so quickly upon each other, nearer home, that many of us have probably forgotten the "Tientsin Massacre" of 1870, in which twenty-one foreigners, besides a good many native converts, lost their lives. It will not, however, be superfluous to recall that atrocity; for the events which led up to it have been reproduced, with variations, during the past twelvemonths; and it is useful to realize that the riot at Tientsin was not, any more than the late riot at Wuhsüeh, a sudden or an isolated explosion. Four years previously it had fallen to my lot to strike a note of warning in the following terms :-*

"A proclamation has been extensively posted throughout Hunan and in the adjacent provinces, denouncing their (the missionaries') interference with established customs, and calling on all loyal subjects to rise and exterminate them. Beginning with a sweeping denunciation against foreigners generally, whose specific character is half man, half beast,' and who, allowed by the extreme kindness of the Emperor to trade at Canton, have penetrated into every part of the empire,. . . the writer goes on to direct the whole flood of his wrath against missionaries in the following terms:

"Those who have come to propagate remasses, print and circulate depraved compoligion, enticing and deluding the ignorant sitions, daring, by their deceptive extravagances, to set loose the established bonds of society, utterly regardless of all modesty. worship only Jesus, yet, being divided into Although the adherents of the religion Catholic and Protestants, they are continually railing at each other. Daughters in a family are not given in marriage, but retained for the disposition of the bishop, thus ignor

ing the matrimonial relation.'


A hundred other enormities, some with a certain foundation in fact, others existing entirely in the writer's imagination, are alleged against these teachers of a new creed; and, in conclusion, the village elders are exhorted to assemble the population,



AFTER a period of comparative tranquillity, during which people had begun to think our relations with the Chinese were really becoming more sympathetic, we have been startled by a series of fresh outbreaks, characterized by the old spirit of hostility. As before, missionaries have been the principal objects of attack. One mission station after another has been menaced, or ransacked, or destroyed, from Ichang to Nanking, throughout the length of the Yangtze valley. The lay men have not been treated with benevolence, for at more than one place bayonets have had to be employed to fend off the mob; but it is against missions that the original attacks have been commonly directed, and it is against missionarics that the libels by which the riots are worked up have been mainly levelled.

Unhappily, religious persecution is no new thing in China. Tolerant and easygoing up to a certain point, the Chinese admitted the propaganda under the broad interpretation of the early Jesuits, but opposed it directly it touched the one cult which has a hold upon their convictions. They might have accepted Christianity, as they accepted Buddhism, if it would have absorbed ancestral worship; but Clement's bull sounded the destruction of the edifice

which Ricci and Schaal and Verbiest had built up the very claim of the Pope to interfere angering them not less, probably, than the dogma he asserted. Rome, however, kept a foothold one of the churches that has just been burned down is said to have been ministered in by Ricci himself, and Huc showed us Christian congregations in Szechuen. But the proselytes have been subject to periodic molestation, with the sanction, at times, of the Imperial authorities, at others by merely local instigation. The treaty of Tientsin finally legalized the propaganda. The era of official persecution was then closed; but persecution has gone on all the same, under the auspices of the literati; and a retrospective glance over the years that have intervened may help us to appreciate more clearly the conditions of the recent outbreak.

* Shanghai correspondence of the Times,

Events of paramount importance crowd November 28, 1866.

'that the offenders may be hurled beyond the seas, to take their place with the strange things of creation!'"

Two years later, in October 1868, an attack was made on some members of the Chinese Inland Mission who had recently settled in Yangchow (famous as the city where Marco Polo once held office), about fifteen miles north of Chinkeang. To excite popular feeling against them, the usual system of placarding had been employed. They were accused of kidnapping children and boiling them up for medicine, of abstracting the heart and liver from dead bodies, of administering to Chinamen drugs and philters which turned them into foreigners. Their religion, too, was foully abused. As a natural consequence, the populace became excited. Representations to the Prefect were futile; and the excitement rose to fever heat. mob broke into the mission premises, maltreated the occupants who escaped with difficulty, and made a bonfire of the con


called for. Then, as now, a wave of alarm ran through the Treaty ports wherever foreigners were settled, and grave apprehension for the safety of all outlying missions was felt. Happily, however, the force of the movement seemed to expend itself with that final convulsion; or rather, perhaps, the authorities were awakened to the necessity of greater precautions. Placards inciting and threatening hostile outbreaks were posted in various cities; but the excitement gradually subsided. Certain terms of reparation, including the despatch of Chunghow on a mission of apology to Paris, were exacted, and matters gradually resumed their normal aspect.


This proved to be only the first among a series of outrages that culminated in the terrible riot at Tientsin, when the French Consul and several French subjects, besides priests, sisters of mercy, and many native inmates of the mission premises, were massacred ainid circumstances of horrible brutality. The excitement in that case also had been wrought up in the same way. Placards had been posted alleging the usual accusations of kidnapping children for the purpose of using their eyes, breasts, and other parts of the body as medicine; and an alleged kidnapper was brought forward, precisely as on recent occasions, as proof positive that the charges were true. Then, as now, there were other outbreaks between and after those two notable explosions. Then, as now, a connected purpose was traced, and common report went so far as to fix on a man named Chen Kwo-jui as the disturbing spirit who had fired the train. From Szechuen to Nanking and up the Grand Canal to Tientsin, where (it was alleged) he had been a guest of the Governor, and had led the rioters in person, this man, it was said, travelled, prompting violence as he passed; and his execution, together with that of the Tientsin magistrates who had failed, as at Yangchow, to take precautions or to afford protection when urgently required, was at one time loudly

Now, twenty years later, we find ourselves in presence of a crisis remarkably similar, originating with proclamations emanating from the same hotbed of reactionary agitation. The stock stories of stealing children and taking out their eyes. to use for medicine, of the vilest immorality, of preaching tenets subversive of social order, have been disseminated broadcast. What is new is the rumor of political conspiracy which has been adduced in explanation of the gravity and the synchronism of the outbreaks. Wuhu, a town on the Yangtze, fifty miles above Nanking, enjoys the distinction of having first set the example. On the evening of Sunday, the 10th of May, when two nuns attached to the Roman Catholic mission were making their way home from a visit to a sick convert, they were suddenly seized and carried before a petty official, on the charge of having bewitched two children and rendered them dumb. Influence was of course exerted to procure their release; and the Chinese magistrate, with a wisdom worthy of King Solomon, decided that they should be set at liberty as soon as the spell was removed. Naturally, before twenty-four hours had elapsed, the children became tired of obeying orders

and spoke! Such a tame conclusion, however, did not suit the views of those who had been laying the train. Two days later, a woman presented herself before the mission, accompanied by a score of ill-looking fellows, and, screaming as a Chinese woman can scream, claimed her child, whom the missionaries had stolen, as they had done others whose corpses were within the wails of the establishment! This succeeded. A mob rapidly

assembled, and broke into the mission premises. The graves in the enclosure were opened, and the bodies of those who were buried shown as proof of foul play. They were clearly those of Chinamen who had been cut up by the foreigners! and the mob thereupon cried out to destroy the premises, which were looted and burned. Some adjacent houses were set on fire, and an attack on the Custom House was repulsed only by the deter mined resistance of the Staff. The mob remained in charge for three days, and was eventually dispersed by the fortuitous arrival of three Chinese gunboats escorting a high Mandarin to his seat of government in the adjacent province.

A fortnight after Wuhu came the turn of Nanking; and so deliberate were the preparations that the officials are said to have warned the missionaries of the very date of the attack. The women and children accordingly withdrew, and were allowed to get safely away; but the American Methodist Mission premises were destroyed. Up and down the Yangtze valley, explosion now followed explosion under similar conditions. At Tanyang, not far from Chinkeang, a mob burned down the fine old French church, which had survived even the seventeenth century persecution, pillaged and burned the mission buildings, desecrated the cemetery, and offered violence to the local Mandarin when he showed a will to interfere. A few days later, the Jesuit mission at Wusieh, in the same neighborhood, was attacked and destroyed. An impending riot at Kiukiang, on the 7th of June, was nipped in the bud by the determined bearing of less than a dozen foreign residents, who formed in line, charged the mob, and drove them out of the foreign settlement; after which Chinese soldiers took charge of the approaches. Briefly, there were riots and disturbances, of more or less importance, during a period of a few weeks, at Chinkeang, Nanking, Nganking (the capital of Anhwei), Woosih, Wuhu, Tanyang, Wuchow, Yangchow, Kiukiang, Wusuch, and Ichang. Even Shanghai, with its considerable foreign population, was at one time threatened, and an attack upon the great Jesuit establishment at Sikawei, in the vicinity, apprehended. But, how tempting soever an object of plunder, Shanghai is hardly a tempting object of attack: the volunteer force is

too considerable, and the prospects of opposition are too keen. The same thing, with the same result, had occurred in 1870. Prompt organization for defence averted danger, and confidence was quickly restored.

At Wusüeh alone, happily, has any life been lost; but some of the tales of the Indian Matiny scarcely exceed in dramatic interest the experiences of the actors in that tragedy. On the evening of the 5th of June, a Chinese convert entered the city gate carrying four children destined for the Roman Catholic orphanage. Conspirators appear to have seized the opportunity to collect a mob. The man was hurried off to the nearest magistrate; and, despite the efforts of the latter, who urged that the matter did not at any rate concern that establishment, rioters attacked, burned, and gutted the Wesleyan Mission. It chanced that the missionaries themselves were away on tour: only ladies and children remaining on the premises. There were, in fact, only two foreigners in Wusüeh, and both were murdered while trying, like brave men, to make their way to the help of their country women. Mrs. Warren and Mrs. Boden may best tell the tale* of their own experiences.

"The mob broke into the front gate and attacked us with long poles. We escaped

through the back door, and made our way to the main street; while we were going there Mrs. Protheroe got separated from us. Mr. Fan, our native teacher, stuck to us as long as he could. We got to the residence of the Makow sze (a small official) and got inside, but were turned out, the people striking and hurting us. We made our way a little up the street, when Mrs. Warren with Mrs. Protheroe's child in her arms was knocked down by a pole. She managed, however, to get up and pick up the child. The mob turned us back and made us go down the street; but in that direction we were hemmed. Mrs. Boden, Mrs. Warren, with the child she was carrying, and the Amah turned down a small alley, and thus got separated from Fân and Chu and from Mrs. Boden's baby. We went into a small mat-shed hut, and sat on the bed for an hour. The people in the hut put out nearly all the lights, and gave us refuge. The Amah went out to look for Mrs. Boden's baby after we had been in the hut nearly an hour. Chu's brother found us, and then he fetched his brother and native clothes for us, and took us to the Urh Fu's (prefect's) residence, where we found Mrs. Protheroe and her baby."

*China; No. 3 of 1891. Correspondence respecting Anti-Foreign Riots in China.

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And here is Mrs. Protheroe's account of her experience in the interval. –

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After I was separated from Mrs. Boden a perfect stranger took me to where he said the other foreigners were, namely, to the Makowsze, when I was refused admittance. I got in and was turned out. The mob got me back in front of our premises, which were now on fire, and told me they were going to kill me, and tried to pull the baby out of my arms. They pulled my hair and slapped my face, and asked me where the men (the missionaries) were. I told them at Hankow and Ki-chiao. One man said, 'Don't kill her;' the others said, 'If we don't kill her we will beat her.' Then they dragged me through the street. A soldier in plain clothes, under pretence of robbing me of my ring, got me gradually to the Fu's Yamên. I was a long time before I was let in. While waiting was being beaten; but the man who had dragged me through the street to the Yamên then told the mob to desist from beating me. Fân, meanwhile, was being badly beaten, and somehow lost the baby, which the Amah found with a native woman, who gave it to her."


But, if one official disgraced himself by driving away the women and children from his door, another, the Lung Pingsze, did his utmost with the means at his command to check the riot. It was he who tried to dissuade the mob from their purpose at the outset. He appealed vainly to the Prefect for help when they persisted, and was badly hurt in trying to save the lives of those who were killed. There is something pathetic in his message to the British Consul at Hankow that "he did his best, but that he is only a smal Mandarin, and has but a few men; that he had urged the Prefect twice to send men to quell the riot, but the latter refused." Yet this man was removed from office; and, though he is said to have been since reinstated through the intervention of the foreign Ministers, the action cannot but create a most unfavorable impression. Still worse was the case at Ichang where Hunan braves are said to have been actual rioters, and the officials stood by powerless or unwilling to interfere.

accusations by which the excitement is wrought up? Is it true, as has been alleged, that insurrectionary motives are at the bottom of the trouble, and that political secret societies are promoting the turmoil in the hope of facilitating their own designs?


As regards the first, we must conquer a tendency, in which Englishmen are not singular, to consider everything from our present standpoint. Absurd as those charges sound to us, no foreigner in China seems to suspect that they are too outrageous for the Chinese. Dr. Daly, who is in a mission hospital at Ningpo, surgeon affirms that "it is a popular belief all over China that foreigners extract the eyes and other organs from the dead, to make medicine of. He has been himself accused of it; and “for months the belief was prevalent, over a large district, that he had extracted the liver and other organs from a patient who had died in hospital, healing up the flesh with miraculous medicine so as to leave no marks of the incision." Besides, are we ourselves so very far removed from a similar stage of folly? A glance at Mr. Lecky's chapter on magic and witchcraft will convince us that it is not so long since beliefs equally absurd ranked as religious tenets, to question which was heresy and was denounced as "infidelity," in Western Europe. Even in the spacious times of great Elizabeth, Bishop Jewell, preaching before the Queen, could seriously affirm that "witches and sorcerers within these few years are marvellously increased within your Grace's realin. Your Grace's subjects pine away even unto the death; their color fadeth, their flesh rotteth, their speech is benumbed, their senses are bereft." To believe that people could be done to death by sticking pins into a wax figure, and that old women could ride up chimneys on broomsticks, was surely as absurd as to believe that medicine can be made of children's eyes, or that certain powders could weaken men's intellects, or that paper men were cutting off the queues of the Emperor's lieges.*

It must be remembered, too, that kidnapping children is, to the Chinese, a

More than enough has now been said to show the general character of the riots. The stories vary in detail; but the variation is chiefly in the behavior of the magistrates and in the violence shown by the mobs. Two questions will probably suggest themselves after a perusal of this retrospect. Can the Chinese believe the

* These rumors were propagated at Soochow in 1876, and drove the people wild with terror. They were attributed to a secret society called Pah-sien-chiao," and were ascribed to a wish to create political turmoil.





familiar crime ; the stolen children find- working of the authors' own imagination. ing, it is alleged, a ready market with Celibacy, both of men and women, is, to brothel-keepers and play-actors. It is, the Chinese, a familiar idea : monks and therefore, not extraordinary that ear

common among the Northern should be given to charges of child-steal- Buddhists. But they hold the former in ing when preferred against missionaries small esteem, and the reputation of the whose proceedings are, to the Celestial, nunneries is scarcely better than that which in many ways peculiar. We have only to many such institutions had earned for remember that the education of children

themselves in Enrope at the time of the is one of the most powerful means of Reformation. There might be no great proselytism in the Roman repertory, and difficulty, therefore, in believing that the

, that, in China as in Europe, that Church people were willing to judge celibate forhas established orphanages in which waifs eigners by the native standard. But when and strays are collected, in order to realize we are told, as one familiar with the subthe connection of the two ideas. And ject has affirmed, that “the language of the excessive mortality in these institu- their placards is often too vile for transtions, which is said to result in soine de- lation into any living tongue ;" that the gree from a willingness to save a little soul foreigner“ is denounced as a perpetrator by baptism, how frail soever the hold on of the most unnatural crimes-crimes that its earthly tenement, may possibly encour- I never heard of till I came to China,'' age the superstition. The suggestion has we are staggered as well as revolted by the been thrown out that the practice of ex- malignancy of the charge ; though we can treme unction* and our habit of closing readily believe that here is one serious the eyes of the dead may have furnished cause of whatever “ hatred exists to the the notion of extracting the eyes and foreigner among the masses of the Chinese brain ; but it would probably be more ex- people.' act to say that this slander also is an adap- Yet even those atrocious charges, like tation of a conception already present in everything else in that stereotyped emthe Chinese mind, for it is, I believe, a pire, seem of long descent ; having been fact that such crimes were alleged to exist formulated apparently for the purpose of before a missionary had set foot in the previous persecutions, and reproduced country ; while the surgical practice of upon occasion by the literati of successive post-mortems may have suggested the generations. Shortly after the massacre charges of mutilation. Neither is it un- of Tientsin, certain American missionaries likely that the propensity of the Romish at a town in Shantung obtained possession Church for surrounding its premises with of a Chinese book, entitled Death Blow high walls tends to encourage the suppo- to Corrupt Doctrine, that brought forward sition of mystery. Extreme openness is all the accusations against missionaries characteristic of Chinese life. The tem- which had been the alleged motive of that ples and monasteries are open from day. outbreak. The book was believed to light to dark ; you can wander into every have been written in 1862 by Tang Tzenook and corner. Official Yamêns are shing, one of the highest officials in the open : not only courts of justice, but the province of Hupeh, and is believed to halls of audience. Can it surprise us if, have been founded, in its turn, on a simito a people so accustomed, the practice of lar book written by one Yang Kwang.sien enclosure and seclusion seems suspicious ? which, Du Halde tells us, was the exciting

But when missionaries are accused not cause of the persecution of Christians in only of scooping out eyes and brains and A.D. 1621. Nor is the series at an end : other mutilations, but of the grossest im- similar charges are to be found in a standmorality, we are driven to assume the ard collection of important official docu* Clause 7 of the Hunan proclamation of the imprimatur of distinguished scholars

ments which was lately republished with 1866 runs thus :-“When a member of this religion is on his death-bed, several of his and ex-officials. co-religionists come and exclude his relatives, Given those two forces—the malignity while they offer prayers for his salvation of the literati and the credulity of the The fact is, while the breath is still in his body they scoop out his eyes and cut out his heart, which they use in their country in the * Letter by Dr. Griffith John, in North-China manufacture of false silver, ...

Herald of August 7, 1891.

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