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like carved ebony statnes, that at first I seriously hurt their dignity—the drill prorub my eyes in amazement, thinking my ceeded with a smoothness and smartness sight has deceived me. They were armed which would have been creditable on an with the Martini rifle and bayonet, and Aldershot parade-ground. Manual and their dress was the happiest combination firing exercise, marching drill, and a few of suitability and wild-handsome appear simple essential movements, were carried ance. A soldier-like cap, loose blue out with a rapidity and quietude which guernsey jacket, white calico breeches, were the more surprising because all the and putties, but no boots or shoes—their words of command were translated by the classically shaped feet, in sound travelling native non-commissioned officers from condition, need no such gear in the veldt. English into Kafir. Patches of color, in the way of facings and « Would you like to see the attack? I piping, admirably set off their dusky mus- must explain to you that, having deemed cular forms, and every Zulu looked proud a war cry as essential to my force as to of himself Slowly walking down the other native tribes, I referred the selection ranks, I minutely inspected them individ- to the themselves. The Kafir ually. One single detail about them is a sergeant-major informed me that, after little grotesque. Aiming at being English three days earnest conclave, they had soldiers, they have withdrawn from their come to a unanimous decision. They ears the large snuff-sticks they are wont considered themselves now thoroughly to skewer in there for convenience sake, British soldiers, and they wished that, like and the empty lobes hang down almost in other British soldiers, their battle-shout shreds, like those of quarrelsome dogs. should be, 'Heep-peep-oo-la!' (Aip, hip, Ornamental beads, so dear to savages, have hurrah !) The attack was carried out exbeen generally discarded. Their ages, cellently. Whenever there was a vestige and consequently their sizings, vary of cover the men wriggled forward like greatly—a six-feet and a five-feet-six snakes ; in the open they rushed on like stature are constantly in juxtaposition ; a whirlwind. Indeed Captain Mansel but in point of muscular strength and ac- states that their impetuosity amounts to a tivity, nearly all possess the same high defect. On the occasion of a brush with average. “How old are you ?” I inquire a native tribe, he was hastily dismounting through an interpreter of a singularly for the purpose of leading the rush, but in youthful-looking Zulu, and the reply is an instant his men had sped far ahead, characteristic, In a year's time I shall and ere he could come up with them, were be a man."
busy with their bayonets. When I had The natives never know their own ages, done laughing at their wild “ Heep-peepand have no conception of numbers. oo-la !" and the company was re-formed, Their own language only counts up to I spoke to them a few words, couched in
Eight and upward is rendered the customary vacuous form, but listened by the English term, or by a very long to with eager attention and manifest satisperiphrasis; while they vaguely designate faction as coming from an English officer. à thousand by a gesture, and the words Would that we had a thousand of these “a great number. In connection with warriors in our service! Subsequently I this Captain Mausel whispers to me—“I went round the tents and huts, which were will show you a drill movement which models of neatness and cleanliness, though always baffles them ;" and then followed the men were packed as closely as the command, “From the right-tell off dines.
General symptoms of uneasi “All very satisfactory in a military ness ; then from the flank a triumphant point of view, but are you equally effi“
one,' succeeded by a hesitating cient as police ?” was a question recently “three," an arrogant otwo," and a de- put to the commanding officer. “ How do spairing “four.”
were." you mean ?" rejoined Captain Mansel, as Over and over again-quite in vain. At much perplexed as an ensign in old days last they are left to themselves ; and by catechised by the inspecting-general on the intuition, not by arithmetic, they form important point of the price of a pair of their sections of fours with perfect accu- socks or a cake of pipe-clay. racy. After this passing cloud, which are your men efficient in the protection of imperilled my gravity—a smile would bave life and property ?” “No, sir,” was the
answer, desperate in its unvarnished truth; within a distance of about 400 yards in a “I am bound to admit that in looting and flat open veldt, which under ordinary cirkilling there is no one to come near cumstances a blind nan could traverse them." This delight in cruelty, and slay with ease. For nearly three quarters of ing man, woman, baby, and animal, is so an hour I was floundering about in the innate in savages all over the world, that mud, in utter exhaustion, between the one can only attribute it to the devil's mess kraal and my quarters, until rescued planting
by the commanding officer, who had sallied Captain Mansel's dwelling is a favorable forth with lantern, and was preparing to specimen of the possibility of a consider- turn out his detachment in skirmishing able amount of comfort and prettiness in order so as to guide me by their shots. an English-Zulu kraal. Six or seven bee- To be lost in the veldt is by no means an hive erections close to each other consti- uncommon occurrence, and the sense of tute as many disconnected apartments, desolation is overpowering. Kafirs in an drawing, dining, and bed rooms, kitchen unknown country without landmarks and offices. Inside, brightly dyed cloths nevertheless travel from point to point are so disposed as to conceal the wattle- with unerring precision which is totally and-daub, while books, prints, and a small incomprehensible to Europeans, and which quantity of plain furniture impart an seems to amount to a sixth sense. If in aspect of civilized decoration. Outside, the dark and in doubt, they sometimes any amount of garden beauty is attained crouch down and feel the ground, though by means of vines, fruit trees, and flower- how such a process aids them they are ing shrubs, such as apricot and peach trees quite unable to explain. and bananas ; bamboos and semi tropical The majesty and law of English rule is grasses ; hibiscus, bougainvilleas, olean- represented by a small daub-and-wattle ders, and poinsettias, which revel in masses tenement where dwells the British Resiof brilliant blossom. At best, however, dent, and by an equally small court house, a kraal is a flimsy unpleasant makeshift. where I find assembled a few members of The daub absorbs wet and involves mil. the mounted police, conveying the same dew; twigs and plaster litter off the ceil- impression of efficiency as their dismounted ing ; nasty insects, great and small, swarm comrades, some native officials, some about the drapery ; and a fireplace is quite Zulus of distinction, and three or four impracticable. Of course, shops and so- English magistrates, who have been ciety are scarcely more existent here than assembled from remote spots in order to in the Sahara. Domestic grief in the constitute a quorum for the trial of certain matter of servants reaches its climax : chiefs charged with complicity in DinizuEuropeans are, as a rule, out of the ques- lu's rising two years ago. A confident tion ; Kafirs will do but a small amount anticipation of acquittal seems to take of slavey work under incessant supervi- away all zest in the proceedings; for sion ; and the lady of the establishment here, as elsewhere, our English tenderness must rely entirely on herself for aught for political prisoners leaves little prospect approaching civilized order and comfort. of conviction, unless the accused be noto. Well for her if a wise system of education rious miscreants closely akin to felons. has taught her a little practical cookery. One fat naked chief subsequently proceeds On the other hand, advantages of climate to the military orderly-room in order to reduce these discomforts to a minimum. purchase a blanket, and with his prize reEven during the rainy season the morning joicingly rides off on a wretched old pony, habitually breaks beautifully, and during followed on foot by his panting " Inthe greater part of the day the sun shines duna,” his Minister for Foreign Affairs, no brilliantly that faces and hands become arrayed in the ragged old scarlet tunic of scorched as though by a washerwoman's a British infantry soldier. iron. Later on, the sky grows heavily My return journey through Zululand overclouded, and torrents descend, ac- across the Tugela, and so on to Verulam, companied by a crackling thunder, and a gives me a further opportunity of forming lightning so vivid and close as to convey an opinion of the fertility of the country an impression that it can be almost smelt. through which I have been driving for The pitchy darkness is so intense that on many days. Its main deficiency is scarcity one occasion I completely lost my way of timber. Woods have been recklessly
swept away for fuel or for household pur The Wrong which needs resistance" ? poses, and replanting has been practically At present only in incipient growth, but an nil, although with a very little labor evil combination of circumstances is imafforesting could be carried out with the pending against which it behooves every utmost success. One tree, the stinkwood, just Englishman to urge timely measures, finds a peculiarly favorable habitat in this lest we be called on too late to verify the soil, and is almost of equal value with principleteak. Of extreme hardness and durability, it is worked without difficulty, and is
“ To mourn an evil which is past and gone,
Is the sure means to bring fresh evil on." beautifully grained ; and if inquiry be made of a Natal young lady of the ma
By a wise and just system of administerial of some particularly pretty table or tration, a large part of Zululand was rework-box, the hesitating soft-toned voice served for the sole benefit of those who will probably reply with the repulsive for years had held it with the same title word," stinkwood.”
to right as that by which the Alsace and
own On the other hand, it would pass the Lorraine fariners cultivate their imagination of man to conceive a more homesteads, and every effort has been amazing wealth of pasturage than that made to safeguard their rights by a wise which is spread before our eyes-north, rule under a just and humane governor, south, east, and west. It is true there is Sir Charles Mitchell. The natives, on little admixture of clover, or of that which their part, relying on the good faith of is technically called “ herbage;" but dur. Englishmen, accepted our ing the season of alternate drenching rain placed themselves under our laws, loyally and glowing heat, grass, good wholesome fulfilled their obligations, and are now grass, is growing thick and high as our prosperous and peaceable, multiplying in knees, with a fatness which would fatten
wealth and population. A large number flocks and herds in hundreds of thousands. of the Natal colonists, on the contrary, In some districts—Stanger, for instance,
are in a condition of restless dissatisfacwhich, though within the Natal border, is tion because during the last eighteen identical in soil with Zululand--are ex
months no longer do tensive and paying sugar, tea, and even
“ Afric's sunny fountains coffee plantations; while in the neigh Roll down their golden sand" borhood of the small township of Verulam in the same abundance as heretofore. the inhabitants have proved that if the soil The rascalities of the Transvaal mining be but scratched, an Eden will blossom un- and other speculative undertakings have der their feet. Tobacco, maize, sweet been followed by a failure of banks and potatoes, bananas, pines, melons, peaches, much financial distress. The Natalians and all sorts of fruit, including even man- harp back on their undoubted wrongs from, gues, are here produced with merest ele and the undoubted infamy of, the Boer mentary cultivation. Practically not a convention of 1881 ; they declaim in barrowful of manure is used or needed; favor of responsible government-which, there is not a thought of alternation of indeed, they will unquestionably attain crops, and year after year the same plot within a limited period; and, like the inbrings forth the same harvest, with the habitants of most young countries, they same undiminished bounty. No wonder hanker after a protective tariff and the European greed casts covetous eyes on prohibition of imported coolie labor. Zululand's potentialities for wealth, and They refuse to believe that their tempoplots to seize with robber capacity that rary absence of prosperity can most effectwhich it cannot claim by right of purchase ually be remedied by the patient developor inheritance.
ment of their own resources ; their minds This consideration leads to one of the resemble the pupil of the eye—the more objects with which this paper is written. light is poured on it, the more it conSurely ere now the reader has queried the tracts. Hence many of the impatient appropriateness of the quotation with malcontents are casting evil eyes on the which it opens. Where is
possessions of their neighbors the Zulas, “ The Right which needs assistance" ?
once too formidable to be oppressed, now
crushed to resist successfully. where
“Here," they say in effect, “is abun
dance of first-rate land close at hand. The oration by facts, fell upon a neighboring Zulus do not make the most of it; we Zulu, whose kraal he forthwith proceeded could render it far more productive : they to harry, and whose cattle-yard be plunare savages and helpless, we are civilized dered in self-awarded compensation. The and powerful. Let the Government with- magistrate naturally pointed out that comdraw its aggravating reservation laws ; let plainant had no right whatever to take the the best men win; and, if we cau, let us law into his own hands, and this mild reseize the farms for ourselves." Do we monstrance formed the gravamen of the not do well to be angry, ragingly angry, at appeal, which wound up with the menace : such utterances ? I admit that they are You had better take care what you are not relatively frequent, for the Natalians about, or we shall act independently for in their norinal condition are among the ourselves, and try what a little shooting finest types of just and konorable English- will do." Perhaps the incident would be men. But the above mutterings are some scarcely worth mention were it not a straw times tacitly supported by men who are indicating the current, and the nature of too much interested to denounce that that current is irrefragably proved by the which they are too much ashamed openly mixed horror and terror with which the to advocate.
natives regard the Transvaalers. Unhappily for the Zulus, the English lish nation,” they plead in effect, “ take are not the sole individuals tempted to from us what you deem just ; require of perpetrate that “wrong which needs re us what you will, but save us from those sistance." The Boers, compared to us, malignant white fiends, the Boers." are as bloody wolves compared to surly the warrior police force 1 have described, dogs. For years past the whole gist of whose fathers-nay, many of whom themthe policy of Downing Street, sick of dis- selves—fought like heroes against us, astrous South African wars, the grave of shrink from a conflict from their ruthless most administrative and many military enemies, the Boersma race derived from reputations, has been “ Peace with the the most law-abiding and humane of Boers ; rightly if possible—but, rightly European nations, but who, after the lapse or wrongly, peace with the Boers." of two centuries, are now characterized by “ What peace," a just man will reply, the distorted profession of a religion they “ so long as the abordinations of this race so often insult by their actions against the of hereditary native-slayers are endured, natives. and even connived at ?” In defiance of Afrikander patriots urge with a pathos. treaty rights, they have bereft the Zulus which would be touching, were it ever so. under our protection of a part of their little founded on fact : “Indeed, sir, you fairest inheritance, and have there estab- are in error. Our countrymen have always. lished their “New Republic”-and we treated the natives with exceptional tensubmit. The course of transactions with derness. When sometimes compelled, in reference to Swaziland convinces men qual. vindication of law and order, to inflict ified to judge that Swaziland will follow punishment, they have carried out penalthe same unjust fate. In vain do the na- ties with all possible humanity. Thetives plead with us for justice—in vain do compassionate farmers often make the local British administrators appeal against children of patives unhappily slain the obincessant encroachments. Neither is spo- jects of their special solicitude, convey liation and oppression simply of a national them home, feed, educate, and treat them nature inflicted on a country at large. In- as members of their own families.” Truly dividual Boers with impunity rob and we here have an illustration of the “ art maltreat individual Zulas for private ends. of putting things.” As regards a pasti The borders teem with stories of wrongs which is within easy memory of the livtoo precise and well authenticated to be ing, call into court evidence of the burnt imaginary.
kraals, the plundered cattle, and the slain Within my own cognizance a mongrel bodies of Kafir inen, women, and chilDutch Boer addressed an angry remon- dren. With reference to the present, we strance to a superior civil authority against point to the extortion, the spurning and the decision of a subordinate English mag- hounding, of the miserable natives of the
Complainant had missed some Transvaal, and to the recognized " apsheep; his suspicions, destitute of corrob. prenticeship" of the orphans, which is
New SERIES.—VOL. LIV., No. 1, 6
but a flimsy subterfuge for legalized not only shall we foster lawlessness to an slavery. If this proof be rejected, there extent which will be ultimately unenduris an end to the value of all evidence ; and able, but meanwhile we shall be conniving if such deeds may not be called atrocities, at a condition of affairs wherein war is a words have no longer any meaning. less evil than peace. Our plain duty is
Further hostilities with the Boers, to arrest at all hazards the oppression of wherein neither repute nor substantial ad- the belpless and unoffending natives, and vantage can possibly be gained, would be to allow our colonial rulers to follow the so deplorable, that every reasonable person principle so nobly illustrated by one of the must earnestly hope such an evil may be most upright of our soldiers and adminisaverted ; and no doubt few are fully trators, Sir Hope Grant,“Fais ce que aware of the constantly recurring difficul- dois, advienne ce que pourra."-Blackties of the situation. But if we continue wood's Magazine. to acquiesce in Boer rapacity and cruelty,
THE IDEALS OF ART.
BY W. HOLMAN HUNT, R. A.
Before the close of last year's Acade- matter is settled absolutely, with a perfect my, an article—which was most impor- adaptability for the changing occasions of tant, as it summed up in logical complete- the future. The conclusion of the whole ness the current ideas upon the subject- would be that henceforth Englishmen appeared in the New Review, written by should consider themselves debarred from the Duke of Marlborough. It gave judg- the consideration of the theory together ment upon the relative merits of Conti- with the practice of Art, for the whole nental and British Art. The verdict 150 years of its effort seem to result in arrived at was unfavorable for England as nothing but hopeless failure. Not only far as its pictorial genius is concerned. are they defeated now, but our national flag The absence of all artistic instinct in this is so given up to our rivals that henceforth befogged nation was first laid down by we should look upon ourselves at the best Wincklemann. Strictural judgments of as only a province of France. The test is ourselves are always wholesomely in favor the demand in the market, and for porin this country, and so Wincklemann's traiture the readiness of foreigners to pay view has never been without its champions English artists to paint their portraits, and among us, for malcontents have much used it is shown that whereas French picture it as a last retreat in a Parthian attack ; dealers never come to England to buy the keepers of the defending fort never British works, the English picture dealers having taken pains to demolish the distant go in shoals to France, Belgium, etc., to cover; and in France the axiom has been buy works by the natives of these gifted welcomed as scarcely less precious than countries. For all who accept the inif it had risen on Gallic soil. That which ference it remains only to search out what makes it necessary to refer to the argu- the ideals of Art are with Frenchmen, ment relied upon by the Duke of Marl- Belgians, etc., and to be thankful for due borongh here is that it does stand on intelligence to understand these. a practical ground very rightly approved case is, in fact, more than proved, for by a nation of shopkeepers such as the beyond what is stated we have foreigners English are. The test so good for other of all races brought here to do their Art products is applied with confidence to set- work on English soil ; and the welcome tle the worth of Art creations. The they get from all quarters, to the great principle has been often before tacitly humiliation of English artists and Art, assumed as final, but the whole argument warrants the Duke of Marlborough's conof the article is an open declaration of the clusions that Continental painting and infallibility of the tribunal cited. If ac- sculpture far surpass English work, for cepted, the question of the ideals of our they are patronized by the British Court, Art needs no further disquisition. The by the Government and public Corpora