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Therefore the new national by joining with a small and earnest set of movement under the new name of Home English Radicals in obstructing the policy Rule had not taken much hold of the of the Tory Government in South Africa. heart of the Irish population. To this He took the leading part in the obstrucvery day-to this very hour—the memory tive movement which ended in the aboliof Sadleir and Keogh is appealed to in tion of Aogging in the army and navy. Ireland as a warning against any manner Probably it was his experience of the effect of Parliamentary agitation which does not that could be produced upon English have as its first principle hatred and hos- popular feeling by a bold and daring poltility to the English Liberal party. It is icy of this kind which first put into his forgotten that Keogh's most impassioned mind the idea that Home Rule itself could appeals were made to the men of the hill- be carried by such a policy. Only by side, that he appealed shrilly to the uncon. degrees and slowly could there have come stitutional forces, and professed a noble on him a clear appreciation of the tremen. scorn of anything merely Parliamentary dous strength of a policy of systematized —until his scorn of Parliamentary meth- obstruction. I have heard it told as an ods had found him so firm in his Parlia- anecdote of Mr. Spurgeon--I do not know mentary seat as to enable him to use Far- whether it is true or not-that when someliamentary methods for his own personal body asked him what he would have done advantage. It was Parnell's skill

, fore- in his early preaching career if he had sight, and good fortune which enabled failed to secure the attention of the conhim to turn the very hatred of the English gregation, he declared tbat if he could not Parliament into a means of bringing Ire- have accomplished his object otherwise he land back to the ways of Pauliamentary would have mounted the pulpit in a red agitation.

Does this seem a paradox? coat, and so compelled attention. Mr. I shall show very easily that it was a sound Spurgeon had a just confidence in what he and statesmanlike policy.

intended to say. Only get the congregaWhy not start in the House of Com- tion to listen at the first, and all the rest mons an Irish National party, which should was safe. Something like that was the express by its very action in Parliament idea of Mr. Parnell and of his few assothe distrust and hatred felt by so many of ciates in the early days of his obstruction. the Irish people for any and every English The immediate business was to obstruct Parliament ? Would not the vast major- coercion, and the Tory Government who ity of the Irish people soon begin to put were pressing it on. That was work faith in a party which employed its posi- enough in itself to win the approval of all tion in the House of Commons to worry Irish Nationalists. Besides that, there and obstruct the House of Commons, and was the fact that, while Isaac Butt always make it ridiculous in the eyes of foreign showed the utmost deference to the rules nations ? What ardent Irish Nationalist and the usages and the conventionalities of could refuse to give his approval and his the House of Commons, this new party support to a party like that? Mr. Par- proclaimed an absolute indifference to all nell came in at a fortunate time for such public opinion and all judgment except a policy. The Tories were engaged in the public opinion and ihe judgment of passing a Coercion Act, and the prisons the people of Ireland. And then behind were yet full of Fenian captives. The all that—and this was the thought that country was getting tired of Butt's annual came latest up in Mr. Parnell's mindmotions and the annual compliments paid was the idea that if the Irish Nationalists to hiin by Ministers of the Crown. A could compel England, and especially the new sensation ran through the veins of English democracy, to listen to what they the people when it was found that a group had to say for Ireland, the English deof men had come up in the House of mocracy would be converted to our cause, Commons who were determined to ob- Mr. Parnell had at that time, and for struct the Government and every Govern- years after, a great faith in the ultimate ment in every way, and turn the rules of justice of English public opinion. He the House of Commons against the House was patient, and quite willing to await reitself. Mr. Parnell very wisely did not sults. I remember years after this, when confine himself to Irish questions. Very the Painell Cominission was about to early in his career he signalized himself open, I told him one day that I thought

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829 hen Home Rosa Jules Lemaître, Mallarmé, Verlaine,

Verlaine, nor in any way whatever to trumpet mediMoréas, Mirbeau, Leconte de Lisle, Ca- ocrity or what is beneath mediocrity. tulle Mendès, Coppée, Vacquerie, Rod, Nay, I cannot even utter piy own and some half a hundred of other writers éloge." It was a magnanimous resolve ; may be considered representative-the but the interviewer was not defrauded ; characteristic vices and foibles of the man on the contrary, he was well content to of letters assuredly play no inconsiderable bave secured so striking a communication. part in the “ evolution of literature. More trying was the reception given to Here may be learned the art of literary him by M. Guy de Maupassant, whose self-advertisement in both the direct way, reputation is that of the man in all Paris which thrusts forward the “I," naked most difficult to approach. M. Huret and unashamed, and the indirect way, tells, with a touch of pathos, how longwhich reflects the “I” in the mirrors of ingly he had anticipated this particular admired and admiring friends ; here may interview. From early youth the ideal be witnessed the indignant revolt of youth autbor of his imagination had been Guy

against age-youth, which, after centuries de Maupassant ; true, he had heard the ed, aniben

of venerable folly, has at last found the great disciple of Flaubert styled “un

secret of all beauty and the key to univer- snob,” but to what calumnies is not genius on ther:

sal truth ; here may be seen the scorn of exposed ? and now the eventful moment character

self-satisfied age for aspiring youth ; here of audience was come. I quote from
the pride of mystification ; the war of M. Huret the record of what followed :-
schools, the hatred of successful rivals,
and the bitterer hatred of successful com-

“I ring. A servant, or rather a flunkey, pers rades. “I have read your Enquêtes,

appears ; you know that insolent eye which

we see in all the antechambers of the anbi. writes M. Gustave Guiches, “ which move *** Lent

tious bourgeois. Monsieur is not at home.' T: NO

so picturesquely through the courtless I wrote some words, notwithstanding, on my æsthetics of the day. It is as if I were

card, and I was introduced, passing through wei

an antechamber decorated with Arab hangings, reading over again the Tentation de Saint Antoine. From these studies of yours

and entering a luxurious room which I have

no time to describe, where tender colors ruled, there creeps over me a nightmare as dis- and which in its general effect seemed to me tressing as that caused by the vision of re- to be in far from excellent taste. ligious chaos in Flaubert's book. I have

“ Enter the master. I surveyed him with seen defiling past me symbolists, instru. Maupassant! Guy de Maupassant! For so

curiosity and remained stupefied: Guy de inentalists, decadents, naturalists, neo

much time as it takes to bow, choose a chair, realists, supra-naturalists, psychologists, and sit down I inwardly repeated the name, Parnassiens, mages, Positivists, Buddh- and gazed at the little man before me ; shoul ists, Tolstojzers ; I have heard fierce im- ders not too broad; heavy, bi-colored mus

tache, chestnut, the hairs as if they had been precations, bitter laughter, cries of pity, steeped in alcohol. He courteously begged solemn anathemas, subtle analyses, abso- me to be seated. But on the first words relute syntheses, proclamations eloquently ferring to literature, a consultation, etc., he improvised. Everything has been said, assumed a disagreeable aspect, as if the vicre-said, unsaid.” And M. Guiches there. tim of headache or in some way thoronghly

uncomfortable. 'Oh, monsieur,' he said upon proceeds to add his own particular and his words came wearily and his whole air speech to the confusion of Babel. “ Lit

was splenetic, 'I beg of you, do not speak to erary Evolution !" cries M. Paul Bonne- me of literature! I am suffering from severe tain, “ evolution of a tortoise wriggling neuralgia ; I start for Nice the day after toon its back !"

morrow,- so my physician orders me—the at

mosphere here in Paris oppresses me, the M. Léon Hennique, author of Pauf, noise, the agitation ; I am really very far from and of the more recent Un Caractère, a well.' I sympathized, and approaching the study, in the form of a novel, of the more subject again with the utmost precaution and obscure hypnotic phenomena, was one of my best skill, tried to elicit some vague exthe few who faced round upon the in- sieur! I never speak of it. I write when it

pression of opinion. 'Oh, literature, mongenious and courteous tormentor, con- gives me pleasure to do so, but speak of itfronting him with a direct negative. “I no! Besides at present I know not one man cannot persuade myself,'' he wrote, “to of letters. I am on good terms with Zola, belabor the masters, to use my finger- them I rarely see, and the rest never. I know

with Goncourt, in spite of his Memoirs, but nails on the writers of my own generation, only the younger Dumas ; our provinces are to cleave in twain my younger brethren, not the same and we never speak of litera


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there are so many other things. I questions. Of the Psychologists he inopened my eyes like portholes. Yes," I said, quired. What is the significance, and knowing his taste for this amusement, 'yachting.' And so many others. Stay, monsieur,

what is the future, of the present reaction the proof that I am telling you the truth is against Naturalism? Is there a bond of this--not long ago they promised me a seat in kinship between the Psychological school the Academy-twenty-eight names sure, and and the Syrobolists ? Is there not, again, I refused it, and crosses and all that ; no; something in common between the Natireally, it does not interest me ; let us, I beg,

ralists and the Parnassiers in their disdain speak no more of literature.'

of personal sentiment on the part of the And such, adds the interviewer, with a

writer, in their tendency to pessimism, touch of pardonable irony, are the views and in their aim at plastic or concrete of M. de Maupassant on the contemporary presentation of wbat is positive and real, evolution of literature.

rather than the suggestion or evocation of The immediate occasion or excuse for things invisible ? Of the SymbolistM. Huret's inquiry was the appearance of Decadents he inquired : What is the two noteworthy books : the Jardin de mcaning of this word inscribed upon their Bérénice, the last volume of M. Maurice banner? what are their poetic aims ? how Barrès, the young Boulangist deputy, who are they related to the Parnassiens ? who

dines with Stendhal, and sups with are their representative writers ? what are Saint Ignatius," and the Fèlerin passionné the works which embody the purposes of of M. Jean Moréas. If M. Barrès can be the movement ? And in a similar manner ranged in a class, we must reckon him suitable interrogations were framed for the among

the Psychologists,” whose boast elder schools of Parnassus and of Nature. is to have displaced the Naturalists in But, like an accomplished interviewer,

M. Moréas, a Greek by M. Huret did not tie himself to his own birth, rejecting the leadership of Mallarmé order of examination ; he kept his hands and Verlaine, both, alas ! now beyond free and his eyes open ; he was alive at the fatal fortieth year, and therefore in every point. If he could not run down the cold and shallows of extreine antiquity, his gaine, there might still be some profit proclaims himself with no uncertain voice in the accidents and incidents of the chase. as chief of the Symbolists, and it would If he could not come to the, seem that his claim has been allowed if a he might get pick up some Atalanta's banquet (2nd February) in his honor be apple on or off the course. To touch in the proper proof of poetical leadership. now and again a bit of local color was a

Passionate pi.grim !"' exclaims one of relief from the scientific severity of his the tribe, himself a symbolist-decadent, Enquête. The doctrine of M. Anatole “ pilgrims without a pilgrimage, and pas- France on the elision of e mute was intersionate-oh, no! No one has ever met rupted, not altogether unhappily, by the two of these pilgrims together on the same incursion of a charining child of eight or route." Yet the Passionate Pilgrim of nine into the critic's study ; her terraM. Moréas is a volume to note, if not for cotta frock and her floaring hair come well its contents, at least for its aims with re- into the picture, and thu suavity of the spect to style and metrical form. The critic, who could so gracefully reply to a author was born in 1856, and having cartel from M. Leconte de Lisle,* is here reached, in 1884, the happiest age for a shown in pretty pleadings with his little poet, is said by his malicious friends to daughter that she should not desert bim have grown since then no older. As the at the luncheon-table.

“ Ces jeunes

“ Psychologists have in prose fiction sic- gens ! Tous fumistes !” exclaimed a ceeded to the Naturalists, so in poetry feminine voice at the moment when the the Symbolists aim at the overthrow of interviewer entered the study of M. de the Parnassien dynasty ; and thus the two llérédia. It was madame, who was readbooks which have been named served suffi- ing aloud from the Echo the last words ciently well for a centre around which to group the questions and answers of the • I have never been wanting in the respect inquisitor and his victims.

due to M. Leconte de Lisle. If he generously Before setting to work, M. Iuret con

forgets in my favor that he was born in 1820, sidered the order in which he should call needs tell him that he is one of those glories

it is my duty not to forget the fact. Must I his witnesses, and carefully prepared bis which we dare not touch ?"

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