siderable fleet of modern warships which churches in Wuhu, in the province of Anhui, China has acquired is gathered in the were burned down by evil disposed persons, North, and is practically under the con- in Wusüeh (Hupeh) were successively de

and the churches in Tadyang (Kiangsu) and trol of Li Hung-chang ; but it is manned stroyed, and it was urged that the leaders and officered in a great measure by Fok- should be discovered and captured, and hienese, and it is questionable whether stringent preventive means should be taken provincial sensitiveness might not, for [etc.]. That the several nations are at libboth reasons, resent its presence at the is set forth in the treaties, and Imperial De

erty to promulgate their religions in China) Yangtze ports. For the provinces still crees have been granted instructing the variform, in China, so many administrative ous provinces to give protection at all times. units within which Governors and Govern- Many years have passed by, and the Chinese ors-General are practically supreme. The How is it that lately churches have been

and foreigners have lived on friendly terms. army of China has been said to consist of burned and destroyed almost simultaneously? over a million of men ; but the million is It is certainly strange and astounding. It is made up of provincial militia, one-half of only too obvious that there must be among whom exist only on paper.

And so with the evil-doers some notoriously desperate

characters who secretly plan, dupe, spread the fleet. Besides the ironclads which are

rumors, and mislead the minds of the people kept anchored in the North, there is a so with the expectation that an opportunity may called Southern squadron, several ships of occur for plunder. Even the peaceful and which are at the especial disposal of the good people have been misguided by and Nanking Viceroy. It was one of these forced to join these rogues to aid in creating

more momentous results.

Unless severe which the Taotai of Shanghai dispatched, measures are devised to punish and suppress with praiseworthy promptitude, immedi- [these malefactors), how are the laws to be ately on hearing from H.M. Consul-Gen- upheld, and how is the country to enjoy eral of the riot at Wuhu. It was three quiet? Let the Governors General and Gov. of these which we have seen arrive there Anhui, and Hupeh at once command the civil

ernors of Liang-kiang, Hukuang, Kiangsu, accidentally, in the nick of time to stop and military officials to discover, capture, try, the further progress of the riot. And convict, and execute the leaders of the riots upon these, and upon the local militia, as a warning to others for the future. The the Imperial Government seems disposed monishes people to become virtuons, and the

religion of the Western countries simply adto rely, from sheer dread of making mat- native converts are Chinese subjects under ters worse ; though the majority of the the jurisdiction of the local officials. The militia are probably members of the very religions and peoples ought to exist peaceably Society which is said to be the chief agent side by side. The risings [against religious in the turmoil.

orders) no doubt took origin from the discon

tented class, who fabricate groundless rumore No two Chinese officials, probably, and create disturbance under false pretexts. would agree in assessing the exact value Such cunning people are to be found in every to be attached to all those different con- place. Let the Tartar. Generals, Governorssiderations, or the precise extent to which General and Governors proclaim and notify they influence the policy of the Central rumors and recklessly cause troubles. Any Government. But it must be admitted writers of anonymous placards manufacturing that they form constituent elements of the rumors to mislead the people are to be appreproblem ; and it will readily be inferred hended and severely punished. The local that the Government finds itself in a diffi- officials must at all times devise measures for

the protection of the lives and properties of cult position, between the menacing atti. the merchants and missionaries of the several tude of Europe on one hand and appre- nations, and must not permit criminals to hension of its unruly subjects on the other. harass and injare them. In case their preIts public utterances, in the nean time,

cautions are not effectual and disturbances have been creditable and explicit. Early act state of the case and have such officials

occur, let the high authorities report the exin June, at the instance of the Foreign cashiered. Let the various cases [of riot Ministers, the Emperor's advisers per- against foreign churches) in the different suaded him to issue the following edict :

provinces still pending settlement be prompt

ly arranged by the Tartar-Generals, Govern. “The Tsung-li Yamen bas memorialized us ors-General, and Governors, who are not to on the disturbances occurring in the various allow the subordinate officials to delay and provinces against (foreign) religious orders, procrastinate through fear of difficulties. and requested us to order the Governor-Gen. Let this Decree be known to all. Respect eral and Governors to take immediate meas this !'' ures for their suppression [etc.]. The memorialists stated that in the fourth moon the That the proclamation itsel: and its

publication in the Peking Gazette were of stopping any foreign movement or in. obtained with difficulty* does not detract stitution which they dislike is a resort to from its intrinsic value as an utterance in popular outbreak and violence, which they favor of Christian religion and of foreign believe will have no unpleasant result to intercourse. What the Imperial Govern- thernselves, and will meiely entail money ment seems unwilling to realize is that payment of a certain pecuniary indemnity Europe requires something more than by their Government.' Our relations words as an earnest of its goodwill in the with China betray, in fact, a painful tenpresent crisis.

Sir Halliday Macartney dency to revolve continually in the same has told the Foreign Office, under in- circle. Replying to the Chinese letter struction, of course, from Peking, that from which I have quoted on a previous the Government feel really " perplexed page, Dr. Griffith John, a missionary of and somewhat disturbed by the pressure long experience in the country, says that which continues to be put on them.” “ the hatred of foreigners among the litTwo men have (they plead) been executed erary and official classes is not a thing of at Wuhu, and others subjected to minor yesterday. It existed long before the punishments. Two more have since been first Protestant missionary set his foot on condemned to death at Wusüeh for par- the soil of the Ctlestial land, and if I may ticipation in the riots there, and several judge from this (letter) it is likely to exist mandarins have been degraded. “ They for ages to come. ... Our first war felt, therefore, that there had been no with China is generally regarded as springlaxity or evasion in the measures taken, ing out of the opium trade, and waged in and they apprehended that further execu- order to obtain an indemnity for the tions would tend to increase rather than losses sustained by the surrender of the allay the popular excitement."

opium.'. But it may be regarded in anThe contention is plausible, from the other light, namely, in its relation to the Chinese point of view, if it were simply a immoderate assumptions of the Peking matter of counting heads and so balancing Cout, and the haughty, contemptuous an account ; but it ignores altogether the and insulting bearing of the Chinese offi. ulterior considerations which have forced cials in their intercourse with foreigners theinselves on the attention of European from the beginning. . . . No great statesmen. The outbreaks have indeed Power could possibly submit long to such been so serious and widespread, and the insults. . . . The old pride and hatred authorities have shown such evident in- still reign in the hearts of the officials and capacity to grapple with the inovement, the literati. There may be exceptions ; that it has ceased to be a question merely but they are few and far between. : . . of special reparation. It is no longer a I know something of the temper of the question of this or that riot only, but of a people ; and I venture to predict that, whole series of outrages, which the Im- should a missionary war' ever come to perial Government may plead difficulty in pass, it will not be a war against the peopreventing, outrages which Englishmenple of China, but, as heretofore, a war in China, even those who do not sympa. against the Chinese Government; and thize with missionary enterprise, are per- that it will be induced, not by the doings suaded the local authorities rarely use dili- of the missionary, but by the pride and gence to prevent. There is a conviction, folly of the governing classes." Dr. John as Mr. Gardner told the Taotai of Hankow, writes, of course, from the Foreign, the that these riots are largely due to the Missionary, and the Protestant point of remissness of the Chinese authorities in view. It would be unfair to suppose that suppressing the dissemination of the the Chinese could say nothing in answer abominable anti-Christian pamphlets and to his contention. Indeed, very shortly placards ;” and, as Sir T. Sanderson told after the Tientsin massacre, they took ocSir II. Macartney, ihere is felt to be “ casion to set out their case, with a view growing tendency among the Chinese to asking that certain restrictions might population to think that the simplest way be placed upon the action of missionaries, * Sir J. Walsham to Lord Salisbury, June tation and danger. They began by saying

in matters which they alleged caused irri. 21.

| Lord Salisbury to Sir J. Walsham, July 22, that “ as regards trade there is no proba. 1891.

bility of Chinese and foreigners quarrel.


The very


But rages

ling, but as regards missions there is a well as the practices which have been regreat deal of ill-feeling ;” and it may be ferred to as probably causes of misundernot amiss to note one or two of the causes standing, have reference unquestionably they allege. One point is that of extra to the Roman system, Protestant misterritorial privilege. Either prevent mis- sionaries also have their disputes ; but they sionaries residing in the interior or let thein are less serious and less frequent, and are do so subject to Chinese law! They are connected more often with the purchase now allowed privileges from which mer of land or buildings in regions where the chants are debarred. Another charge is local gentry oppose their presence. There that converts take advantage of the in can be no do::bt that the Roman Catholics, fluence of the missionaries to injure and and especially the French, are objects of oppress the common people ;” and that much greater dislike.

But the two syswhen litigation arises “the missionaries tems appear inextricably entangled so far support the latter, thus obstructing the as diplomacy is concerned. Neither authorities, which the people strongly ob- France nor England would permit the im. ject to." The case may be strongly put; position, on either, of restrictions that but, how much truth or exaggeration so were not common to both. ever it may contain, it states without need, indeed, for such precautions would doubt a cause of serious irritation. Roman not improbably be denied ; but their bishops bave been accused of imitating the enactment, in that case, could harm none, port and trappings of Provincial Govern and Chinese Statesmen may perhaps man

An instance is given of a Roman age to gain a hearing for their proposibishop having a seal manufactured with tions when satisfaction for the recent outwhich to stamp his proclamations.

has been given. these are minor matters compared with It is possibly difficult for high Chinese the alleged tendency to look on converts, officials to appreciate the feeling in favor if not as baturalized Frenchinen, as en of missionary enterprise which prerails titled at any rate to a quasi-consular pro- among a large section of the English peo. tection. It is easy to understand that if a ple, and more difficult still for them to convert appeals to his priest the priest’s reconcile the attitude of France toward sympathies should be enlisted ; but it is clerical institutions at home with its willequally easy to comprehend the irritation ingness to support them in the East. But that would be caused by any attempt to Sir Thomas Sanderson was undoubtedly express those sympathies in official ears. right in impressing on the Chinese Minis.

Another impression, which is not men ter that, “if public opinion once became tioned in this despatch but is voiced by alarmed and indignant in France and Engthe Chinese exponent of the literate cause, land, a cry for intervention might arise is that missionaries constitute by their or that might have very serious ganization not only an imperium in in- quences. It would be useless for the perio, but a hostile imperium in the sense Chinese to retort “ that our people object that they are prepared to place influence to the propaganda as much as your people and valuable information at the disposal desire it,” because religious enthusiasm of a foreign invader. “ Tous les ren- declines to admit argument. We shrink seignements qui parvenaient au général in horror from the doctrine of the Koran ... tant sur les ressources des provinces or the sword. Europe would not tolerate, que nous allions traverser que sur les effec now, a campaign against the Albigenses : tifs des troupes que nous allions rencon. even the most enthusiastic would recoil trer lui etaient procurés par l'intermédiaire from a naked proposal to impose Chrisdes jésuites qui les faisaient relever par tianity on any heathen nation by force of des Chinois à leur devotion." The lan

But à volume of public opinion guage is used by a writer who held an which has to be reckoned with does apofficial position in the French army during prove of compelling China to admit and the war that ended with the treaty of protect missionaries, how distasteful soTientsin ; and similar testimony has been ever their presence may be to certain given to the help yielded the French by classes of the population.

The treaty missionaries and their converts during the right will be upheld ; and the mistake invasion of Tongking.

will not, it is hoped, be made of accepting Nearly all these causes of complaint, as money and a few heads as adequate repa



ration for the organized outbreaks that doing their duty, and it must punish those have been described. The conspirators who are primarily responsible for the flow who inspire the riots must be produced, of placards which are the cause of misthe officials who fail to hinder them de- chief. There is said to be a project to graded, and pledges giren of the existence strike at the heart of the octopus, by inof both will and power to exert a more sisting on the opening of Hunan. The efficacious protection over missionaries in idea is good, and might be accoinplished,

The inflammatory literature must perhaps, by the opening of the Tungting be restraived, and Mr. Gardner's sugges- Lake to foreign commerce. But we must tion that, “ failing fear of war, our best be prepared, in that case, to make good means of insuring the safety of our coun our own entry. If the Government stands trynien in any Consular district is causing so far in awe of the Hunanese soldiers in it to be more disagreeable for the officials the valley of the Yangtze that it dares not to neglect than to perform the duty of employ force for their repression, if it has protecting British subjects," may well be witnessed the expulsion of its own emisborne in mind. The officials' remissness saries from Hunan when the question was need not be always and altogether ascribed only about setting up a telegraph, it would to ill-will. Having attained office after a probably not dare—at least at the present long period of waiting, and baving bor- moment—to insist on the right of for. rowed freely to pay the fees incidental to eigners to travel and reside in the provits attainment, they are naturally anxious ince. The appcarance of a few foreign to retain it in order to recoup their out- gunboats on that lake, however, wbich is lay. And their best chance of retaining embayed in the obnoxious province, might it is to keep order in their district. But prove an efficacious means of bringing there

may be considerations more urgent various people to their senses. Whether than even the dissatisfaction of their supe- Peking Statesmen would object, in their riors. If they run counter to the wishes secret hearts, to our accepting the work of of the literati and the gentry, these will coercion is a question that few would care certainly find means to subvert them ; and to answer. They might resent the shock the fear of such an event may occasionally to their prestige, yet not be altogether unterrify them into acquiescence in plots willing that the Hunanese should receive a which they really disapprove. All ihat, practical lesson, the odigm of teaching however, does not concern us. The Im- which they themselves had not to incur. perial Government must manage its own - National Review. people. It must support its officials in


No more considerable interest has lately way on Mr. James's work as a dramatist, attended the appearance of any play than which, indeed, lies chiefly in the future ; that excited by the production in a Lon- but the admirable and lucid style, the don theatre of Mr. Henry James's dramatic command of witty and epigrammatic dia. version of his own novel, “ The Ameri- logue with which his readers are already can.” The reason of that interest is not familiar, probably justify the highest hopes far to seek. Whatever the merit and the of those who care greatly for the renassuccess of our English writers of plays in cence of literary excellence in the English general, it will not be disputed, we believe, drama. It can be no secret to any one that English literature, in the strict sense who has studied Mr. James's writings, of the word, is not, as a rule, greatly en that he has an almost passionate appreciariched by their efforts; when, therefore, tion of fine plays and fine acting : a hun. it was known that an eminent man of let- dred passages in his critical work give ters, a novelist of the first distinction, had evidence of his close and careful study of turned his attention to the stage, the the stage and its requirements, while the event, it was felt, was of an importance to point, always to be largely insisted on in arouse the most legitimate curiosity. It any consideration of his work as a novelis not our purpose to comment here in any ist, that he is a consummate artist, should

have no less significance, it may be sup takes us into his confidence, shows us posed, in the dramatic would than in that what is best worth seeing and the best of fiction, as the term is usually under way to see it, quotes his guide-book with stood.

a humorous guilelessness, and makes himIn speaking of the work of Mr. Henry self, in short, through his books, the most James, the first, the imperative thing to delightful travelling - companion in the he said about it is that it is the work of world. an artist, and of one with a complete and In putting forward these little volumes exhaustive knowledge of his art and its first, however, we are

first, however, we are not doing Mr. resources. While no writer is more James's work, and what we may imagine vividly modern, Mr. James is, in a sense, to be his own estimate of it, the injustice an artist as an ancient Greek was an art- to rank them among his foremost producist ; he represses systematically, that is to tions. The field of literature that he has say, his own personality in view of the traversed is wide ; both as critic and eswork on which he is engaged. By the sayist he has gained particular distinction, public, and—shall we say?-_by the Eng- no less than by the charming papers just sish public in particular, this supreme mentioned. But it is as a novelist that he quality of workmanship is one of the has found a foremost place among modern qualities least esteemed and least appre- writers ; it is his unique and delightful ciated. The generous public bates the gift of fiction that, above all, claims conAugur's mask; it likes to peep and see sideration in treating of his work. the human countenance behind, to shake

I. hands, so to speak, with the wearer, and congratulate him on having a soul like its Every writer of original excellence has own. Mr. James never, or by inference one or more distinct lines along wbich his only, allows us the smallest peep ; his re- genius develops itself, and with which he serve is impenetrable ; he invariably treats becomes, as it were, identified. Mr. his characters and his plots with the im- James, as we shall endeavor to show, has partiality of the workman who apprehends that larger outlook on the vast human that the truth of a thing, and not his own comedy that distinguishes the great mascoloring of it, is what, before all, is need- ters of fiction ; but his earliest stories have ed.

a certain character in common that intiWe so far share the fueling, while abso- mately connects them with what for conlutely disclaiming any share in the opinion venience has been termed, the Internaof the public, on this point, as to find a tional novel. Mr. James, in fact, might particular pleasure in those impressions de not unreasonably claim to be the inventor voyage, those little sketches of travel col- of that particular form of romance ; and lected under the various titles—“A Lit- though it would be manifestly unjust to tle Tour in France,' “Portraits of consider him exclusively or even princiPlaces,” “ Foreign Parts”-in which the . pally in relation to it, since much of his writer, in the easiest, simplest, most genial most masterly as well as bis niost delicate manner imaginable, lets us into the secret work does not touch on the International of his personal inpressions, his fine artistic question—that is to say, the interfusing discriminations, his good inns and his bad influences of America and Europe-at inns, his chance comrades, his satisfactions all ; yet there is no doubt that it was bis and disillusions. It is the charm of indi earlier productions, “ The American,” viduality that pervades these charming “The Europeans, Daisy Miller," pages, and which, by the happiest in “ An International Episode,' and half a stinct, the author has known how to con- dozen other tales on the same line, that vey without a touch of obtrusive egotism won for him in the first instance much of or fatiguing iteration of detail. It needs the wide reputation he enjoys. Mr. indeed but a glance over a hundred dreary James must at some time have studied his and futile impressions de voyage, to bor- countrymen and country women with exrow again that convenient term, to under traordinary minuteness and detachment of stand the rare and consummate skill that vision. To him night be applied what goes to the composition of these little Sainte-Beuve somewhere says of La Bruarticles in which, without any uneasy self- yère : “En jugeant de si près les hommes consciousness or self-assertion, the writer et les choses de son pays, il paraît désinté

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