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times or at regular intervals. His first duty shall be to see that the carriers make inspections in accordance with the rules and regulations established or approved by the Interstate Commerce Commission, and that carriers repair the defects which such inspections disclose before the boiler or boilers or appuitenances pertaining thereto are again put in service. To this end each carrier subject to said sections shall file with the inspector in charge, under the oath of the proper officer or employee, a duplicate of the report of each inspection required by such rules and regulations, and shall also file with such inspector, under the oath of the proper officer or employee, a report showing the repair of the defects disclosed by the inspection. The rules and regulations herein before provided for shall prescribe the time at which such reports shall be made. Whenever any district inspector shall, in the performance of his duty, find any locomotive boiler or apparatus pertaining thereto not conforming to the requirements of the law or the rules and regulations established and approved as hereinbefore stated, he shall notify the carrier in writing that the locomotive is not in serviceable condition, and thereafter such boiler shall not be used until in serviceable condition: Provided, That a carrier, when notified by an inspector in writing that a locomotive boiler is not in serviceable condition, because of defects set out and described in said notice, may within five days after receiving said notice, appeal to the director of locomotive inspection by telegraph or by letter to have said boiler reexamined, and upon receipt of the appeal from the inspector's decision, the director of locomotive inspection shall assign one of the assistant directors of locomotive inspection or any district inspector other than the one from whose decision the appeal is taken to reexamine and inspect said boiler within fifteen days from date of notice. If upon such reexamination, the boiler is found in serviceable condition, the director of locomotive inspection shall immediately notify the carrier in writing, whereupon such boiler may be put into service without further dealy; but if the reexamination of said boiler sustains the decision of the district inspector, the director of locomotive inspection shall at once notify the carrier owning or operating such locomotive that the appeal from the decision of the inspector is dismissed, and upon the receipt of such notice the carrier may, within thirty davs, appeal to the Interstate Commecr Commission, and upon such appeal, and after hearing, said commission shall have power to revise, modify, or set aside such action of the director of locomotive inspection and declare that said locomotive is in sei viceable condition and authorize the same to be operated: Provided further, That pending either appeal the requirements of the inspector shall be effective. (Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, 86, 36 Stat. 915; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, 81, 54 Stat. 148.) $ 30. Powers and duties of inspectors, and provisions of certain sections applicable

to all parts of locomotive and tender; examinations of inspectors. The director of locomotive inspection and the two assistant directors of locomotive inspection, together with all the district inspectors, appointed as herein before provided, shall inspect and shall have the same powers and duties with respect to all the parts and appurtenances of the locomotive and tender that they have with respect to the boiler of a locomotive and the appurtenances thereof, and the provision of sections 22—29 and 31-34 of this title as to the equipment of locomotives shall apply to and include the entire locomotive and tender and all their parts with the same force and effect as it applies to locomotive boilers and their appurtenances. All inspectors and applicants for the position of inspector shall be examined touching their qualifications and fitness with respect to the additional duties imposed. (Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 169, § 2, 38 Stat. 1192; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, § 2, 54 Stat. 148.) $ 31. Annual report of director.

The director of locomotive inspection shall make an annual report to the Interstate Commerce Commission of the work done during the year, and shall make such recommendations for the betterment of the service as he may desire. (Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, & 7, 36 Stat. 916; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, § 1, 54 Stat. 148.) $ 32. Report by carrier to director as to accident: preservation of disabled parts;

investigation and report thereupon. In the case of accident resulting from failure from any cause of a locomotive boiler or its appurtenances, resulting in serious injury or death to one or more persons, a statement forthwith must be made in writing of the fact of such accident, by the carrier owning or operating said locomotive, to the director of locomotive inspection. Whereupon the facts concerning such accident shall be investigated by the director of locomotive inspection or one of his assistants, or such inspector as the director of locomotive inspection may designate for that purpose.

And where the locomotive is disabled to the extent that it cannot be run by its own steam, the part or parts affected by the said accident shall be preserved by said carrier intact, so far as possible, without hindrance or interference to traffic until after said inspection. The director of locomotive inspection or an assistant or the designated inspector making the investigation shall examine or cause to be examined thoroughly the boiler or part affected, making full and detailed report of the cause of the accident to the director of locomotive inspection. (Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, 88, 36 Stat. 916; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, § 1, 54 Stat. 148.) $ 33. Reports by commission of investigations.

The Interstate Commerce Commission may at any time call upon the director of locomotive inspection for a report of any accident embraced in section 32 of this title, and upon the receipt of said report, if it deems it to the public interest, make reports of such investigations, stating the cause of accident, together with such recommendations as it deems proper. Such reports shall be made public in such manner as the commission deems proper. Neither said report nor any report of said investigation nor any part thereof shall be admitted as evidence or used for any purpose in any suit or action for damages growing out of any matter mentioned in said report or investigation. (Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, § 8, 36 Stat. 916; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, § 1, 54 Stat. 148.) $ 34. Penalty for violations by carrier; duty of United States attorney to sue

therefor; director to give information. Any common carrier violating the provisions of sections 22–34 of this title relating to locomotives, their boilers, tenders, and so forth, or any rule or regulation made under such provisions or any lawful order of any inspector shall be liable to a penalty of $250 for each and every such violation, to be recovered in a suit or suits to be brought by the United States attorney in the district court of the United States having jurisdiction in the locality where such violation shall have been committed; and it shall be the duty of such attorneys, subject to the direction of the Attorney General, to bring such suits upon duly verified information being lodged with them, respectively, of such violations having occurred; and it shall be the duty of the director of locomotive inspections to give information to the proper United States attorney of all violations coming to his knowledge. (Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, § 9, 36 Stat. 916; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, § 1, 54 Stat. 148; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 1, 62 Stat. 909; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-135, 83, 71 Stat. 352.)

INVESTIGATION OF SAFETY DEVICES (45 0.8.c. 36) $36. Investigation and testing by commission of appliances or systems to pro

mote safety. The Interstate Commerce Commission is authorized, at its discretion, to investigate, test experimentally, and report on the use and need of any appliances or systems intended to promote the safety of railway operation which may be furnished in completed shape to such commission for such investigation and test entirely free of cost to the Government. For this purpose the commission is authorized to employ persons familiar with the subject to be investigated and tested, and may also make use of its regular employees for such purposes. (May 27, 1908, ch. 200, § 1, 35 Stat. 325.)

ACCIDENT REPORTS ACT (45 U.S.c. 38-43) § 38. Monthly reports of railroad accidents; duty of carrier to make.

It shall be the duty of the general manager, superintendent, or other proper officer of every common carrier engaged in interstate or foreign commerce by railroad to make to the Interstate Commerce Commission, as its office in Washington, District of Columbia, a monthly report, under oath, of all collisions, derailments, or other accidents resulting in death or injury to any person or damage to equipment or roadbed, arising from the operation of such railroad, which report shall state the nature and causes thereof and the circumstances connected therewith: Provided, That hereafter all said carriers shall be relieved from the duty of reporting accidents in their annual financial and operating reports made to the commission. (As amended Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–762, § 1, 74 Stat. 903.) $ 39. Penalty for failure to make report.

Any common carrier failing to make the report provided for in section 38 of this title within thirty days after the end of any month shall be deemed guilty of a misdeameanor, and upon conviction thereof by a court of competent jurisdiction shall be punished by a fine of not more than $100 for each and every offense and for every day during which it shall fail to make such report after the time herein specified for making the same. (May 6, 1910, ch. 208, $ 2, 36 Stat. 351.) $ 40. Investigation by commission of accidents; cooperation with State com

missions; reports of investigations. The Interstate Commerce Commission shall have authority to investigate all collisions, derailments, or other accidents resulting in serious injury to person or to the property of a railroad occurring on the line of any common carrier engaged in interstate or foreign commerce by railroad. The commission, or any impartial investigator thereunto authorized by said commission, shall have authority to investigate such collisions, derailments, or other accidents aforesaid, and all the attending facts, conditions, and circumstances, and for that purpose may subpena witnesses, administer oaths, take testimony, and require the production of books, papers, orders, memoranda, exhibits, and other evidence, and shall be provided by said carriers with all reasonable facilities: Provided, That when such accident is investigated by a commission of the State in which it occurred, the Interstate Commerce Commission shall, if convenient, make any investigation it may have previously determined upon, at the same time as, and in connection with, the State commission investigation. Said commission shall, when it deems it to the public interest, make reports of such investigations, stating the cause of accident, together with such recommendations as it deems proper. Such reports shall be made public in such manner as the commission deems proper. (May 6, 1910, ch. 208, 83, 36 Stat. 351.)

CROSS REFERENCE-Report to Commission of failure of safety system, device, or appliance, see section 26 (f) of title 49, Transportation, § 41. Reports not evidence in suits for damages.

Neither the report required by section 38 of this title nor any report of the investigation provided for in section 40 of this title nor any part thereof shall be admitted as evidence or used for any purpose in any suit or action for damages growing out of any matter mentioned in said report or investigation. (May 6, 1910, ch. 208, § 4, 36 Stat. 351.) $ 42. Rules and regulations; form of reports.

The Interstate Commerce Commission is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations and such forms for making the reports hereinbefore provided as are necessary to implement and effectuate the purposes of sections 38-43 of this title. (As amended Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86-762, § 2, 74 Stat. 904.) $ 43. Definitions.

(a) The term “interstate commerce," as used in ections 38 and 40 of this title, shall include transportaion from any State or Territory or the District of Columbia to any other State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and the term "foreign commerce," as used in said sections, shail include transportation from any State or Territory or the District of Columbia to any foreign country and from any foreign country to any State or Territory or the District of Columbia.

(b) The phrase "arising from the operation of such railroad,” as used in sections 38-43 of this title, shall include all activities of the railroad which are related to the performance of its transportation business. (As amended Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86-762, 83, 74 Stat. 904.)

HOURS OF SERVICE ACT (45 U.s.c. 61-64) $ 61. Carriers and transportation subject to provisions of chapter; “railroad" and

"employees" defined. The provisions of sections 61-64 of this title shall apply to any common carrier or carriers, their officers, agents, and employees, engaged in the transportation of passengers or property by railroad in the District of Columbia or any Territory of the United States, or from one State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia to any other State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia, or from any place in the United States to an adjacent foreign country, or from any place in the United States through a foreign country to any other place in the United States. The term "railroad" as used in sections 61-64 of this title shall include all bridges and ferries used or operated in connection with any railroad, and also all the road in use by any common carrier operating a railroad, whether owned or operated under a contract, agreement, or lease; and the term "employees' as used in said sections 61-64 shall be held to mean persons actually engaged in or onnected with the movement of any train. (Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 8 1. 34 Stat. 1415.) 8 62. Hours of service limited.

It shall be unlawful for any common carrier, its officers, or agents, subject to sections 61-64 of this title to require or permit any employees subject to said sections to be or remain on duty for a longer period than sixteen consecutive hours, and when ever any such employee of such common carrier shall have been continuously on duty for sixteen hours he shall be relieved and not required or permitted again to go on duty until he has had at least ten consecutive hours off duty; and no such employee who has been on duty sixteen hours in the aggregate in any twenty-four-hour period shall be required or permitted to continue or again go on duty without having had at least eight consecutive hours off duty: Provided, That no operator, train dispatcher, or other employee who by the use of the telegraph or telephone dispatches, reports, transmits, receives, or delivers orders pertaining to or affecting train movements shall be required or permitted to be or remain on duty for a longer period than nine hours in any twenty-four-hour period in all towers, offices, places, and stations continuously operated night and day, nor for a longer period than thirteen hours in all towers. offices, places, and stations operated only during the daytime, except in case of emergency, when the employees named in this proviso may be permitted to be and remain on duty for four additional hours in a twenty-four-hour period on not exceeding three days in any week: Provided further, The Interstate Commerce Commission may after full hearing in a particular case and for good cause shown extend the period within which a common carrier shall comply with the provisions of this proviso as to such case. (Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 32, 34 Stat. 1416.) 863. Penalty; suits therefor; exceptions from operation of chapter.

Any such common carrier, or any officer or agent thereof, requiring or permitting any employee to go, be, or remain on duty in violation of section 62 of this title shall be liable to a penalty of not less than $200 nor more than $500 for each and every violation to be recovered in a suit or suits to be brought by the United States attorney in the district court of the United States having jurisdiction in the locality where such violations shall have been committed; and it shall be the duty of such United States attorney to bring such suit upon satisfactory information being lodged with him; but no such suit shall be brought after the expiration of one year from the date of such violation; and it shall also be the duty of the Interstate Commerce Commission to lodge with the proper United States attorney information of any such violations as may come to its knowledge. In all prosecutions under sections 61–64 of this title the common carrier shall be deemed to have knowledge of all acts of all its officers and agents: Provided, That the provisions of said sections shall not apply in any case of casualty or unavoidable accident or the act of God; nor where the delay was the result of a cause not known to the carrier or its officer or agent in charge of such employee at the time said employee left a terminal, and which could not have been foreseen: Provided further, That the provisions of said sections shall not apply to the crews of wrecking or relief trains. (Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2938 83, 34 Stat. 1416; May 4, 1916, ch. 109, $1, 39 Stat. 61; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, $1, 62 Stat. 909; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-135, 32, 71 Stat. 352.) $ 64. Enforcement by Interstate Commerce Commission.

It shall be the duty of the Interstate Commerce Commission to execute and enforce the provisions of sections 61-64 of this title, and all powers granted to the Interstate Commerce Commission are extended to it in the execution of this chapter. (Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 8 4, 34 Stat. 1417.)

SIGNAL INSPECTION ACT (49 4.8. C. 26) § 26. Safety appliances, methods, and systems. (a) Definition of carrier.

The term "carrier" as used in this section includes any carrier by railroad subject to this chapter (including any terminal or station company), and any receiver or any other individual or body, judicial or otherwise, when in the possession of the business of a carrier subject to this section: Provided, however, That the term “carrier" shall not include any street, interurban, or suburban electric railway unless such railway is operated as a part of a general steam-railroad system of transportation, but shall not exclude any part of a general steam

railroad system of transportation now or hereafter operated by any other motive power. (b) Order to install systems, etc.; modification; negligence of carrier.

The Commission may, after investigation, if found necessary in the public interest, order any carrier within a time specified in the order, to install the block signal system, interlocking, automatic train stop, train control, and/or cab-signal devices, and/or other similar appliances, methods, and systems intended to promote the safety of railroad operation, which comply with specifications and requirements prescribed by the Commission, upon the whole or any part of its railroad such order to be issued and published a reasonable time (as determined by the Commission) in advance of the date for its fulfillment: Provided, That block signal systems, interlocking, automatic train stop, train control, and cabsignal devices in use on August 26, 1937, or such systems or devices hereinafter installed may not be discontinued or materially modified by carriers without the approval of the Commission: Provided, further, That a carrier shall not be held to be negligent because of its failure to install such systems, devices, appliances, or methods upon a portion of its railroad not included in the order, and any action arising because of an accident occurring upon such portion of its railroad shall be determined without consideration of the use of such systems, devices, appliances, or methods upon another portion of its railroad. (c) Filing report on rules, standards, and instructions with Commission; time;

modficiation. Each carrier by railroad shall file with the Commission its rules, standards, and instructions for the installation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of the systems, devices, and appliances covered by this section within six months after August 28, 1937, and, after approval by the Commission, such rules, standards, and instructions, with such modifications as the Commission may require, shall become obligatory upon the carrier: Provided, however, That if any such carrier, shall fail to file its rules, standards, and instructions the Commission shall prepare rules, standards, and instructions for the installation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of such systems, devices, and appliances to be observed by such carrier, which rules, standards, and instructions, a copy thereof having been served on the president, chief operating officer, trustee, or receiver, of such carrier, shall be obligatory: Provided further, That such carrier may from time to time change the rules, standards, and instructions herein provided for, but such change shall not take effect and the new rules, standards, and instructions be enforced until they shall have been filed with and approved by the Commission: And provided further, That the Commission may on its own motion, upon good cause shown, revise amend, or modify the rules, standards, and instructions prescribed by it under this subsection, and as revised, amended, or modified they shall be obligatory upon the carrier after a copy thereof shall have been served as above provided. (d) Inspection by Commission; personnel.

The Commission is authorized to inspect and test any systems, devices, and appliances referred to in this section used by any such carrier and to determine whether such systems, devices, and appliances are in proper condition to operate and provide adequate safety. For these purposes the Commission is authorized to employ persons familiar with the subject. Such persons shall be in the classified service and shall be appointed after competitive examination according to the law and the rules of the Civil Service Commission governing the classified service. No person interested, either directly or indirectly, in any patented article required to be used on or in connection with any of such systems, devices, and appliances or who has any financial interest in any carrier or in any concern dealing in railway supplies shall be used for such purpose. (e) Unlawful use of system, etc.

It shall be unlawful for any carrier to use or permit to be used on its line any system, device, or appliance covered by this section unless such apparatus, with its controlling and operating appurtenances, is in proper condition and safe to operate in the service to which it is put, so that the same may be used without unnecessary peril to life and limb, and unless such apparatus, with its controlling and operating appurtenances, has been inspected from time to time in accordance with the provisions of this section and is able to meet the requirements of such test or tests as may be prescribed in the rules and regulations provided for in this section.

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