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populace-it is difficult to limit the results able to realize, in some degree, the feeling that may be worked out. When, with which European missionaries are rewrites a Chinaman, * who has come for- garded by Chinese. ward lately in the Shanghai press as an Still to admit that the hatred exists is exponent of the opinion of his class, - different from admitting that it is univer“ when the educated Chinese sees a mass sal and ever-active ; to admit that the of impenetrable darkness being thrust accusations are believed is different froin upon the people, with all the arrogant admitting that the people would formulate and aggressive pretentiousness of the inis- them if left alone. Flax will not burn sionaries on the one hand, and by the unless fire be applied. The riots would threat of gunboats on the part of foreign not have occurred without instigation ; governments on the other, it makes him and, wlien we come to ask whence the hate the foreigners with a hatred which instigation came, there is abundant evi. only those can feel who see that all they dence of political intrigue. hold as the highest and most sacred as In an interview with the Taotai of belonging to them as a race and a nation Hankow, shortly after the Wusüeh ont--their light, their culture and their liter- rage, H.B.M. Consul (Mr. Gardner) askı d ary refinement--are in danger of being point-blank whether there was any truth in irreparably defaced and destroyed. The reports that these riots were caused by The more conservative resent with horror a Secret Society whose object is not go the attacks on Confucianism and the Wor- much hostility to Europeans as hostility ship of Ancestors ; while the more en- to the Imperial Government, which it lightened resent being lectured on the wished to embroil with foreign powers. folly of pandering to popular belief that The Mandarins admitted that there is a

“ eclipses are caused by a celestial dog eat- great deal of truth in it ; but the actual ing the moon, in the same ath that rioters are generally local people, who are they are asked to believe that the sun stirred up by these agitators. Similarly, stood still at the bidding of Joshua. the present Chinese Minister in London, However, the hatred, like the credulity, during a recent interview with Sir Philip

, seems to be collective rather than personal, Currie, said that “there had not for years and to be directed against the system been such an anti foreign outbreak ; that rather than against the individual. The he did not attribute it to any widespread missionaries theinselves are often respected feeling against foreigners, but to the and liked by the Chinese, officials as well machination of Secret Societies existing as people, with whom they come into among the disbanded soldiery, the object contact ; and a tablet has even in recog. of which was to stir up trouble against the nition of their good deeds during a recent Government." The Viceroy of Nanking famine been set up in Shantung. Perhaps has lately memorialized the Throne in the if we attempt to picture the reception that same sense, and asked for increased powBuddhist or Mohammedan missionaries ers to punish the culprits. would have met with under the Common- It is literally true that China is honeywealth, in England, and the degree of combed by Secret Societies. They valy credit that would have attached to any alike in their objects and their origins ; absurd accusations that might have been but they are all viewed askance, because brought against them, in a society of their organization is prone at any moment which Sir Matthew Hale and Sir Thomas to be directed against the governing powBrownet were representatives, we may be A few words of explanation may

perbaps afford a key to the nature of the

forces at work. First and foremost in all * A letter headed “ Defensio Populi ad Popu- machinations against foreigners must be los,” published in the North-China llerald of noted the literati. It is one of the evils July 24, which has attracted much attention and controversy.

of the Chinese system that every cducated | Two women were banged in Suffolk in man aspires to take a degree, but that no 1664 for witchcraft, by sentence of Sir Mat- career except the Government service exthew Hale, who declared that the reality of ists for him after he has taken it. We witchcraft was unquestionable ; and Sir Thomas Browne, who was a gre physician, as well as a great writer, swore at the trial question had been bewitched.-Lecky's llisthat he was of opinion that the persons in lory of Rationalism, vol. i., chap. i.

NEW SERIES. – Vol. LIV., No. 6. 51

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traditional centre of anti-missionary literature; but it is reactionary and conservative in politics as well as in religion. Its hatred of innovation extends to foreigners and all their ways, and it has signalized itself quite recently by repelling a party of workmen who were trying to set up a line of telegraph poles across the province. It was in vain they pleaded Imperial orders Over 1,000 poles were burned before their eyes, while the wire was put into an open boat and sent adrift upon the river. It is not incredible that a certain spirit of hostility to a dynasty which is introducing these foreign appliances may be mixed up with dislike to the stranger who brings them. Even the great Tseng family, of which the Hunanese were so justly proud, is said to have been treated with some coolness when, in the person of the Marquis Tseng, it was supposed to have imbibed progressive ideas; and the first Envoy to England, Kwo Sung-tao, who also was a Hunanese, met a decidedly cool reception on his

return.

But there are other elements in the problem which we have set ourselves to consider, considerations which help to explain the seeming reluctance of the Imperial Government to employ more force in repressing the disorders that have created for it such grave diplomatic embarrassment. Not in its armaments any more than in other respects is China like European nations. There were the beginnings of a standing army in England in the days of Charles II. It was not the royal troops, however, but Somerset and Devon militia, according to Mr. Blackmore, that were employed in attacking the Doones, -with the result, too, even in their case, that Somerset and Devon began shooting at one another over the heads of the comInon enemy. There are, in a certain sense, Imperial forces in China. There are numerous troops at Peking-who would, however, be as little likely to go South as Charles the Second's Guards were likely to be sent to Devon. Then, there is the large and comparatively welldisciplined body of men, under Li Hungchang, who are encamped around Tientsin. But Li Hung-chang is an Anhwei man, and these troops are Anhwei men; and to send them up the Yangtze would be to array Anhwei against Hunan, and not impossibly to provoke civil war

And so with the navy. The very can

find, therefore, instantly accounted for, a great army of men, saturated with prej udice and conceit engendered by the study of the native classics in which they must be proficient, embarrassed often, discontented while waiting for the office that may never come, and prone to the mischief which is ever ready to the idle hand. The threads of the present outbreak seem to concentre in Hunan, a great and prosperous province lying south of the Yangtze, nearly opposite the treaty port of Hankow, which is comprised within the same viceroyalty. The people of the Central Provinces, the purest descendants of the old dominant race, have the reputation of being among the bravest as well as the most bigoted in China. It is largely from this region that the soldiery were drawn who gained for the reigning dynasty the ascendency over Taeping, Nienfei,land Mohammedan rebellions which shook it to its foundations during the decade immediately subsequent to the treaty of Tientsin. The Franco-Chinese war in Tongking followed, and it was Hunan again which supplied a great portion of the fighting men. Tseng Kwo-fan, the greatest Chinaman of his day, the father of the Marquis Tseng, was a Ilunan man; his brother Tseng Kwo-chüan has just died in office as Viceroy of Nanking; Tso Tsung-tang, who conducted the campaign in the North-west, and won back Turkestan for the Emperor, was a Hunanese, as was Liu Chin-tang, his most distinguished lieutenant. But Tso is dead and the three Tsengs are dead, and tens of thousands of their soldiers have been disbanded. Some went home; some were retained as provincial garrisons at various places throughout the empire; many took to loafing and discontent but all, or nearly all, are said to belong to a Society called "Kolaohwuy," which is alleged to be the mainspring of the present agitation. The late Viceroy of Nanking disbursed, it is said, a large annual sum, partly in payment of superfluous troops, but indirectly as a bribe to this Society to refrain from troubling the peace. The new Viceroy, Liu Kun-yi, also is a Hunan man-the fact that he was recalled from a long retirement may show the feeling that it was necessary to put a Hunanese who could be relied on at the post ;-but he accepted office on a policy of retrenchment, and declined to continue th ekinail. seen, is the

Now, Hunan

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siderable fleet of modern warships which China has acquired is gathered in the North, and is practically under the control of Li Hung-chang; but it is manned and officered in a great measure by Fokhienese, and it is questionable whether provincial sensitiveness might not, for both reasons, resent its presence at the Yangtze ports. For the provinces still form, in China, so many administrative units within which Governors and Governors-General are practically supreme. The army of China has been said to consist of over a million of men; but the million is made up of provincial militia, one-half of whom exist only on paper. And so with

the fleet. Besides the ironclads which are kept anchored in the North, there is a socalled Southern squadron, several ships of which are at the especial disposal of the Nanking Viceroy. It was one of these which the Taotai of Shanghai dispatched, with praiseworthy promptitude, immediately on hearing from H. M. Consul-General of the riot at Wuhu. It was three of these which we have seen arrive there accidentally, in the nick of time to stop the further progress of the riot. And upon these, and upon the local militia, the Imperial Government seems disposed to rely, from sheer dread of making matters worse; though the majority of the militia are probably members of the very Society which is said to be the chief agent

in the turmoil.

No two Chinese officials, probably, would agree in assessing the exact value to be attached to all those different considerations, or the precise extent to which they influence the policy of the Central Government. But it must be admitted that they form constituent elements of the problem; and it will readily be inferred that the Government finds itself in a difficult position, between the menacing attitude of Europe on one hand and apprehension of its unruly subjects on the other. Its public utterances, in the mean time, have been creditable and explicit. Early in June, at the instance of the Foreign Ministers, the Emperor's advisers persuaded him to issue the following edict :

"The Tsung-li Yamên has memorialized us on the disturbances occurring in the various provinces against (foreign) religious orders, and requested us to order the Governor-General and Governors to take immediate measures for their suppression [etc.]. The memorialists stated that in the fourth moon the

churches in Wuhu, in the province of Anhui, were burned down by evil-disposed persons, and the churches in Tanyang (Kiangsu) and in Wusüeh (Hupeh) were successively destroyed, and it was urged that the leaders should be discovered and captured, and stringent preventive means should be taken [etc.]. That the several nations are at liberty to promulgate their religions (in China) is set forth in the treaties, and Imperial Decrees have been granted instructing the various provinces to give protection at all times. Many years have passed by, and the Chinese and foreigners have lived on friendly terms. How is it that lately churches have been burned and destroyed almost simultaneously? It is certainly strange and astounding. It is only too obvious that there must be among the evil-doers some notoriously desperate characters who secretly plan, dupe, spread rumors, and mislead the minds of the people with the expectation that an opportunity may occur for plunder. Even the peaceful and good people have been misguided by and forced to join these rogues to aid in creating more momentous results. Unless severe measures are devised to punish and suppress [these malefactors], how are the laws to be upheld, and how is the country to enjoy quiet? Let the Governors-General and Governors of Liang-kiang, Hukuang, Kiangsu, Anhui, and Hupeh at once command the civil and military officials to discover, capture, try, convict, and execute the leaders of the riots as a warning to others for the future. The religion of the Western countries simply ad

monishes people to become virtuous, and the

native converts are Chinese subjects under the jurisdiction of the local officials. The religions and peoples ought to exist peaceably orders] no doubt took origin from the disconside by side. The risings [against religious tented class, who fabricate groundless rumors and create disturbance under false pretexts. Such cunning people are to be found in every place. Let the Tartar-Generals, GovernorsGeneral and Governors proclaim and notify the people never to listen lightly to floating rumors and recklessly cause troubles. Any writers of anonymous placards manufacturing rumors to mislead the people are to be apprehended and severely punished.

The local officials must at all times devise measures for the protection of the lives and properties of the merchants and missionaries of the several nations, and must not permit criminals to harass and injure them. In case their precautions are not effectual and disturbances occur, let the high authorities report the exact state of the case and have such officials cashiered. Let the various cases [of riot against foreign churches] in the different provinces still pending settlement be promptly arranged by the Tartar-Generals, Governors-General, and Governors, who are not to allow the subordinate officials to delay and procrastinate through fear of difficulties. Let this Decree be known to all. Respect this!''

That the proclamation itself and its

publication in the Peking Gazette were of stopping any foreign movement or inobtained with difficulty* does not detract stitution which they dislike is a resort to from its intrinsic value as an utterance in popular outbreak and violence, which they favor of Christian religion and of foreign believe will have no unpleasant result to intercourse. What the Imperial Govern- thernselves, and will merely entail money ment seems unwilling to realize is that payment of a certain pecuniary indemnity Europe requires something more than by their Government. Our relations words as an earnest of its goodwill in the with China betray, in fact, a painful tenpresent crisis.

Sir Halliday Macartney dency to revolve continually in the same has told the Foreign Office, t under in- circle. Replying to the Chinese letter struction, of course, from Peking, that from which I have quoted on a previous the Government feel really “ perplexed page, Dr. Griffith John, a missionary of and somewhat disturbed by the pressure long experience in the country, says that which continues to be put on them.” the hatred of foreigners among the litTwo men have (they plead) been executed erary and official classes is not a thing of at Wuhu, and others subjected to ininor yesterday. It existed long before the punishments. Two more have since been first Protestant missionary set his foot on condemned to death at Wusüeh for par- the soil of the Celestial land, and if I may ticipation in the riots there, and several judge from this (letter] it is likely to exist mandarins have been degraded. They for ages to come. Our first war felt, therefore, that there had been no with China is generally regarded as springlaxity or evasion in the measures taken, ing out of the opium trade, and waged in and they apprehended that further exccu- order to obtain an indemnity for the tions would tend to increase rather than losses sustained by the surrender of the a!lay the popular excitement."

opium.' But it may be regarded in anThe contention is plausible, from the other light, namely, in its relation to the Chinese point of view, if it were simply a immoderate assumptions of the Peking matter of counting heads and so balancing Cout, and the haughty, contemptuous an account ; but it ignores altogether the and insulting bearing of the Chinese offi. ulterior considerations which have forced cials in their intercourse with foreigners themselves on the attention of European from the beginning. . statesmen. The outbreaks have indeed Power could possibly submit long to such been so serious and widespread, and the insults. ... The old pride and hatred authorities have shown such evident in- still reign in the hearts of the officials and capacity to grapple with the inovement, the literati. There may be exceptions ; that it has ceased to be a question merely but they are few and far between. : . of special reparation. It is no longer a I know something of the temper of the question of this or that riot only, but of a people ; and I venture to predict that, whole series of outrages, which the Im- should a 'missionary war' ever come to perial Government may plead difficulty in pass, it will not be a war against the peopreventing, outrages which Englishmenple of China, but, as heretofore, a war in China, even those who do not sympa. against the Chinese Government; and thize with missionary enterprise, are per- that it will be induced, not by the doings suaded the local authorities rarely use dili- of the missionary, but by the pride and gence to prevent. There is a conviction, folly of the governing classes.” Dr. John as Mr. Gardner told the Taotai of Hankow, writes, of course, from the Foreign, the that these riots are largely due to “the Missionary, and the Protestant point of remissness of the Chinese authorities in view. It would be unfair to suppose that suppressing the dissemination of the the Chinese could say nothing in answer abominable anti-Christian pamphlets and to his contention. Indeed, very shortly placards ;” and, as Sir T. Sanderson told after the Tientsin massacre, they took ocSir II. Macartney, there is felt to be “ a casion to set out their case, with a view growing tendency among the Chinese to asking that certain restrictions might population to think that the simplest way be placed upon the action of missionaries,

in matters which they alleged caused irri. * Sir J. Walsham to Lord Salisbury, June

tation and danger. They began by saying 21. | Lord Salisbury to Sir J. Walsham, July 22,

that as regards trade there is no proba. 1891.

bility of Chinese and foreigners quarrel

No great The very

ors.

ling, but as regards missions there is a well as the practices which have been regreat deal of ill-feeling ;” and it may be ferred to as probably causes of misundernot amiss to note one or two of the causes standing, have reference unquestionably they allege. One point is that of extra- to the Roman system. Protestant misterritorial privilege. Either prevent mis- sionaries also have their disputes ; but they sionaries residing in the interior or let them are less serious and less frequent, and are do so subject to Chinese law! They are connected more often with the purchase

! now allowed privileges from which mer- of land or buildings in regions where the chants are debarred. Another charge is local gentry oppose their

presence. There that converts take advantage of the in- can be no doubt that the Roman Catholics, fluence of the raissionaries to injure and and especially the French, are objects of oppress the common people ;' and that much greater dislike.

But the two syswhen litigation arises “the missionaries tems appear inextricably entangled so far support the latter, thus obstructing the as diplomacy is concerned. Neither authorities, which the people strongly ob- France nor England would permit the im. ject to.” The case may be strongly put; position, on either, of restrictions that but, how much truth or exaggeration so- were not common to both. ever it may contain, it states without need, indeed, for such precautions would doubt a cause of serious irritation. Roman not improbably be denied ; but their bishops have been accused of imitating the enactment, in that case, could harm none, port and trappings of Provincial Govern- and Chinese Statesmen may perhaps man

An instance is given of a Roman age to gain a hearing for their proposibishop having a seal manufactured with tions when satisfaction for the recent outwhich to stamp his proclamations. But rages has been given. these are minor matters compared with It is possibly difficult for bigh Chinese the alleged tendency to look on converis, officials to appreciate the feeling in favor if not as baturalized Frenchmen, as en- of missionary enterprise which prerails titled at any rate to a quasi-consular pro- among a large section of the English peo. tection. It is easy to understand that if a ple, and more difficult still for them to convert appeals to his priest the priest's reconcile the attitude of France toward sympathies should be enlisted ; but it is clerical institutions at home with its willequally easy to comprehend the irritation ingness to support them in the East. But that would be caused by any attempt to Sir Thomas Sanderson was undoubtedly express those sympathies in official eais. right in impressing on the Chinese Minis.

Another impression, which is not men- ter that, “if public opinion once became tioned in this despatch but is voiced by alarmed and indignant in France and Engthe Chinese exponent of the literate cause, land, a cry for intervention inight arise is that missionaries constitute by their or- that might bave very serious ganization not only an imperium in im- quences. It would be useless for the perio, but a hostile imperium in the sense Chinese to retort “ that our people object that they are prepared to place influence to the propaganda as much as your people and valuable information at the disposal desire it, because religious enthusiasm

” of a foreign invader. “ Tous les ren- declines to admit argument.

We shrink seignements qui parvenaient au général in horror from the doctrine of the Koran ... tant sur les ressources des provinces or the sword. Europe would not tolerate, que nous allions traverser que sur les effec- now, a campaign against the Albigenses : tifs des troupes que nous allions rencon- even the most enthusiastic would recoil trer lui etaient procurés par l'intermédiaire from a naked proposal to impose Chrisdes jésuites qui les faisaient relever par tianity on any heathen vation by force of des Chinois à leur devotion." The lan

But à volume of public opinion guage is used by a writer who held an which has to be reckoned with does apollicial position in the French army during prove of compelling China to admit and the war that ended with the treaty of protect missionaries, how distasteful soTientsin ; and similar testimony has been ever their presence may be to certain given to the help yielded the French by classes of the population. The treaty missionaries and their converts during the right will be upheld ; and the mistake invasion of Tongking.

will not, it is hoped, be made of accepting Nearly all these causes of complaint, as money and a few heads as adequate repa

conse

arins.

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