others, the Marchioness of Bredalbane, Lady sonnet in a note-book of S. T. Coleridge Colin Campbell, and Miss Leale. Other vol. kindly lent to me by its present possessor, umes include “ The Home," by Mrs. Talbot his grandson, Mr. Ernest Hartley Coleridge. Coke, “Culture for Gentlewomen," by Miss The verses are in the poet's handwriting, and Emily Faithfull, also works on painting, the composition is certainly his, for the ms. music, gardening, etc.

has many corrections ; indeed, I have had no The monument to Christopher Marlowe,

little difficulty in piecing out the text as the first of the great dramatic line of English finally settled. The style, however, is so unpoets in priority of time, and only second in like that of any original composition known genius to Shakespeare, which was execated to be Coleridge's that I am much disposed to by Mr. E. Onslow Ford, A.R.A., was unveiled believe this sonnet to be a translation, probat Canterbury, on September 16th, by Mr. ably from the Italian or Spanish. If you will Henry Irving.

be good enough to print it, soine reader of

the Athenæum may recognize the original." By arrangement with the American pub.

J. D. C. lishers, Messrs. Macmillan & Co. will issue in the course of the autumn an edition of Mr. Lady, to Death we're doom'd, our crime the

same! Lowell's poems complete in one volume, nni. Thou, that in me thou kindled'st such fierce form with their one volume editions of Tenny. Heat ; son, Wordsworth and Shelley. Mr. Thomas I, that my Heart did of a Sun so sweet Hughes will contribute an introduction to the 1, fascinated by an Adder's Eye

The Rays concentre to so hot a flame. volume, which should be welcome to many Deaf as an Adder thou to all my Pain; admirers of the poet who have not cared to Thou obstinate in Scorn, in passion Iprovide themselves with the recently com

I lov'd too much, too much didst thou dis

dain. pleted library edition of his works.

Hear then our doom in Hell as just as stern, One of our English contemporaries, remark. Our sentence equal as our crimes conspireing upon the growing difficulty in finding Who living bask'd at Beauty's earthly Fire, new subjects of interest for the exhibitions Hell for ns both fit places too supplies-

In living flames eternal there must burnthat are becoming an annual institution among In my Heart Thou wilt burn, I roast before us—now that fishermen, inventors, health conservators and restorers, Colonials, Ameri. cans, Spaniards, French, Italians, Danes, and Germans, together with our own army and

MISCELLANY. navy, have all had their innings-urges the MODERN WAR.-If, in their general charclaims of literature to have an exhibition in its acter, the nature of battles and the circumturn. It is pointed out, no doubt with con.

stances under which battles have to be fought siderable truth, that the vast stores of the change very materially, that in itself involves British Museum are practically closed to the

a further change in the combinations which casual sight seer, “Nor," it is naïvely added,

are open for manæuvres in the field of which “would our national storehouses stand any the ultimate object is to lead up to battle. chance of rivalry with a vastly inferior show The size of the armies which will enter into that was accompanied by the more sensuous the next great campaign in Europe will be so delights of the exhibition à la mode." of vastly different from those which fought out course such a scheme would include graphic the great wars of the past, that their maneuillustrations of the entire process of book and vring in campaigns must necessarily be very newspaper production, the details of typog. different from anything that Napoleon underraphy, the entire processes of printing and took. Now, even during the later wars of binding, the manufacture of paper, with other Napoleon, Jomini was obliged to admit that kindred and subsidiary industries. The many of the experiences of the past must be writer of the article will, no doubt, have the materially modified as armies increased in publisher and printer on his side ; if he can

size. One of the most familiar forms in which show any benefit likely to result to the au. Napoleon exercised his strategic skill lay in thor, he may perhaps secure Mr. Walter Be. defeating with his own entire army a fraction sant, and other literary champions, for his of the forces opposed to him, before it could scheme.

be reinforced by the remainder of the enemy. The Athenæum prints the following com- Thus the element of time essentially entered inication : “I have found the following into the question. Even during the great

thine eyes.

campaign of 1813, when Napoleon, holding a frequently embody their whole conception of central position on the Elbe, endeavored to strategy in a phrase which to a reader, taking strike from thence against the masses of allies it in its simple forın, is apt to seem like a formed in a great circle around him at Berlin, mere truism—that the great principle of in Silesia, and in Bohemia, experience showed strategy is to concentrate the largest possible that it was by no means easy to crush with force at the right moment at the decisive sufficient rapidity armies of 120,000 men so point. So stated, strategy may seem to have as to prevent them from being supported in nothing exceptional in its nature, and to in. time by others. As the allies gradually closed volve no study of the nature of the great orin on him, and the distances between their ganizations of men with which it is concerned. ditferent forces diminished, this became con. But, in fact, this study and this knowledge tinually more and more apparent. In fact, it are presupposed by those who thus explain became clear, if it had been doubtful before- their art. It is because armies are not mere hand, that the question was altogether a mat- gatherings of armed men, but have a vitality ter of proportion between time, distance, and of their own, that some very heavy blows may the resisting-power of the several armies con- be struck against them without affecting a cerned. On the other hand, in 1814, when vital point, whilo a more skilfully directed the nature of the country invaded caused a stroke may destroy their whole future power reduction in the size of the armies moving of action. An army then, as it stands in the forward separately, Napoleon was able as of field, is of this character, that while the tightold to strike his blows right and left with tell. ing force directly opposed to the enemy is an ing effect. Now, if it were possible for an organism which depends for its vitality upon army of our day, supplied with all the imple- the trained spirit of order, discipline, and ments with which modern science has pro. enthusiasm or devotion which holds it to. vided it, to meet any army of equal numbers gether, and on the trained capacity for mutual equipped as Napoleon's armies were equipped, and effective fighting co-operation which the difference in power of the modern army makes it act like one man, it has also, reachwould be such that it would almost be able to ing far behind it, a long and weak tail, on the deal with its enemy as civilized armies pro. safety of which its very existence depends,vided with fire-arms were at first able to deal From “ War,'' by Colonel Maurice. with savages possessed only of bows and arrows. The artillery of the days of Napoleon TOBACCO FERMENTATION.—A very essential would not be able to act at all, for our modern process is brought about by firmly packing infantry can fire with effect at a distance ripe tobacco in large quantities. It had been greater than could Napoleon's big guns. Our generally supposed that the fermentation is artillery would be able to destroy Napoleon's of purely chemical nature, but Herr Suchsarmy before either his artillery or infantry land, of the German Botanical Society, finds could act against us. Thus an army of 50,000 that a fungus is concerned in it. In all the men of our own time must be reckoned as tobaccos he examined, he found large quanti. possessing, at least, the resisting power of ties of fungi, though of only two or three 100,000 of the days of Napoleon. It is obvi- species. Bacteriacea were predominant, but ous, therefore, that the relationship between Coccaceæ also occurred. When they were time, distance, and the resisting power of taken and increased by pure cultivation, and armies has been greatly affected by the change added to other kinds of tobacco, they proin the character of weapons, and that calcu. duced changes of taste and smell which relations as to what a superior army can do in called those of their original nutritive base. a given time to break up the force of an army In cultivation of tobacco in Germany it has opposing it, and to be free to deal with an- been sought to get a good quality, chiefly by other army, are greatly modified.

ground cultivation, and introduction of the In modern war the effort of the general is best kinds of tobacco. But it is pointed out directed to maintaining in its full efficiency that failure of the best success may be due to the vast and complicated machine'' which the fact that the more active fermenting fungi he handles, and to breaking up and destroy- of the original country are not brought with ing the efficiency of that to which he is op. the seeds, and the ferments here cannot give posed. This is the central fact to be kept in such good results. Experiments made with a mind. Generals and soldiers, long accus- view to improvement on the lines suggested tomed to look at war from this point of view, have apparently proved successful. - Nature.


PeerlvAT ACCIDENTS IN 1890 – The general ter is progressing, and in England at least report to the Boari of Trade upon the acci- little more remains to be done in this direc. dents that have occurred on the railways of tion; bat when the orders made upon the the United Kingdom daring the year 1890, railway companies under the Regulation of drawn up by Jr. Courtenay Bogle, of the Railways Act, 1989, come into fall force the Railway Department, was recently published. absolate block and interioeking systems will It shows that the number of persons returned have to be generally adopted. Generally to the Board as having been killed in the speaking, the year 1890, favorable as it is, working of the railways during the year was would have shown a still better record, and 1076, and the number of injared 4721. Of that in spite of abnormal fogs, bat for the these 116 persons kiiled and 1361 injured serious collision at Norton Fitzwarren sta. were passengers, bot of this number only 18 tion, on the Great Western Railway on No. were killed and 496 injured in consequence vember 11th, by which ten passengers were of accidents to or collisions between trains, killed and nine others severely injured. Of the remainder, 499 killed and 3122 injured

MEASURING STRAINS IN BRIDGES. -A DEW were officers or servants of the railway com. papies or of contractors, and these figures im. in iron and steel bridges has been invented

method for accurately measuring the strains ply a further increase. Of saicides there were 77 ; of trespagsers 252 were killed and by a prominent French engineer, and is de

scribed as follows: Tso brackets are attached 123 injured ; of persons passing over the rail. to the beam to be tested at some distance way at level crossings 63 were killed and 35 apart, on one of which is placed a water chaminjared ; and from miscellaneous causes 47 ber, closing by a flexible diaphragm, and conpersons were killed and 80 injured.

nected with an open tube, which serves to total number of passenger journeys, exclusive

register by the height of the tube any pres. of journeys by season ticket-holders, was 817,714,046 for the year 1890, or 42,560,973 One ed of a pointed rod is connected with

sure that may be made on this diaphragm. more than in the previous year. Calculated this metal covering to the water chamber, on these figures the proportions of passengers while the other is joined to the other bracket. killed and injured during the year 1890 from The most important item of the invention is all canges were one in 6,930,034 killed and one that any motion of the beam, it will be readily in 600,840 injured. In 1889 the proportions were one in 4,236,000 killed and one in 423,280 cause the water in the fine tube to fall. This

seen, will set the diaphragm in motion, and injured. But the comparative safety of rail. is a first-rate apparatus, as we are all familiar way travel is indicated still more clearly by with the great numbers of railroad accidents the proportion of passengers killed and in.

that are constantly occurring, and in many jored from canses beyond their own control,

cases originate from an unsafe, shaky bridge. The total ander this head for the year is 18

English Mechanic. killed and 496 injured, and the proportion to the number of journeys is one in 45,430,224 NATURAL GLASS.-A mineral discovery of killed and one in 1,618,677 injured. This re- unusual value is reported from Kamonraska, sult shows an improvement on every year in Lower Canada. It is stated that an entire since 1874. The total pumber of accidents mountain, composed of! silicates, otherwise inquired into was 53, the lowest previous rec- known as vitrifiable stone, of a purity certi. ord from the year 1875 being 58 in 1887. Of fied by the provincial engineer to average 98 these, as in previous years, the most common per cent, (has been found. This material is cause was collisions within fixed signals at used for the manufacture of the finest glass, stations or sidings, 24, or nearly half the and it is believed to exist nowhere else on the total, falling under this single classification. American continent in such purity. The The report proceeds to deal with the accidents provincial Government has been asked by a serialim, showing how each occurred and where deputation to guarantee 4 per cent interest the lame lay. Among the various companies for ten years on £20,000, if a local company the London and South Western with six acci- subscribes that amount, to develop the new dents, the North British with five, and the industry, and has promised to consider the Great Eastern with four head the list. The request if the principal municipality concerned work of interlocking signals and poiuts and is prepared to take a fair share of the risk. of extending the absolute block telegraph sys.


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On the 31st December, 1888, about six and have passed many painful hours. My months after his accession to the throne, heart is as sorrowful as if I had again lost my William II. of Germany addressed his by God ; and it has to be borne, even though

grandfather! But it is so appointed to mo Chancellor, Prince Bismarck, a telegram I should fall under the burden. The post of as follows :

officer of the watch on the ship of State has

fallen to my lot. Her course remains the Dear Prince,—The year which has brought same : so now full steam ahead !'' us such severe aflictions and irreparable losses is drawing to a close. The thought

The recipient of this note was variously that you still stand faithful at my side, and supposed, at the time, to be either the enter the New Year in vigorous strength, fills Einperor's relative, the Grand Duke of me with joy and comfort. From the bottom Weimar, or Admiral Bartsch ; but the of my heart I desire for you happiness, bless. ings, and, above all, lasting health, and pray Daval imagery employed in the telegram Heaven that I may long be permitted to work (for His Majesty can be all things to all with you for the welfare and greatness of our men) seems to settle the point in favor of Fatherland.

the Admiral, who, by the way, was at one Within fifteen months of the date of

time expected to succeed to Prince Bisthis complimentary message the young months of his addressing a fervent hope

marck. "Well, then, within fifteen short Emperor had (on March 22, 1890) tele- for continued co-operation between himself graphed to a friend in Weimar :

and his political Palinurus, who bad “Many thanks for your friendly letter. I guided the ship of State through so many have indeed gone through bitter experiences, storms and perils, the Emperor had sud

NEW SERIES,—Vol. LIV., No. 5.


denly “ dropped bis pilot” (nor was any with a will stronger than his own. Of one, as I happen to know, more impressed the old Emperor, Bismarck once said to by Punch's cartoon on the subject than the late Lord Ampthill, Mein alter Herr llis Majesty limself), and taken Lis own ist stets ueberredet wenn nicht ueberzeugt stand on the bridge, shouting out his or- gewesen :'“I have always been able to ders to the man at the wheel, and to all talk over if not convince my old master ;' else, in a firm and lusty voice. The fall and, indeed, numerous cases might be of Prince Bismarck was and is still felt by quoted, the war of 1866 included, to show all to be one of the wonders of the cen- that William I. often based his decisions, tury ; and assuredly no more unexpected in relation to his Chancellor, on the reevent ever happened, though the French, versed order of conviction and consent. it is true, will have it that nothing is so But his grandson, who had the advantage certain as the unexpected. Cloyed as it of inheriting bis English mother's strength is with the taste of manifold sensations, of will with his mother's mental force and the palate of the European public was perspicacity, soon displayed a tendency to tickled, as it had never been before, by rebel against the submission of his judgthe revelation that even a Bismarck was ment to any authority save that of his own not at all deemed indispensable to the instincts and intelligence ; and in doing continued welfare of his country, and so, as is thought by many well-qualified that a young and inexperienced ruler like heads in Berlin, he rendered—though at the Emperor William had been capable of no slight risk—a very considerable service so supreme an act of courage as to dis. to the monarchical principle in Prussia pense —and rather brusquely too—with and Germany, for which his successors The services of a man who had been the will give him credit. inaking of his nation. “If our young There can be little doubt that, in the Emperor,” said people in Berlin, "has course of his long and magnificent career, the daring to do a thing like this, what Prince Bismarck had insensibly come to will he not yet have the audacity to do ?” establish a kind of personal imperium in Of a truth his courage and capacity are imperio within the limits of the Prussian great ; and if his life is long enough, and Crown. No one had fought more desopportunity offers, some successor of his, perately than he to save the rights of this using the words uttered by Frederick the crown from the curtailing scissors of a Great over the ashes of the great Elector, Constitution, as no one had been a more may also point to his tomb, and exclaim, jealous defender of these rights after they Messieurs, Der hat viel gethan.

had at last been limited and reduced to It is not the object of the present article charter-form by the revolutionary moveto discuss the causes which led the new ment of '48. Yet, if the truth must be Emperor to part with the old Chancellor. told, this very same Bismarck had gradThose causes, which were set forth with ually, and perhaps eren unconsciously, more or less fulness and accuracy at the ended by absorbing into his own person time, may be reduced to one succinct ex. the exercise of some of those rights which planation-incompatibility of age and tem- appertained exclusively to his Sovereign. per. “How was it possible,” remarked He would doubtless be the first to protest à German diplomatist when discussing against this view ; but if he can fully acthe subject with me, for a clear-sighted count for his dismissal from office on any and self-willed young Emperor of thirty other general theory, there are thousands to continue running in the same leash (so of his most candid and intelligent countıyto speak) with an autocratic Chancellor of men who would be grateful for the exover seventy ?" An agreeable person, planation. says one of Lord Beaconstield's characters, With the accession of the young Emis a person who agrees with you ; and peror authority within the Empire had beBismarck, in the eyes of his new master, come divided and contested, as it had also had ceased to fulfil this definition of the come to be under Ferdinand and Wallenterm. The differences which soon sprang stein. The analogy is not perfect ; but up between thein were partly personal and there is a clear similarity of a certain kind partly political ; and for once in his life between the two cases, though it has curiBismarck found, to his great astonish- ously enough escaped the notice of Germent, that the world contained a man writers ; and Bismarck, too, accord

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