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assembled, and broke into the mission too considerable, and the prospects of oppremises. The graves in the enclosure position are too keen. The same thing, were opened, and the bodies of those who with the same result, bad occurred in were buried shown as proof of foul play. 1870. Prompt organization for defence They were clearly those of Chinamen who arerted danger, and confidence was quickly bad been cut up by the foreigners ! and restored. the mob thereupon cried out to destroy At Wasüeh alone, happily, has any life the premises, which were looted and been lost; but some of the tales of the burned. Some adjacent houses were set Indian Matiny scarcely exceed in dramatic on fire, and an attack on the Custom interest the experiences of the actors in House was repulsed only by the deter- that tragedy. On the evening of the 5th mined resistance of the Stat. The mob of June, a Chinese convert entered the remained in charge for three days, and city gate carrying four children destined was eventually dispersed by the fortuitous for the Roman Catholic orphanage. arrival of three Chinese gunboats escorting spirators appear to have seized the oppora high Mandarin to his seat of govern- tunity to collect a mob. The man was ment in the adjacent province.
hurried off to the nearest magistrate ; A fortnight after Wuhu came the turn and, despite the efforts of the latter, who of Nanking ; and so deliberate were the urged that the matter did not at any rate preparations that the officials are said to concern that establishment, rioters athave warned the missionaries of the very tacked, burned, and gutted the Wesleyan date of the attack. The women and child Mission. It chanced that the inissionaries dren accordingly withdrew, and were al- themselves were away on tour: only ladies lowed to get safely away ; but the Ameri- and children remaining on the premises. can Methodist Mission premises were de- There were, in fact, only two foreigners in streged. Up and down the Yangtze val- Wusüeh, and both were murdered while ley, explosion now followed explosion un- trying, like brave men, to make their way der similar conditions. At Tanyang, not to the help of their country women. Mrs. far from Chin keang, a mob burned down Warren and Mrs. Boden may best tell the the fine old French church, which had sur. tale* of their own experiences. — vived even the seventeenth century persecution, pillaged and burned the mission
“ The mob broke into the front gate and buildings, desecrated the cemetery, and through the back door, and made our way to
attacked us with long poles. We escaped offered violence to the local Mandarin when the main street ; while we were going there he showed a will to interfere. A few Mrs. Protheroe got separated from us. Mr. days later, the Jesuit inission at Wusieh, Fän, onr native teacher, stuck to us as long as in the same neighborhood, was attacked he could. We got to the residence of the
Makow sze (a small official) and got inside, and destroyed. An impending riot at but were turned out, the people striking and Kiukiang, on the 7th of June, was nipped hurting us. We made our way a little up the in the bud by the determined bearing of street, when Mrs. Warren with Mrs. Protheless than a dozen foreign residents, who roe's child in her arms was knocked down by formed in line, charged the mob, and a pole. She managed, however, to get up and
pick up the child. The mob turned us back drove them out of the foreign settlement; and made
us go down the street ; but in that after which Chinese soldiers took charge direction we were hemmed. Mrs. Boden, of the approaches. Briefly, there were Mrs. Warren, with the child she was carrying, riots and disturbances, of more or less and the Amah turned down a small alley, and
thus got separated from Fan and Chn and importance, during a period of a few
from Mrs. Boden's baby. We went into a weeks, at Chinkeang, Nanking, Nganking small mat-shed hat, and sat on the bed for an (the capital of Anhwei), Woosih, Wuhu, hour. The people in the bot pat ont nearly Tanyang, Wuchow, Yangchow, Kiukiang, all the lights, and gave us refuge. The Amah Wusüeh, and Ichang. Even Shanghai, we had been in the hut nearly an hour. Chu's with its considerable foreign population, brother found us, and then he fetched his was at one time threatened, and an attack brother and native clothes for us, and took us upon the great Jesuit establishment at to the Urh Fu's (prefect's) residence, where Sikawei
, in the vicinity, apprehended. we found Mrs. Protheroe and her baby.” But, how tempting soever an object of plunder, Shanghai is hardly a tempting * China ; No. 3 of 1891. Correspondence object of attack : the volunteer force is respecting Anti-Foreign Riots in China.
And here is Mrs. Protheroe's account accusations by which the excitement is of her experience in the interval.
wrought up? Is it true, as has been al
leged, that insurrectionary motives are at “After I was separated from Mrs. Boden a
the bottom of the trouble, and that politiperfect stranger took me to where he said the other foreigners were, namely, to the Makow. cal secret societies are promoting the tursze, when I was refused admittance. I got moil in the hope of facilitating their own in and was turned out. The mob got me designs ? back in front of our premises, which were As regards the first, we must conquer a now on fire, and told me they were going to tendency, in which Englishmen are not arms. They pulled my hair and slapped ny singular, to consider everything from our face, and asked me where the men (the mis- present standpoint. Absurd
as those sionaries) were. I told them at Hankow and charges sound io us, no foreigner in China Ki-chiao. One man said, 'Don't kill her ;'
seeins to suspect that they are too outthe others said, “If we don't kill her we will beat her.' Then they dragged me through rageous for the Chinese. Dr. Daly, who the street. A soldier in plain clothes, under is surgeon in a mission hospital at Ningpo, pretence of robbing me of my ring, got me affirms that “it is a popular belief all over gradually to the Fu's Yamên. I was a long China that foreigners extract the eyes and time before I was let in. While waiting I other organs from the dead, to make mediwas being beaten ; but the man who had
cine of." Ile has been himself accused dragged me through the street to the Yamên then told the mob to desist from beating me. of it ; and “for inonths the belief was Fân, meanwhile, was being badly beaten, and prevalent, over a large district, that he somehow lost the baby, which the Amah had extracted the liver and other organs found with a native woman, who gave it to
from a patient who had died in hospital, her."
the flesh with iniraculous mediBut, if one official disgraced himself by cine so as to leave no marks of the indriving away the women and children cision." Besides, are we ourselves so froin his door, another, the Lung Ping- very far removed from a similar stage of sze, did his utmost with the means at his folly? A glance at Mr. Lecky's chapter command to check the riot. It was he
on magic and witchcraft will convince us who tried to dissuade the mob from their that it is not so long since beliefs equally purpose at the outset.
He appealed vainly absurd ranked as religious tenets, to questo the Prefect for help when they persist- tion which was heresy and was denounced ed, and was badly burt in trying to save as “infidelity," in Western Europe. the lives of those who were killed. There Even in the spacious times of great Elizais something pathetic in his message to beth, Bishop Jewell, preaching before the the British Consul at Hankow that "he Queen, could seriously affirm that did his best, but that he is only a smal! “ witches and sorcerers within these few Mandarin, and has but a few men ; that years are marvellously increased within he had urged the Prefect twice to send
Grace's realın. Your Grace's submen to quell the riot, but the latter re- jects pine away even unto the death ;
Yet this man was removed from their color fadeth, their flesh rotteth, their office ; and, though he is said to have speech is benumbeil, their senses are bebeen since reinstated through the interven- reft.” To believe that people could be tion of the foreign Ministers, the action done to death by sticking pins into a wax cannot but create a most unfavorable im- figure, and that old women could ride up pression. Still worse
was the case at chinneys on broomsticks, was surely as Ichang where Hunan braves are said to absurd as to believe that medicine can be have been actual rioters, and the officials made of children's eyes, or that certain stood by powerless or unwilling to inter- powders could weaken men's intellects, or fere.
that paper men were cutting off the queues More than enough has now been said to of the Emperor's lieges.* show the general character of the riots. It must be remembered, too, that kidThe stories vary in detail ; but the varia- napping children is, to the Chinese, a tion is chiefly in the behavior of the magistrates and in the violence shown by the
* These rumors were propagated at Soochow mobs. Two questions will probably sug
in 1876, and drove the people wild with ter
ror. They were attributed to a secret society gest themselves after a perusal of this
called “ Pah-sien-chiao,” and were ascribed retrospect. Can the Chinese believe the to a wish to create political turmoil.
familiar crime ; the stolen children find- working of the authors' own imagination. ing, it is alleged, a ready market with Celibacy, both of men and women, is, to brothel-keepers and play-actors. It is, the Chinese, a familiar idea : monks and therefore, not extraordinary that ear
common among the Northern should be given to charges of child-steal- Buddhists. But they hold the former in ing when preferred against missionaries small esteem, and the reputation of the whose proceedings are, to the Celestial, nunneries is scarcely better than that which in many ways peculiar. We have only to many such institutions had earned for remeinber that the education of children themselves in Europe at the time of the is one of the most powerful means of Reformation. There might be no great proselytism in the Roman repertory, and difficulty, therefore, in believing that the that, in China as in Europe, That Church people were willing to judge celibate forhas established orphanages in which waifs eigners by the native standard. But when and strays are collected, in order to realize we are told, as one familiar with the subthe connection of the two ideas. And ject has affirmed, that “the language of the excessive mortality in these institu- their placards is often too vile for transtions, which is said to result in soine de- lation into any living tongue ;"' that the gree from a willingness to save a little soul foreigner“ is denounced as a perpetrator by baptism, how frail soever the hold on of the most unnatural crimes-crimes that its earthly tenement, may possibly encour. I never heard of till I came to China,”. age the superstition. The suggestion has
The suggestion has we are staggered as well as revolted by the been thrown out that the practice of ex- malignancy of the charge ; though we can treme unction* and our habit of closing readily believe that here is one serious the eyes of the dead may have furnished cause of whatever “ hatred exists to the the notion of extracting the eyes and foreigner among the masses of the Chinese brain ; but it would probably be more ex- people.' act to say that this slander also is an adap Yet even those atrocious charges, like tation of a conception already present in everything else in that stereotyped emthe Chinese mind, for it is, I believe, a pire, seem of long descent ; having been fact that such crimes were alleged to exist formulated apparently for the purpose of before a missionary had set foot in the previous persecutions, and reproduced country ; while the surgical practice of upon occasion by the literati of successive post-mortems may have suggested the generations. Shortly after the massacre charges of mutilation. Neither is it un- of l'ientsin, certain American missionaries likely that the propensity of the Romish at a town in Shantung obtained possession Church for surrounding its premises with of a Chinese book, entitled Death Blow high walls tends to encourage the suppo- to Corrupt Doctrine, that brought forward sition of mystery. Extreme openness is all the accusations against missionaries characteristic of Chinese life. The tem- which had been the alleged motive of that ples and monasteries are open from day. outbreak. The book was believed to sight to dark ; you can wander into every have been written in 1862 by Tang Tzenook and corner. Official Yamêns are shing, one of the highest officials in the open : not only courts of justice, but the province of Hupeh, and is believed to balls of audience. Can it surprise us if, have been founded, in its turn, on a simito a people so accustomed, the practice of lar book written by one Yang Kwang sien enclosure and seclusion seems suspicious ? which, Du Halde tells us, was the exciting
But when missionaries are accused not cause of the persecution of Christians in only of scooping out eyes and brains and A.D. 1621. Nor is the series at an end : other mutilations, but of the grossest im- similar charges are to be found in a standmorality, we are driven to assume the ard collection of important official docu
ments which was lately republished with * Clause 7 of the Hunan proclamation of 1866 runs thus : -" When a member of this the imprimatur of distinguished scholars religion is on his death-bed, several of his and ex-officials. co-religionists come and exclude his relatives, Given those two forces—the malignity while they offer prayers for his salvation of the literati and the credality of the The fact is, while the breath is still in his body they scoop out his eyes and cut out his
eart, which they use in their country in the * Letter by Dr. Griffith John, in North-China manufacture of false silver, ...
Herald of August 7, 1891,
populace—it is difficult to limit the results able to realize, in some degree, the feeling that may be worked out. When," with which European missionaries are rewrites a Chinaman, * who has come for garded by Chinese. ward lately in the Shanghai press as an Still to admit that the hatred exists is exponent of the opinion of his class, - different from admitting that it is univer“ when the educated Chinese sees a mass sal and ever-active ; to admit that the of impenetrable darkness being thrust accusations are believed is different froin upon the people, with all the arrogant admitting that the people would formulate and aggressive pretentiousness of the inis- them if left alone. Flax will not burn sionaries on the one hand, and by the unless fire be applied. The riots would threat of gunboats on the part of foreign not have occurred without instigation ; governments on the other, it makes him and, when we come to ask whence the hate the foreigners with a hatred which instigation came, there is abundant evionly those can feel who see that all they dence of political intrigue. hold as the highest and most sacred as In an interview with the Taotai of belonging to thein as a race and a nation Hankow, shortly after the Wusüeh out-their ligbt, their culture and their liter- rage, H.B.M. Consul (Mr. Gardner) askı d ary refinement--are in danger of being point-blank whether there was any truth in irreparably defaced and
and destroyed. the reports that these riots were caused by The more conservative resent with horror a Secret Society whose object is not go the attacks on Confucianism and the Wor- much hostility to Europeans as hostility ship of Ancestors; while the more en- to the Imperial Government, which it lightened resent being lectured on the wished to embroil with foreign powers. folly of pandering to popular belief that The Mandarins admitted that is there is a eclipses are caused by a celestial dog eat- great deal of truth in it; but the actual ing the moon, in the same breath that rioters are generally local people, who are they are asked to believe that the sun stirred up by these” agitators. Similarly, stood still at the bidding of Joshua. the present Chinese Minister in London, However, the hatred, like the credulity, during a recent interview with Sir Philip seems to be collective rather than personal, Curric, said that “there had not for years and to be directed against the system been such an anti foreign outbreak ; tbat rather than against the individual.' The he did not attribute it to any widespread missionaries themselves are often respected feeling against foreigners, but to the and liked by the Chinese, officials as well machination of Secret Societies existing as people, with whoin they come into among the disbanded soldiery, the object contact; and a tablet has even in recog. of which was to stir up trouble against the nition of their good deeds during a recent Government." The Viceroy of Nanking famine been set up in Shantung. Perbaps bas lately memorialized the Throne in the if we attempt to picture the reception that same sense, and asked for increased pow. Buddhist or Mohammedan missionaries ers to punish the culprits. would have met with under the Common It is literally true that China is honeywealth, in England, and the degree of combed by Secret Societies. They vary credit that would have attached to any alike in their objects and their origins ; absurd accusations that might have been but they are all viewed askance, because brought against them, in a society of their organization is prone at any moment which Sir Matthew Hale and Sir Thomas to be directed against the governing powBrownet were representatives, we may be A few words of explanation may
perbaps afford a key to the nature of the
forces at work. First and foremost in all * A letter headed " Defensio Populi ad Popu- machinations against foreigners must be los,” published in the North-China Herald of noted the literati. It is one of the evils July 24, which has attracted much attention of the Chinese system that every cducated and controversy.
| Two women were banged in Suffolk in man aspires to take a degree, but that no 1664 for witchcraft, by sentence of Sir Mat career except the Government service exthew Hale, who declared that the reality of ists for him after he has taken it. We witchcraft was unquestionable ; and Sir Thomas Browne, who was a great physician, as well as a great writer, swore at the trial question had been bewitched.-Lecky's Histhat he was of opinion that the persons in lory of Rationalism, vol. i., chap. i.
NEW SERIES. -VOL LIV., No. 6. 51
find, therefore, instantly accounted for, a traditional centre of anti-missionary litergreat army of men, saturated with prej- ature ; but it is reactionary and conservaudice and conceit engendered by the study tive in politics as well as in religion. Ita of the native classics in which they inust hatred of innovation extends to foreigners be proficient, embarrassed often, discon- and all their ways, and it has signalized tented while waiting for the office that itself quite recently by repelling a party may never come, and prone to the mis- of workmen who were trying to set up a chief which is ever ready to the idle hand. line of telegraph poies across the pror
The threads of the present outbreak ince. It was in vain they pleaded Impeseem to concentre in Hunan, a great and rial orders Over 1,000 poles were burned prosperous province lying south of the before their eyes, while the wire was put Yangtzc, nearly opposite the treaty port into an open boat and sent adrift upon of Hankow, which is comprised within the river. It is not incredible that a certhe same viceroyalty. The people of the tain spirit of hostility to a dynasty which Central Provinces, the purest descendants is introducing these foreign appliances of the old dominant race, have the repu- may be mixed up with dislike to the tation of being among the bravest as well stranger who brings them. Even the as the most bigoted in China. It is great Tseng family, of which the Hunanlargely from this region that the soldiery ese were so justly proud, is said to have were drawn who gained for the reigning been treated with some coulness when, in dynasty, the ascendency over Taeping, the person of the Marquis Tseng, it was Nienfei, fand Mohammedan rebellions wbich supposed to have imbibed progressive shook it to its foundations during the dec- ideas ; and the first Envoy to England, ade immediately subsequent to the treaty Kwo Sung-tao, who also was a Hunanese, of Tientsin. The Franco-Chinese war in met a decidedly cool reception on his Tongking followed, and it was Hunan return. again which supplied a great portion of But there are other elements in the the fighting men. Tseng Kwo-fan, the problem which we have set ourselves to greatest Chinaman of his day, the father consider, considerations which help to exof the Marquis Tseng, was a llunan man ; plain the seeming reluctance of the Impehis brother Tseng Kwo-chüan has just died rial Government to employ more force in in office as Viceroy of Nanking : Tso repressing the disorders that bave created Tsung-tang, who conducted the campaign for it such grave diplomatic embarrassin the North-west, and won back Turkes- ment. Not in its armaments any more tan for the Emperor, was a Hunanese, as than in other respects is China like Eurowas Liu Chin-tang, his most distinguished pean nations. There were the beginnings lieutenant. But Tso is dead and the three of a standing army in England in the Tsengs are dead, and tens of thousands of days of Charles II. It was not the royal their soldiers have been disbanded. Some troops, however, but Somerset and Devon went home ; some were retained as pro- militia, according to Mr. Blackmore, that vincial garrisons at various places through- were employed in attacking the Doones, out the empire ; many took to loafing and — with the result, too, even in their case, discontent; but all, or nearly all, are said that Somerset and Devon began shooting to belong to a Society called “Kolao- at one another over the heads of the comhwuy," which is alleged to be the inain inon enemy. There are, in a certain spring of the present agitation. The late sense, Imperial forces in China. There Viceroy of Nanking disbursed, it is said, numerous troops at Peking, who a large annual sum, partly in payment of would, however, be as little likely to go superfluous troops, but indirectly as a South as Charles the Second's Guards bribe to this Society to refrain from troub. were likely to be sent to Devon. Then, ling the peace. The new Viceroy, Liu there is the large and comparatively wellKun-yi, also is a Hunan man—the fact disciplined body of men, under Li Hungthat he was recalled from a long retire- chang, who are encamped arouod Tientsin. ment may show the feeling that it was But Li Hung-chang is an Anhwei man, necessary to put a llunanese who could be and these troops are Anhwei men ; and relied on at the post ;-but he accepted to send them up the Yangtze would be to office on a policy of retienchment, and de- array Anhwci against Hunan, and not imclined to continue the blackinail.
possibly to provoke civil war Now, Hunan, as we have seen, is the And so with the navy. The