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longing to the Library of the Royal Astro- servations were based. If we suppose the nomical Society (from which the extracts stars to be uniformly scattered through a in the following pages are quoted) there space extending to the same distance in all is a inanuscript note by Professor De Mor- directions, with the observer's eye placed gan (author of “The Budget of Para- nearly in the centre, it is evident that the doxes”'), in which he says that he had number of stars visible in the field of the only seen three copies of the work, one of telescope directed to different portions of which“ had an ingenious attempt to alter the stellar vault would be nearly the same Mdccl into mdccc, which could only be for every position of the telescope. But detected by looking through the back of let us suppose that the stars are equally the page"--an attempt probably made by distributed, not in a sphere, but in the some unscrupulcus person to try and prove form of a cylindrical disc-like a grind that Wright's views were not published stone-of a small thickness in comparison till 1800, or a date subsequent to the ap- with its diameter. In this case-if the pearance of Sir W. Herscbel's earlier stars near the borders of the disc are papers.
within the range of our telescope-there Thoinas Wright was born on September will be seen in the direction of the diame22, 1711, at Byer's Green, near Durham, ter of the disc a very large number of and died at the same place on February stars, and in that of the thickness, or axis 25, 1786. He seems to have been an ob. of the disc, a comparatively small numserver especially of comets, and a com- ber. In other directions the nun ber visiputer of their orbits. He published some ble will be proportional to the length of other works, and acquired such a reputa- the visual ray. " It follows, therefore, that tion by his writings on navigation that in an enumeration of the stars visible in vari1742 he was offered the professorship of ous directions would enable us to deternavigation in the Imperial Academy of St. mine the exact form of the stellar stratum, Petersburg.
and also the position of the observer in In the seventh letter of the work re- the interior of the disc. For, as the volferred to Wright says : "Let us imagine 'umes of spheres vary as the cubes of their a vast infinite Gulph, or Medium, cvery radii, the number of stars visible in any Way extended like a Plane, and inclosed two directions would be proportional to between two Surfaces, neaily even on both the cubes of the distances to which the Sides, but of such a Depth or Thickness stratum extended in the two directions. as to occupy a Space equal to the double For example, if in the field of view of the Radius, or Diameter of the visible Crea- observing telescope ten stars are counted tion, that is to take in one of the smallest in one direction and eighty in another, Stars each way, from the middle Station, the length of the visual rays will be as one perpendicular to the Plane’s Direction, and, to two (or as the cube roots of one to as near as possible, according to our Idea eight).
eight). From the observed numbers, and of their true Distance ;") and again, “ If a comparison between the area of the field your Opticks fail you before you arrive at of the observing telescope and the total ihese external Regions, only imagine howin- area of the star sphere, i he length of the finitely greater the Number of Stars would visual ray, compared with the mean disle in ibese remote Parts, arising thus from tance of stars of the first magnitude, may their continual crowding behind one an- also be computer. other, as all other Objects do toward the In pursuance of this method Sir W. Ilorizon Point of their Perspective, which Herschel undertook a series of “gauges, ends but with Infinity. Thus, all their or counts of stars, visible in different porRays at least so near uniting, must meet- tions of the sky with a reflecting telescope ing in the eye appear, as almost, in Con- of 18.8 inches aperture. The magnifying tact, and form a perfect Zone of Light; power used was 157, and the diameter of this I take to be the real Case, and the ** the field of view" about fifteen minutes true nature of our Milky Way.” Here four seconds of arc, or about half the we have the “disc theory” clearly pro- moon's apparent diameter. It may be pounded.
shown that the area of this field of view Herschel was, however, the first to put is equal to that of the whole celestial this theory to the test of observation. Let sphere divided by 833,000. It would, us consider the principle on which his ob- therefore, be necessary to count this im.
mense number of fields in order to nitude stars 47.76, and of tenth magnitude
gauge" the whole visible heavens. Her- stars 75.72 of the same units. From this schel's gauges number about 3400, so that it follows that a telescope which shows in reality he examined only a small frac- stars to the tenth magnitude only should tion of the celestial vault. 'The number of suffice to pierce through the thickness of stars visible in these gauges range from the stellar disc in the direction of the to 588. This latter number, large as it is North Galactic pole. As this is probably for so small a field of view, would give for not the case, it would seem that Herschel's the whole heavens-if equally rich—a assumed dimensions are too small. Astotal of 489,804,000 stars, a number suming his figures, however, let us conwhich, although absolutely large, must be sider how the disc theory” agrees with considered as comparatively small if we observation. As the late Mr. Proctor has consider space as infinite in extent. shown, the stars visible to the naked eye
Herschel's gauges were made along a alone show a marked tendency to aggregagreat circle of the celestial sphere at right tion on the Galactic streain. My own inangles to the course of the Milky Way. vestigations on the subject confirm the This section was inclined at an angle of correctness of this conclusion. Now, as 35 degrees to the celestial Equator. It the average naked eye can only penetrate intersects the Milky Way at right angles, to a small distance in any direction of the and
passes close to the Galactic poles. On disc, we should find the number of paked one side of the star sphere it cuts the cye stars nearly the same in all directions, Milky Way in the two branches in Aquila, with of course a nebulous background. and at the opposite side in the southern There seems, therefore, no reason why the portion of Monoceros near Canis Major. naked eye stars should be more numerous Herschel found the greatest diameter of in the direction of the Milky Way than in bis stellar stratum to have an extension of any other direction. It may, however, be 850 times the mean distance of stars of objected to this argument that the tenthe first magnitude ; the thickness at dency of the lucid stars to crowd on the right angles to the diameter of the disc, Milky Way is not sufficiently well marked or in the direction of the poles of the to warrant us in drawing any decided conMilky Way--being 155 of the same units. clusion from their apparent distribution In this hypothetical disc the sun is not over the celestial vault. Let us, therequite centrally placed either in the direc. fore, consider the observed distribution of tion of the thickness, or in that of the stars to the eighth and ninth magnitudes, diameter of the disc. In the direction of of which the limit in distances fall well the thickness he found an extension of 75 within the thickness of the hypothetical units toward Coma Berenices, or Northern disc. Struve found that for the hours VI. Galactic pole, and 80 units toward Cetus, and I. of Right Ascension the ratio of or the Southern pole. In the direction of stellar density is about 3 to 1 for stars to the diameter the maximuin extension is in the ninth magnitude, included in a zone the direction of Aquila, where we have from 15° Norih Declination to 15o South distances of 497 and 420 units. Between Declination. Argelander's maps show these two branches lies a void gulf, of that for a distance of 30° on each side of which the nearest point to the sun is at a the centie line of the Galactic zone the distance of 220 units. In the opposite stars to the eighth magnitude inside these direction the extreme distance of the bor- limits are more numerous than those outders of the disc is at 352 of the same side in the ratio of about 2 to 1. For units, in that portion of the Milky Way stars of the ninth magnitude this ratio is above Canis Major.
nearly 24 to 1. Herschel estimates the average distance Adopting Struve's method of counting of stars of the sixth maguitude-about the stars in a zone from + 15° to — 15° the limit of ordinary eyesight-to be
be of Declination, I have made a careful twelve times the average distance of stars enumeration of the stars to the eighth of the first magnitude. Now, with a magnitude inclusive, as shown in Hard
light ratio" of 2.512, I find that the ing's charts, which are fairly complete for average distance of stars of the eighth stars of that magnitude, at least in the magnitude will be 30.14 units of the selected zone. The results I have found adopted scale, the distance of ninth mag- show that the maximum number of stars occurs in the hour XVIII. to XIX. (Milky see, may truly be said to be in the plane Way), where the number contained in the of the Milky Way, yet I am now conzone is 611, and the minimuin in hour I. vinced by a long inspection and continned to II., where the number is 275. This examination of it, ihat the Milky Way gives a ratio of 2.22 to 1. Another maxi- itself consists of stars very differently scatmum occurs in lour VI. to VII. (Milky tered from those which are immediately Way), where the number is 601. The about us.” And in his paper of 1811 be average for the whole zone is about 436 says : “An equal scattering of the stars stars per hour of Right Ascension ; the may be admitted in certain calculations ; average for the hours V. to VIII. Leing but when we exainine the Milky Way, 543, and for the hours XVIII. to XXI., or the closely compressed clusters of stars 581. We see, therefore, that the stars of which my catalogues have recorded so down to only the eighth magnitude show many instances, this supposed equality of a strongly marked tendency to aggrega- scattering must be given up. In his tion on the Milky Way stream.
paper of 1817 Herschel expresses his opinThese results are quite inconsistent with ion that although a large number of stars the “disc,” or “grindstone" theory of visible in the field of view of the gauging the Milky Way. As the stars are, by this telescope would generally indicate a great hypothesis, supposed to be uniforinly dis- extension of stars in the line of sight, tributed throughout every part of the disc. these “gauges" in reality point more and as the limiting distances for stars of directly to the relative condensation of the the eighth and ninth magnitudes fall well stars in space, and show the varying richwithin the boundaries of the disc, there is ness of star distribution in different reclearly no reason why stars of these mag- gions of the hearens. Here we have the nitudes should not be quite as numerous fundamental assumption of the theory in the direction of the Galactic poles as abandoned by the author himself. in that of the Milky Way itself. We see, The “ disc theory of the Milky Way therefore, that the disc theory fails to has—like many other errors-persistently represent the observed facts, and that held its ground in astronomical text-books, Struve and Proctor were fully justified in and it certainly does seem strange that the their opinion that the theory is wholly opinions held by Herschel when, as Procuntenable and should be abandoned. tor says, “bis labors were but beginning, These views are of course strengthened should be adopted by future astronomers by the fact that the disc theory was aban- in preference to those which were the doned by Herschel himself in his later fruits of bis ripened experience.”—Genwritings. In his paper of 1802 he says : tleman's Magazine. “ For though our sun, and all the stars we
HIS PRIVATE HONOR,
BY RUDYARD KIPLING,
The autumn batch of recruits for the are thrown at me in my rejuced condiOld Regiment had just been uncarted. tion.
tion. Doctor, dear, supposin' you was in As usual they were said to be the worst charge of three cholera camps an'—" draft that had ever come from the Depot. “Go to hospital then, you old conMulvaney looked them over, granted triver," said the doctor laughing. scornfully, and immediately reported him. Terence bundled himself into a blue self very sick.
bedgown,-Dinah Shadd was away at“ Is it the regular autumn fever ?”' said tending to a major's lady, who preferred the doctor, who knew something of Ter- Divah without a diploma to anybody else
“ Your temperature's nor- with a hundred-put a pipe in his teeth, mal."
and paraded the hospital balcony exhort“ 'Tis a
hundred and thirty-seren ing Ortheris to be a father to the new rerookies to the bad, sorr. I'm not very cruits. sick now, but I will be dead if these boys “ They're mostly your own sort, little
man,” he said with a grin ; the top spit get for so doin', and you ain't never av Whitechapel. I'll interogue them grateful neither. Don't you go thinkin' when they're more like something they it's the Colonel nor yet the company never will be,-an' that's a good honest orf'cer that makes you.
It's me, you soldier like me.”
Johnny Raws — you Johnnie bloomin' Ortheris yapped indignantly. He knew Raws » as well as Terence what the coming work A company officer had come up unpermeant, and he thought Terence's conduct ceived behind Ortheris at the end of this
Then he strolled off to look at oration. “ You may be right, Ortheris,” the new cattle, who were staring at the he said quietly,“ but I shouldn't shout unfamiliar landscape with large eyes, and it.” The recruits grinned as Ortheris saasking if the kites were eagles and the luted and collapsed. pariah-dogs jackals.
Some days afterward I was privileged “ Well, you are a holy set of bean-faced to look over the new batch, and they were beggars, you are,” he said genially to a everything that Ortheris had said, and knot in the barrack square.
Then run- niore. B. Company had been devastated niug his eye over them, —“ Fried fish an' by forty or fifty of them ; and B. Comwhelks is about your sort. Blimy if they pany's drill on parade was a sight to shudhaven't sent some pink-eyed Jews too. der at. Ortheris asked them lovingly You chap with the greasy ’ed, which o' whether they had not been sent out by the Solomons was your father, Moses ?” mistake, and whether they had not better
“My naine's Anderson,” said a voice post themselves back to their friends. sullenly.
Learoyd thrashed them methodically one “Oh, Samuelson ! All right, Samuel- by one, without haste but without sloven
An' how many o' the likes o' you liness ; and the older soldiers took the Sheenies are comin' to spoil B. Com- remnants from Learoyd and went over
them in their own fashion. Mulvaney There is no scorn so complete as that stayed in hospital, and grinned from the of the old soldier for the new. It is right balcony when Ortheris called bim a shirker that this should be so. A recruit must and other worse names. learn first that he is not a man but a thing, “ By the grace av God we'll brew men which in time, and the mercy of heaven, av them get,” Terence said one day. may develop into a soldier of the Queen " Be vartuous an' parsevere, me if it takes care and attends to good ad- There's the makin's av colonels in that inob vice. Ortheris's tunic was open, his cap if we only go deep enough-wid a belt." over-lopped one eye, and his hands were “We !" Ortberis replied, dancing with behind bis back as he walked round, grow. rage. “I just like you and your we's.' ing more contemptuous at each step. The 'Ere's B. Company drillin' like a drunk recruits did not dare to answer, for they Militia reg’ment. were new boys in a strange school, who “ So I've been officially acquent, had called themselves soldiers at the De- the answer from on high ; " but I'm too pot in comfortable England.
sick this tide to make certain.' “Not a single pair o' shoulders in the “ An' you, you fat H'irishman, shiftin' whole lot. I've seen some bad drafts in an'sbirkin'
among the arrerroot my time,-some bloomin' bad drafts ; an' the sago. but this 'ere draft beats any draft I've “ An' the port wine,-you've forgot ever known. Jock, come an' look at the poitwine, Orth’ris ; it's none these squidgy, hain-shanked beggars. bad." Terence smacked his lips pro
Learoyd was walking across the square. vokingly. He arrived slowly, circled round the knot “And we're wore off our feet with as a whale circles round a shoal of small these 'ere-kangaroos. Come out o' fry, said nothing, and went away whist- that, an' earn your pay. Come on down ling.
outer that, an' do somethin' 'stead o' Yes, you may well look sbeepy,” grinnin' up there like a Jew monkey, you Ortheris squeaked to the boys. "It's frowsy-'eaded Fenian. the likes of you breaks the 'earts of the " When I'm better av my various comlikes of us.
We've got to lick you into plaints I'll have a little private talkin' wid shape, and never a ha'penny extry do we you. In the meanwhile,-duck!" NEW SERIES.–VOLLIV., No. 6.
Terence filung an empty medicine bottle would drill them to death, as they were at Ortheris's head and dropped into a long no use in their present life. chair, and Ortheris came to tell me his It was an exceedingly painful scene, opinion of Mulvaney three times over, — and I made haste to be near B. Company each time entirely varying all the words. barracks when parade was dismissed and
“ There'll be a smash one o' these the men were free to talk. There was no days,'' he concluded. “Well, it's none talking at first because each old soldier o' my fault, but it's 'ard on B. Com- took a new draft and kicked him very pany.”
severely. The non-commissioned officers It was very hard on B. Company, for bad neither eyes nor ears for these accitwenty seasoned men cannot push twice dents. They left the bai racks to themthat number of fools into tbeir places and selves, and Otheris improved the occakeep their own places at the same time. sion by a speech. I did not hear that The recruits should have been more evenly speech, but fragments of it were quoted distributed through the regiment, but it for weeks afterward. It covered the seemed good to the Colonel to mass them birth, parentage, and education of every in a company where there was a large man in the company by name : it gave a proportion of old soldiers. He found his complete account of Fort Amara from a reward early one inorning when the bat. sanitary and social point of view ; and it talion was advancing by companies in wound up with an abstract of the whole echelon from the right. The order was duty of a soldier, each recruit his use in given to form company squares, which are life, and Ortheris's views on the use and compact little bricks of men very unpleas- fate of the recruits of B. Company, ant for a line of charging cavalry to deal “You can't drill, you can't walk, you with. B. Company was on the left fank, can't shoot-you, -you awful rookies ! and had ample time to know what was Wot's the good of you? You eats and you going on. For that reason presumably it sleeps, and you eats, and you goes to the gathered itself into a thing like a decayed doctor for medicine when your innards is aloe-clump, the bayonets pointing any- out o' order for all the world as if you where in general and nowhere in particu- was bloomin' generals. An' now you've lar, and in that clump, roundel, or mob, topped it all, you bats'-eyed beggars, it stayed till the dust had gone down and with getting us druv out to that stinkin' the Colonel could see and speak. He Foit ’Ammerer. We'll fort you when did both, and the speaking part was ad- we get out there ; yes, an' we'll ’ammer mitted by the regiment to be the finest you too. Don't you think you've come thing that the “ old man'' had ever risen into the l’army to drink Heno, an' clot to since one delightful day at a sham fight, your comp'ny, an' lie on your cots an' when a cavalry division had occasion to scratch your fat heads. You can do that walk over his line of skirmishers. He at'ome sellin' matches, which is all you're said, almost weeping, that he had given fit for, you keb-huntin', penny-toy, bootno order for rallying groups, and that he !ace, baggage-tout, ’orse-"oldin' sandwichpreferred to see a little dressing among backed se-weiss, you.* I've spoke you the men occasionally. He then apologized as fair as I know 'ow, and you give good for having mistaken B. Company for men. 'eed, 'cause if Mulvaney stops skrimHe said that they were but weak little shanking - gets out o' 'orspital — when children, and that since he could not offer we're in the Fort, I lay your lives will be them each a perambulator and a nurse
trouble to you." maid (this may sound comic to read, but That was Ortheris's peroration, and it B. Company heard it by word of mouth caused B. Company to be christened the and winced) perhaps the best thing for Boot-black Brigade. With this disgrace t'sem to do would be to go back to squad on their slack shoulders they went to gardrill. To that end he proposed sending rison duty at Fort Amara under three offithem, out of their turn, to garrison duty cers who were under instructions to twist in Fort Amara, five miles away, -1). Com- their little tails. The army, unlike every pany were next for this detestable duty other profession, cannot be taught through and nearly cheered the Colonel. There he devoutly boped that their own subalterns * Ortheris meant soors—which means pigs.