happened, the societies founded with the in 1817 as many as two or three thousand most innocent objects have been converted members were arrested at Canton alone. into the most dangerous conspiracies. An alternative name for association was the Nothing could be more innocent in its in- Hung kia, or “the universal family." ception than “ the Society for gazing on The character chosen to represent the the Moon” at the festival in the seventh word Hung is an ideograph 'composed of month. At that feast it is the custom of the parts“ general ” and “ sig the people to eat cakes baked in honor of nifying a flood, or something which overthe Queen of Heaven. But at the time of spreads the earth like a flood. By dethe decline of the Mongol dynasty, the grees the idea preserved in the character meetings on these occasions became po- began to predominate, and gradually the litical gatherings, and in one memorable name of the “Hung League” usurped the year messages were enclosed in the cakes place of the “ Triad Society.” Of late which were sent from place to place warn- there have sprung into existence several ing the people to rise on a certain day. branches of this association, among the Like the Chupattis which heralded the chief of which is the Kolao hwui, which outbreak of the Indian Mutiny, these is at present occupying the attention of cakes were distributed throughout the the authorities. country, and were the means of bringing It is always difficult to penetrate the into the field a rebel army which con

of treasonable secret societies. tributed largely to the overthrow of the The members have the best of all reasons Mongol power.

for preserving inviolate their oath to seAfter the Manchu conquest of China in crecy, and it is only by some chance that the seventeenth century, the secret soci- their true objects and their forms and eties which had remained dormant during ceremonies ever stand confessed. That the the Ming or Chinese dynasty (1638–1644) Hung League had for its main object the again becaine active, and during the reign overthrow of the Manchu dynasty was a of the third Emperor of a present Manchu matter of common knowledge, but very line, so prominent had they become that little was generally known of its constitutheir machinations were publicly con- tion until certain manuscripts fell into the demned in a State paper, in which, by a hands of the authorities, which contained confusion of ideas, the Imperial writer a full account of the formation of the socoupled the Roman Catholics with the ciety and of its true aims. Like the Freemore legitimate objects of his wrath, At masons, the members of the Hung League the time of their revival the principal as- claim that their society is as old as the sociation was known as the “ White Lily world itself; and, as emblems of its Society," and certainly no lack of energy never-dying and ever-regenerating life, are can be ascribed to the members of this chosen the fir, pine, cedar, and cypress, fraternity. Repeated outbreaks occurred, just as the acacia among the Masons symof which they were the moving spirits, bolizes the same idea. The equilateral and their sedition culminated in a con- triangle, also, is a prominent symbol, and spiracy (1813) which had for its object a is said to signify in its three sides the simultaneous rising in Honan and Peking, combination of Heaven, Earth, and Man. and the murder of the Emperor. By one

By one It is noteworthy, also, that the sword is of those curious combinations of circum- the traditional weapon of both the Hung stances which have go constantly occurred Brethren and Freemasons. It serves both to frustrate the designs of assassins, the as a weapon of defence against enemies life of the Emperor was saved. The con- aud as an insignia at the reception of new spirators succeeded, however, in pene- members. On the first entrance of the trating into the palace, and but for the neophyte at the gate of the Lodge, he is courage of one of the Imperial princes and received by the brethren drawn up in a his followers would probably have pos- double row, with the points of their sessed themselves of the capital.

swords so crossed as to forin an arch ; So notorious did this exploit make the much as, according to the Illustrated Lonassociation, that its chiefs found it expe- don News, the Prince and Princess of dient to change its name to the “Triad Wales were received at the Apollo Lodge Society.” Under this new designation at Oxford, on the occasion of their visit its principles permeated the Empire, and to that city in 1863.

But, however great may be the antiquity spiriting gently ; but in cases where perwhich is claimed by the League, its actual suasion proves ineffectual more powerful history dates no further back than the arguments are used to enlist recruits. beginning of the present dynasty. And Sometimes a householder finds a note on its most popular attributes are associated his table summoning him to a certain spot with the leading principle of a return to at a certain hour under pain of death to the Ming or " Bright” Chinese dynasty, himself and his family. At another time which was overthrown by the Manchus. a man is stopped on the road by a stranTo help to attain this object the members ger, who gives him a verbal message to the are constantly encouraged to seek after same effect. Again, stratagems are occathat spiritual light which is emblematized sionally used to decoy the intended reat all the ceremonies by the conspicuous cruit into a secluded spot, where he is use of lighted lamps.

faced by guards from the Lodge, who As a political association the Hung march him off to the assembled conclave. League first took shape in the reign of On arrival at the outer gate of the Lodge Yung-ching (1720—35). A gross act of the neophyte is constrained to adopt a oppression committed by that Emperor, dishevelled appearance. His hair is by which the Shaolin monastery was ruffled, the white garment which he is burned and a number of the monks killed, compelled to don is unbuttoned and put drove the remnant which remained into on awry, and his feet are bare, as tokens declared hostility to the throne. As in that he is dead to the past and is about to the history of the rise of all Eastern move. rise into newness of life in the organizaments, a supernatural element was intro- tion into which he is about to enter. duced into the constitution of the League. Having been introduced by the VanThe five founders, so runs the legend, guard, and having passed under the bridge being attacked by thirst in their flight of swords, the neophyte is led through from the burning monastery, went down the various enclosures, at each of which to a stream to drink, and saw, to their the Vanguard is catechized by the guar. astonishment, a china censer floating on dian officials, to the Lodge of Universal the water. On recovering it from the Peace, where the council is assembled. flood, they found four characters engraved Here, again, certain questions are put to upon it, which, being interpreted, read : the Vanguard, who answers them“ by

Overthrow the Ts'ing [Manchu dy- the book," and caps them with verses nasty] and restore the Ming'' (the Chinese professedly to explain his answers, but dynasty). This saying they adopted as which from the cryptic nature of the their motto, and, further to steel their terms used makes them, if anything, more resolution, they mixed their blood with unintelligible to the initiated than they wine, and drank the mixture to the dregs, were before. At the conclusion of these swearing eternal brotherhood and death- interrogations the neophytes are led forless hate against the Manchus. To the ward to take the oath. Any who may nucleus thus formed gradually gravitated positively refuse to do so should, accordall the discontented and all the patriots in ing to the strict interpretation of the law, the Empire, and in the space of a few be taken by the executioner outside the years the organization had spread to west gate of the Lodge and be beheaded wherever the Chinese language was spoken. at once. In times of open rebellion the Lodges were formed, which were com. rest suffer the loss of their quenes, and monly situated in mountainous retreats or then, having listened to a prayer for the in the deep recesses of the forests, and success of the society's aims and the reciwhich resembled armed camps. The tation of the thirty-six articles of associwhole League was divided into five grand ation, they proceed to take the oath. divisions, and each Lodge was presided a preliminary to this part of the ceremony, over by one president, two vice-presi- each neophyte pricks his finger with a derts, one master, two introducers, one silver needle and allows the blood to drop fiscal, thirteen councillors, agents, and into a bowl of wine. Sometimes a cock “ horse-leaders'' or recruiting officers. is bled for the same purpose.

But It is in accordance with the traditions whether it is the blood of the men or of of the society that so often as occasions the cock, it is drunk by the neophyte, in permit these horse-leaders should do their whose presence the written oath, after having been read over to him, is burned as stigators of the repeated outbreaks which an offering to the gods, who, it is he- have disturbed the Empire during the last lieved, will punish with endless tortures two hundred years. those who may be faithless to their new Of late there have been ominous signs allegiance.

that the societies are again becoming acThe laws of the association and certain tive for mischief, apart from the recent mystic emblems are next handed to the outrages against foreigners. In the provrecruits, who are then at liberty to return inces of Ganhwui, Kiangsi, Hupeh, Fuh. to the outer world. The laws present a kien, and Kwangtung, there have been curious mixture of high morality and outbreaks of more or less importance, and gross treason to the State and to society. the superstitious profess to see signs of an There is much mention of the necessity of inpending revolution. White hairs have obeying Heaven and of acting righteously, been observed to grow out of the ground, of practising strict morality, and of exer. and this is held to be an infallible token cising every domestic virtue.

of approaching trouble. Prophecies also punishment which is named as the penalty are passing from mouth to mouth foretellfor any lapse from these virtuous heights ing the end of the Manchu dynasty, and is to be compared with those which are one which presages the speedy destruction pronounced against any member who may of the Manchus and foreigners, and the fail to assist a brother who “ has got into consequent opening of a new era of glory trouble" with the police, or who has mur- to China, is current and is likely to be

a stranger," or who, for any prevalent just now. Unfortunately such cause, may wish to put himself beyond prophecies have a way of bringing about the reach of the law. That these obliga- their own fulfilment, and herein lies a distions are strictly practised is only too plain tinct danger to foreigners in China at the by the difficulty which the authorities present time.- Saturday Review. have in laying their hands on the real in

But no

dered "



The erection of a statue to Marlowe in Renaissance would in England, as elsehis birthplace, the City of Canterbury, where, rapidly affect our literature. Still, has cal!ed forth not only an inangural ad- a period of transition was to be looked dress from Mr. Henry Irving, but a great for, as in France and Italy. Marlowe, number of leading articles in the daily however, with practically nothing behind papers. Many of these have been excel- him from which to draw inspiration for a Tent in their way, but, as a rule, the most new form, begins, as a lad of twenty, to interesting point about Marlowe has been cast his thoughts in the mould which is missed. What makes his career almost a used by the poets of the nineteenth cenliterary miracle is the fact that he created tury. Marlowe's verbal imagery inay be a style and manner of writing which in its more gorgeous, because his imagination essentials has remained unchanged to the nore profuse, but in essentials he present day. Behind Marlowe, English writes as men write to-day. Take his poetry may be beautiful, interesting, truth- blank verse, “the mighty line" which ful to Nature, inspired, what you will, but caused the admiration of Ben Jonson. it is confessedly archaic, medieval, unmod- Surrey had imported from Italy“ a drum

Contemporary with and after biin, ming deccasyllabon,” with the rhythms of the style of English verse is revolution- an imperfect musical-box. Marlowe took ized, and becomes what, for want of a the instrument, and invoked from it harbetter general term, we must call modern. monies which, for mere music, have never For example, we find Marlowe, the mo- been and never can be surpassed. But the ment he begins to write, pens such coup- melody of his verse, like his style, delets as :

pends in no sense upon the charm of ar" Where both deliberate, the love is slight: chaicism. We do not admire it because

Whoever loved that loved not at first sight?" it has a quaint old-world air about it. It was no doubt to be expected that the Instead, it is bold, clear-cut,-classical,



that is, in the best sense of the word. some of the reasons for which he does not The blank-verse prologue to Tamburlaine, love his mistress—he loves her for all, and Marlowe's first play, shows that the poet not for any one in particular-might, exrealized how great was the revolution he cept for one turn of phrase, have been was effecting. He tells his audience that written as well in the seventeenth, the he will lead them from their old clownish eighteenth, or the nineteenth, as in the conceits and the "jigging veins of rhym- sixteenth century :ing mother-wits” to “ the stately tent of

“ I love thee not for that my soul doth dance war,” and show them the picture of the And leap with pleasure when those lips of Scythian Tamburlaine.”'

As an exam

thine ple and proof of the astonishing modern

Give musical and graceful utterance ity of Marlowe's verse, we may take one

To some (by thee made happy) poet's line." of the less-known passages from Faustus. As astonishing as the revolution in EngFaustus in a soliloquy, after recalling his lish style affected by Marlowe, is the mantemptations to self-slaughter, proceeds : ner in which he affected his contempo

raries. And long ere this I should have done the

One expects a poet with a new deed,

gospel of his art, to win his way slowly ; Had not sweet Pleasure conquered deep to be derided at first as strange and exDespair :

travagant, and only after his death to Have I not made blind Homer sing to me

convert the world to the new style. This Of Alexander's love and Ænon's death? And hath not be that built the walls of

was what happened to both Wordsworth Thebes

and Keats. Marlowe, however, had a With ravishing sounds of his melodious perfectly different experience. Instead of harp,

having to create an audience capable of Made music with my Mephistophiles ?”

appreciating him, of educating his public, Equally modern is the handling of lan- he became at once a popular poet. The guage in the famous address to Helen, new style caught on” from the first. which begins :

It is true his contemporaries, who were at “ Was this the face that launched a thousand moving in the same direction, and so were

once strongly affected, were themselves ships And burned the topless towers of Ilium ?" ready to be influenced. We have, how

ever, evidence that Marlowe became duror the hardly less well-known dying speech, ing his lifetime a popular poet. His where Faustus, in his agony, implores help

smooth song,

Come, live with me, from Heaven :

and be my love," was at once taken up " See where Christ’s blood streams in the by the country-people, and was sung, as firmament,

Isaak Walton found, by milkmaids at the One drop of blood will save me : 0, my pail. Nor is this all. We are told that

Christ! Rend not my heart from naming of my lished, the waterinen on the Thames

when the “ Hero and Leander" was pubChrist !'' Most modern of all, however, are the sweetened their labors at the oar by chantgnomic couplets in the poem of “Hero ing its lines. Mr. Browning introduced a and Leander,” in which the poet strives the drivers of hansoms or four-wheelers

new poetic style, but no one ever heard to put some piece of wit and wisdom in epigrainmatic form. We have quoted al- spouting “ The Grammarian's Funeral." ready the best-known of these, but the Marlowe, we believe, stands alone in liter. following are nearly as remarkable :

ature as a writer who led a revolution in

Leiters, and yet contrived to make himself “Sweet are the kisses, the embracements a popular poet.

sweet, Where like desires and like affections Marlowe, is the fact that he, alone of the

Another point worth noticing about meet."

English writers of his epoch, thoroughly “ Love is not full of pity, as men say, But deaf and cruel where he means to prey."

imbibed the spirit of the Renaissance. In

Greene, in Peele, in Lodge, Webster, As a last proof of our assertion, we may Massinger, Ford, Beaumont and Fletcher, quote a stanza from a somewhat objection- and Shakespeare, there is always an eleable poem called “ Ignoto. The follow- ment that is both Christian and English. ing stanza, in which the poet enumerates The writings of Beaumont and Fletcher, and Ford, and several of the other dram- true view of life, will ever be entirely atists, are as gross or grosser than those great. That poetry is the highest and the of Marlowe ; but it is only in him that best which is widest, which concerns itself one feels the adoption of the ultra-Pagan most directly and most broadly with hustandpoint. It is impossible to read Mar- man life, and which leaves least out. But lowe and not to feel that his intellectual experience shows that, whether right or attitude is perfectly different from that of wrong, the majority of mankind believe even the most licentious of his contem- in and set before themselves certain ideals poraries. They are merely immoral in of duty and justice, and believe also in the sense of being reckless and rebellious the imposition of certain responsibilities. of restraint. His attitude is that of the Some form one estimate of these ideals, man who does not recognize moral con- others another ; but the majority agree siderations at all. It is the unmoral stand- that they have a real existence. The point throughout. Beauty and pleasure poetry that ignores them, and is purely are the governing factors of the world. sensuous in its aims, however beautiful, is This globe of ours is a vast and wonderful sure, therefore, to suffer from a certain palace of delights, full of strange secrets narrowness and insufficiency. It will and new pleasures, which yield themselves contain only a portion, not the whole. to the learned and the daring. Man finds Shakespeare is greater than Marlowe, behimself in this treasure-house for a little cause the moral standpoint belonged to space, and if he is wise, avails himself of him, the unmoral to bis predecessor. the chances that are offered to him. This Before we leave the subject of Marsplendid, glittering, or rather, irradiated, lowe's verse, we cannot refrain from quotmaterialismu, found in Marlowe its only ing what, judged as melody, is unquestrue apostle of English blood during the tionably one of the greatest pieces of period of the Renaissance. Other men blank verse in the English language. It were half-hearted and insincere in their occurs in Marlowe's earliest play, and passion for the pleasures of sense, and of must have been written when he was al. the intellect on its sensuous side. He, most a youth. It is, in fact, a lyric ecstasy like his own Faust,“ made sweet Pleasure put into the mouth of Tamburlaine on the conquer deep Despair ;' and recked not death of his wife Zenocrate :of right or truth or duty. We have no desire to censure Marlowe

“ Now walk the angels on the walls of Heaven

As sentinels to warn immortal souls, here because he yielded to the Pagan To entertain divine Zenocrate. spirit of the Renaissance. What we have Apollo, Cynthia, and the ceaseless lamps to do with is his poetry, and not his life

That gently looked upon this loathsome or his opinions. It is, however, a per


Shine downward now no more, but deck fectly legitimate exercise of the functions

the Heavens, of criticism to point out that Marlowe's To entertain divine Zenocrate. poetry suffered because it was, like its au- The crystal spring whose taste illuminates thor, devoid of the moral element. Un

Refinèd eyes with an eternal sight,

Like tried silver runs through Paradise, less we are to suppose that a prolongation

To entertain divine Zenocrate. of life would have brought a change of The cherubims and holy seraphims intellectual attitude, it is quite safe to say That sing and play before the King of Kings that our literature has not lost another

Use all their roices and their instruments,

To entertain divine Zenocrate." Shakespeare in Marlowe. which is unmoral, which is dead to the


No poetry



We must change our ideals. The Des- Such women as Panthea and Alcestis, Cordemonas and Dorotheas, the Enids and nelia and Lucretia, are as much out of date Imogens, are all wrong. Milton's Eve is as the chiton and the peplum, the bride's an anachronism ; so is the Lady ; so is hair parted with a spear, or the worth of Una ; so are Christabel and Genevieve. a woman reckoned by the flax she spun

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