connection, and rendering it in such a variety of forms; and I profess myself pleased with whatever tends to show the critical propriety of our English translation,
THE SERIOUS MAN.
To the Editor. Reverend Sir, la your last Volume, page 212, you inserted a few hints of mine, on Seriousness. Reading very lately the works of an eminent and learned Divine of the last century, I was much pleased and impressed with the following, which will make an excellent Appendix to the paper above referred to; and your giving it a place in your useful work, at some convenient opportunity, will oblige your sincere friend, Westminster
$“ SERIOUSNESS does not consist in the morosity of a Cynic, - nor in the severity of an Ascetic, nor in the demureness of a Precisian, nor in the deadness and sullen ness
of a Quaker, nor in the solemn mien of an Italian, nor in the slow pace of a Spaniard : - 'tis neither in a drooping head, nor a mortified face, nor a primitive beard :- it is something very different, and much more excellent that makes up a Serious Man; and I believe I shall not misrepresent him if I say, He is one that duly and in partially weighs the inoment of things, so as ncither to value triftes, nor despise things really excellent :That dwells much at home, and studies to know himself, as well as books or men : That considers why he came into this world, --- how great his business, and how short his stay in it; how uncertain it is when he shall leave it; and whither a sinner shall then betake himself, when both Heaven and earth shallfly from the presence of the Judge: - That considers God as always present, and the toily of doing what must be repented of; and of going to Hell when it mau may go to Heaven! In one word, That knows how to distinguish between a moment and eternity!
“ This is to be truly serious; and however the pretender to gaiety and lightsomeness of humour may ridicule it by the names of Melancholy, Dulness, Stupidity, &c. be that is thus affected cannot miss of being good and wise here, and happy hereafier; and then it will be his turn to laugh wien the others shall mourn and weep.
ANSWERS TO THE QUERIES OF S, 'T.
1. “How may we discover a call to fill any particular situation in the dispensations of Providence?"
The querist will pardon me for attempting to place the question in a less complex and ambiguous state, thus:-“
“llow may we determine a call in Providence to fill up any particular situation ?” To which it may be briefly replied : 1st, It is necessary that the station or employment called to, be in its own nature lawful: i. 1. Such as may be engaged in with a good conscience, is not forbidden by the word of God, and which does not necessarily lead to sin: “ for, as God cannot be tempted to evil,-neither tempieth he any man.” — 2d, To make such a call clear, there should be found a natural fitness in the subject, to whatsoever lie is called. Modesty, it is true, inay sometimes conceal from our view our own talents, as in the case of Moses, when called to lead Israel; yet, to the sincere enquirer, Providence seldom fails to make the way straight.
of the slothful man is an hedge of thorns; but the way of the righteous is made plain.” It inay be considered rather a teinptation than a call in Providence, for a man to at. tempt what he knows, or ought to know, he is naturally uns
- The way
ANSWERS TO QUERIES.
231 equal to. — 3d, The advice of godly judicious friends may help to clear up our views of a special call in Providence. Jealousy in one's own mind of such advice, as unfavourable to our wishes, creates a suspicion that the subject would direct, not follow, the cloud. “In the multitude of counsellors there is safety." 4th, It sometimes i hrows a light upon a call, and determines it to have proceeded from the Lord, that it presents itseli' to us while we are walking with God in a path of duty. Gideon was threshing corn when he was summoned by the angel to deliver Israel; and most of the apostles of Christ were at their respecor tive occupations when called to the work of the ministry. A man who is heartily inclined to pursue his present calling, will seldom be found to quit it for another, until the way be made tolerably plain. - 5th, We may take it to be a coil of God to any situation, when the matter presenting itself appears in answer to solemn prayer. The call in some cascs may be totally unexpected, and inlooked for; yet finding is in a dependent, lowly, believing, humble, and spiritual frame, may be no less considered an answer to prayer, than it particularly specified. But the hand of God appears still more evident, when duty, necessity, piety, and prudence have suggested the asking of a particular good in Christ's name, and it offers itself to us in that shape or form we humbly requested. “ In all thy ways acknowledge him," &c. - 6th, If added to these, the call presents a wider door of usefulness, or a greater share of needful comfort and support, than a present situation inay admit of; or when it opens a way out of a particular temptation; or affords a more extensive opportunity of glorifying God, and serving the church of Christ, we inay more reasonably conclude that it is of God.
11. « If after having obeyed a similar cali (in consequence of divine direction) is it lawful to recede?”
This question also is not happily worded; but considering it in connection with the foriner; I suppose the meaning simply to be this : “ After having discovered and obeyed such a call, is it lawful to recede?"
That the hand of God, in providence, has been seen in the call; or that we have, in consequence, dutifully complied with it, are no arguments wherefore we may not recede, providiel we find sufficient reason so to do. The plainest intimations of Providence are not designed to suppress the exercise of reason and reflexion; but rather suppose and enjoin, in such a case, the proper use of both. At the sine time; fickleness is no mark of having properly consulted the divine will and pleasure; nor does it establish thc wisdom of character; “ He that believeth shall not make haste.”
It may, however, be both lawful and expedient sometimes to recede from engagements into which an acknowledged Pruvi