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Charles the Fifth, among his other leg- Cadiz and Lishon, take them to sea, and acies to his son, had left him instructions act against the English as he saw occato distrust France and to preserve the sion. He would probably have been alEnglish alliance. The passionate Catho- lowed his way to do what he pleased in lics assured him that the way to keep Eng. the following year but for a new compli. land was to restore the faith. But Eliza- cation, which threw Philip again into perbeth was still sovereign, and Catholic con- plexity. The object of any enterprise led spiracies so far had only brought their by Santa Cruz would bave been the exeleaders to the scaffold. Mary Stuart was cution of the Bull of Pope Pius, the dea true believer, but she was herself half a thronement of Elizabeth, and the transFrenchwoman, and Guise's father had de- ference of the crown to Mary Stuart, who, feated Philip's father at Metz, and Guise if placed on the throne by Spanish arms and Mary miasters of France and England alone, might be relied on to be true to both was a perilous possibility. Philip Spanish interests. Wearied out with did not assent; he did not refuse. He Mary's perpetual plots, Elizabeth, when thanked Santa Cruz for his zeal, but said Santa Cruz's preparations were far ad. that he must still wait a little and watch. vanced, sent her to the scaffold, and the His waiting did not serve to clear his way. blow of the axe which ended her disconElizabeth discovered what had been de- certed every arrangement which had been signed for her, and as a return Sir Francis made. There was no longer a Catholic Dra ke sacked St. Domingo and Cartha- successor in England to whom the crown gena. More than that, she had sent open could go on Elizabeth's deposition, and it help to his insurgent provinces, and had was useless to send an army to conquer taken charge, with the consent of the Hol- the country till some purpose could be landers, of Flushing and Brill. Santa formed for disposing of it afterward. Cruz could not but admire the daring of Philip had been called King of England Drake and the genius of the English once. He was of the blood of the House Queen. They were acting while his own of Lancaster. He thought, naturally, that inaster was asleep. He tried again to if he was to do the work, the prize ought rouse him. The Queen, he said, had to be his own. Unfortunately, the rest made herself a name in the world. She of the world claimed a voice in the mathad enriched her own subjects out of ter. France would certainly be hostile. Spanish spoil. In a single month they The English Catholics were divided. The had taken a million and a half of ducats. Pope himself, when consulted, refused Defensive war was always a failure. Once his assent. As Pope Sextus the Fifth, he more the opportunity was his own. France was bound to desire the reduction of a was paralyzed, and Elizabeth, though rebellious island; as an Italian prince, he strong abroad, was weak at home, through had no wish to see another wealthy king. the disaffection of the Catholics. To de- dom added to the enormous empire of lay longer would be to see England grow Spain. Mary Stuart's son was natural into a power which he would be unable heir. He was a Protestant, but gratitude to deal with. Spain would decline, and might convert him. At any rate, Philip would lose in mere money more than four should not take Elizabeth's place. Sextus times the cost of war. *
was to have given a million crowns to the This time, Philip listened more seri- cost of the armament; he did not directly ously. Before, he had been invited to withdraw his promise, but he haggled act with the Duke of Guise, and Guise with the Spanish Ambassador at the Holy was to have the spoils. Now, at any rate, See. He affected to doubt the possibility the operation was to be his own. He of Philip's success, and even his personal bade Sana Cruz send him a plan of opera- sincerity. He declined to advance a ducat tions and a calculation in detail of the till a Spanish army was actually on Engships and stores which would be required. lish soil. The Duke of Parina, who was He made him Lord High Admiral, com- to cross from Flanders and conduct the missioned him to collect squadrons at campaign in England itself, was diffident,
if not unwilling; and Philip had to feel Navio Cesareo Fernández Duro, tomo i. p. that even the successful occupation of 261.
* Santa Cruz to Philip the Second, January London might prove the beginning of 13, 1586.
greater troubles. He had been driven
forward himself against his inclination. jects. But if peace was made the SpanThe chief movers in the enterprise, these ish garrisons were to be withdrawn from who had fed the fire of religious animosity the Low Countries ; the Executive Govthrough Europe, and prevented a rational ernment would be left in the hands of the arrangement between the Spanish and States themselves, who could be as tolerEnglish nations, were the Society of ant practically as they pleased. On these Jesus, those members of it especially who terms it was certain that a general pacificahad been bred at Oxford in the Anglican tion was possible. The Duke of Parma Church, and hated it with the frenzy of strongly advised it. Philip himself renegades. From them came the endless wished for it. Half Elizabeth's Council conspiracies which Spain was forced to recommended it, and she herself wished countenance, and the consequent severities for it. Unless Catholics and Protestants of the English Government, which they intended to fight till one or other was exshrieked in Philip's ears; and Philip, half terminated, they must come to some such a bigot and half a cautious statesman, terms at last ; and if at last, why not at wavered between two policies till fate de- once ? With this purpose a conference cided for him. Both on Philip's part and was being held at Ostend between Elizaon Elizabeth's part there was a desire for beth's and Parma's commissioners.
The peace if peace could be had. Philip was terms were rational.
The principal parweary of the long struggle in the Low ties, it is now possible to see-even Philip Countries, which threatened to be endless hinself—were sincere about it. How if Elizabeth supported it. Elizabeth her- long the terms of such a peace would have self wished to be left in quiet, relieved of lasted, with the theological furnace at the necessity of supporting insurgent such a heat, may be fairly questioned. Protestants and hanging traitorous priests. Bigotry and freedom of thought had two An arrangement was possible, based on centuries of battle still before them till it principles of general toleration.
could be seen which was to prevail, but The Pope was right in not wholly trust- : an arrangement might then have been ing Philip. The Spanish King was will come to at Ostend, in the winter of ing to agree that England should remain 1587–8, which would have lasted Philip's Protestant if England wished it, provided and Elizabeth's lifetime, could either party the Catholics were allowed the free exer- have trusted the other. in both countries cise of their own religion, and provided there was a fighting party and a peace Elizabeth would call in her privateers, sur- party. In England it was said that the render to him the towns which she held negotiations were a fraud, designed only in Holland, and abandon her alliance with to induce Elizabeth to relax her preparathe Dutch States. Elizabeth was per- tions for defence. In Spain it was urged fectly ready to tolerate Catholic worship that the larger and more menacing the if the Catholics would cease their plots force which could be collected, the more against her and Spain would cease to en- inclined Elizabeth would be to listen to conrage them. It was true that Flushing reason ; while Elizabeth had to show on and Brill had been trusted to her charge her part that frightened she was not, and by the States, and that if she withdrew that if Philip preferred war she had no her garrison she was bound in honor to objection. The bolder her bearing, the replace them in the States' hands. But more likely she would be to secure fair she regarded the revolt of the Low Coun- terms for the Lollanders. tries as only justified by the atrocities of The preparations at Cadiz and Lisbon the Blood Council and the Inquisition. were no secret. All Europe was talking If she could secure for the Dutch Confed- of the enormous armanent which Spain eration the same toleration which she was was preparing, and which Santa Cruz was willing herself to concede to the English to convoy to the English Channel. Both Catholics, she might feel her honor to be the Tagus and Cadiz Harbor were reported acquitted sufficiently if she gave up to to be crowded with ships, though as yet Philip towns which really were his own. unprovided with crews for them. With Here only, so far as the two sovereigns some misgivings, but in one of her bolder were concerned, the difficulty lay. Philip moments, the Queen in the spring of 1587 held himself bound by duty to allow no allowed Drake to take a flying squadron liberty of religion among his own sub- with him down the Spanish coast. She
hung about his neck a second in command even when out and gone to its work. He to limit his movements ; but Drake took had settled perhaps in his own mind that, his own way, leaving his vice-admiral to since he could not himself be King of go home and complain. Je sailed into England, the happiest result for himself Cadiz Harbor, burned eighteen galleons would be to leave Elizabeth were she was, which were lying there, and, remaining reduced to the condition of his vassal, leisurely till he had finished his work, which she would become if she consented sailed away to repeat the operation at to his terms; and the presence of an overLisbon. It might have been done with powering fleet in the Channel, a moderate the same ease. The Evglish squadron but not too excessive use of force, an lay at the mouth of the river within sight avoidance of extreme and violent measof Santa Cruz, and the great admiral had ures, which would make the strife interto sit still and fume, unable to go out and necine and make an arrangement impossimeet him por falta de gente—for want of ble, he conceived it likely would bring sailors to man his galleons. Drake might Elizabeth to her knees. For such a purhave gone in and burned them all, and pose Santa Cruz was not the most promiswould have done it had not Elizabeth felt ing instrument; he required some one of that he had accomplished enough and that more malleable material who would obey the negotiations would be broken off if he his own instructions, and would not be worked more des.ruction. He had singed led either by his own ambition or the enthe King's beard, as be called it; and the thusiasm and daring of his officers into King, though patient of affronts, was desperate adventures.
desperate adventures. It was probably, moved to a passing enotion. Seamen therefore, rather to his relief than regret and soldiers were hurried down to the that in February, when the Armada was Tagus. Orders were sent to the Admiral almost ready to sail, the old Admiral died to put to sea at once and chase the Eng- at Lisbon. He was seventy-three years lish off the shore. But Philip, too, on old. He had seen fifty years of service. his side was afraid of Santa Cruz's too Spanish tradition, mourning at the fatal great audacity. He, too, did not wish consequence, said afterward that he had for a collision which might make peace been broken-hearted at the King's hesitaimpossible. Another order followed. tion. Anxiety for the honor of his counThe fleet was to stay where it was and try might have worn out a younger man. continue its preparations. It was to wait He went, and with him went the only till the next spring, when the enterprise chance of a successful issue of the expeshould be undertaken in earnest if the dition. He was proud of his country, peace conference at Ostend should fail in which he saw that Philip was degrading. finding a conclusion.
The invasion of England bad been his Thus the winter drove through. Peace dream for years, and he had correspondwas really impossible, however sincerely ents of his own in England and Ireland. the high contracting parties might them- He was the al·lest seaman that Spain posselves desire it. Public opinion in Spain sessed, and had studied long the probwould have compelled Philip to leave the lems with which he would have had to conqueror of Terceira in command of the deal. Doubtless he had left men behind expedition. Santa Cruz would have sailed among those who had served under him in March for the English Channel, sup- who could have taken his place, and have ported by officers whom he had himself done almost as well. But Philip had detrained ; and, although the Armada might termined that, since the experiment was still have failed, history would have had to be made, he would himself control it another tale to tell of its exploits and its from his room in the Escurial, and in his fate. But a visible coldness had grown choice of Santa Cruz's successor he showed ap between the King and the Admiral. that naval capacity and patriotic enthusiPhilip, like many men of small minds asm were the last qualities for which he raised into great positions, had supreme was looking. confidence in his own powers of manage. Don Alonzo de Guzman, Duke of Mement. He chose to regulate everything, dina Sidonia, was ihe richest peer in Spain. to the diet and daily habits of every sailor He was now thirty-eight years old, and and soldier on board. He intended to his experience as a public man was limited direct and limit the action of the Armada to his failure to defend Cadiz against
Drake. He was a short, broad-shoul. I can spare. I owe a million ducats, and dered, olive-complexioned man, said to be I have not a real to spend on my outfit. a good rider ; but if his wife was to be The expedition is on such a scale and the believed, he was of all men in Spain the object is of such high importance that the least fitted to be trusted with the conduct person at the head of it ought to underof any critical undertaking. The Duchess, stand navigation and sea-fighting, and I Doña Aña de Mendoza was the daughter know nothing of either. I have not one of Philip's Minister, Ruy Gomez, and of of those essential qualifications. I have the celebrated Princess of Eboli, whom no acquaintances among the officers who later scandal called Philip's mistress, and are to serve under me. Santa Cruz had whose influence was supposed to have in information about the state of things in fluenced Philip in favor of her son-in-law. England ; I have none. Were I comRoyal scandals are dreary subjects. When petent otherwise, I should have to act in they are once uttered the stain is indeli- the dark by the opinion of others, and I ble, for every one likes to believe them. cannot tell to whom I may trust. The The only contemporary witness for the Adelantado of Castile would do better amours of Philip and the Princess of Eboli than I. Our Lord would help him, for is Antonio Perez, who, by his own con he is a good Christian and has fought in fession, was a scoundrel who deserved the naval battles. If you send me, depend gallows. Something is known at last of upon it I shall have a bad account to renthe history of the lady. If there was a der of woman in Spain whom Philip detested, it The Duchess perhaps guided ber hugwas the wife of Ruy Gomez. If there band's hand when he wrote so faithful an was a man whom the Princess despised, account of himself. But his vanity was it was the watery-blooded King. An in- flattered.
An in- flattered. Philip persisted that he must trigue between a wildcat of the mountain go. He and only he would answer the and a narrow-minded, conscientious sheep- purpose in view, so he allowed himself to dog would be about as probable as a love. be persuaded. affair between Philip and the Princess of “Since your Majesty still desires it, Eboli ; and at the time of her son-in-law's after my confession of incompetence,” he appointment she was locked up in a castle wrote to Philip, “I will try to deserve in defiant disgrace. The Dule bad been your confidence. As I shall be doing God's married to her daughter when he was work, I may hope that He will help me. twenty-two and his bride was eleven, and Philip gratefully replied: “You are Doña Aña, after sixteen years' experience sacrificing yourself for God's service and of him, had observed to her friends that mine. I am so anxious, that if I was less he was well enough in his own house occupied at home I would accompany the among persons who did not know what fleet myself and I should be certain that he was ; but that if he was employed on all would go well. Take heart; you have business of State the world would discover now an opportunity of showing the exto its cost his real character. That such traordinary qualities which God, the aua man should have been chosen to succeed thor of all good, has been pleased to beAlonzo de Bazan astonished every one. stow upon you. Happen what may, I A commander of Gold, it was said, was charge myself with the care of your chiltaking the place of a commander of Iron. dren. If you fail, you fail ; but the cause The choice was known to Santa Cruz being the cause of God, you will not fail." wbile he still breathed, and did not com Thus the Duke was to command the fort him in his departure.
Armada and to sail at the earliest possible The most astonished of all, when he moment, for the Commissioners were sitlearned the honor which was intended for ting at Ostend, and his presence in the him, was the Duke himself, and he drew Channel was of pressing consequence. a picture of his own incapacity as simple Sana Cruz besides had fixed on the end of as Sancho's when appointed to govern his March as the latest date for the departure, island.
on account of the north winds which later "My health is bad,” he wrote to in the season blow down the coast of Philip's secretary, and from my small experience of the water I know that I am * Medina Sidonia to Secretary Idriaquez, always sea-sick. I have no money which Feb. 16, 1588. Duro, vol. i. p. 414.
Portugal. The Duke at the time of his to the example of the rest. Returning to nomination was at his house at San Lucar. secular subjects, he had heard, the King He was directed to repair at once to Lis- said, that the gentlemen adventurers bon, where his commission would reach wanted staterooms and private berths. It him. An experienced but cautious Ad- would encumber the ships, and the Duke miral, Don Diego Flores de Valdez, was was cautioned not to allow it. As the assigned to him as a nautical adviser, and Duke knew nothing of navigation, here. Philip proceeded to inflict upon him a too, the King held himself competent to series of instructions and advice as wise instruct. He was to make straight for and foolish as those with which Don the English Channel, advance to the Quixote furnished his squire. Every day North Foreland, and put himseif in combrought fresh letters as suggestions rose in munication with Parma. If foul weather what Philip called his mind. Nothing came and the ships were scattered, they was too trifling for his notice, nothing were to collect again, first at Finisterre, was to be left to the Duke's discretion and then at the Scilly Isles. In the Chan. which could possibly be provided for. In nel he must keep on the English side, a secret despatch to the Duke of Parına, because the water was deeper there. the King revealed alike his expectations Elizabeth's fleet, Philip understood, was and his wishes. He trusted that the ap- divided, part being under Drake at Plypearance of the Armada and some moder- mouth, and part in the Straits of Dover. ate victory over the English fleet would If the Duke fell in with Drake he was to force Elizabeth to an agreement. If the take no notice of him unless he was atCatholic religion could be tolerated in tacked, and was to keep on his course. England, and if Flushing and Brill were If he found the two squadrons united, he given up to him, he said that he was pre- would still be in superior force and might pared to be satisfied. To Medina Sidonia join battle, being careful to keep to windhe reported as his latest advice from Eng- ward. land that the Queen was inclining to the There were limits even to Philip's contreaty, but was dissuaded by Leicester and fidence in his ability to guide. He adWalsingham, and he gave bim a list of mitted that he could not direct the Duke the English force which he might expect specifically how to form the ships for an to meet, which was tolerably accurate and engagement. Time and opportunity far inferior to his own.
would have to determine. “Only,” he So far he wrote like a responsible and said, “omit no advantage and so handle sensible prince, but the smallest thing and the fleet that one part shall support anthe largest seemed to occupy him equally. other. The enemy will try to fight at a He directed the Duke to provide himself distance with his guns. You will enwith competent Channel pilots, as if this deavor to close. You will observe that was a point which might be overlooked. their practice is to shoot low into the hulls It laid down regulations for the health of rather than into the rigging. You will the crews, the allowances of biscuit and find how to deal with this. Keep your wine, salt fish and bacon. Beyond all, vessels together, allow none to stray or go the Duke was to attend to their morals. in advance. Do not let them hurry in They were in the service of the Lord, and pursuit of prizes after a victory. This the Lord must not be offended by the fault has often caused disaster both on sea faults of His instruments. The clergy and land. Conquer first, and then you throughout Spain were praying for them will have spoil enough. The Council of and would continue to pray, but soldiers War will order the distribution of it. and sailors must do their part and live like What I ain now saying implies that a batChristians. They must not swear ; they tle will have to be fought ; but if the must not gamble, which led to swearing. enemy can be got rid of without an acIf they used low language God would be tion, so much the better. The effect will displeased. Every man before he em be produced without loss to yourself, barked must confess and commend himself Should the Prince be able to cross, you to the Lord. Especially and pre-eminent will remain with the Armada at the mouth ly, loose women must be kept away, and of the Thames, lending such assistance as if any member of the expedition fell into you can. Consult with the Prince, and the pecado nefando he must be chastised land none of your forces without his ap