pressed, to put a chicken (so to speak) the Great Elector's ruling descendant, who into every poor man's pot, and to be, in burns with a high desire to walk in the the highest sense of the word, a true footsteps of his forefathers. Of these, Landesvater of his Vaterland.

the greatest were the vanquisher of the It is doubtful whether Frederick the Swedes, the victor of the Austrians in Great, with all his cultivated tastes and alliance with the half of Europe, and the his abhorrence of transparent adulation, conqueror of the French—the Great Elecwould have discovered much literary merit tor, Frederick the Great, and William the in Wildenbruch's dramatic attempt to imi- Victorious, These three figures form the tate the manner of Plutarch in drawing trinity of the new Emperor's historical historic parallels ; but we have it on the worship, the chief objects of his emulaauthority of the new Emperor himself tion ; and it may, therefore, be well to that the Great Elector, and not the Great consider how far the qualities which His King, is the exemplar of this preference Majesty has hitherto displayed give promin the annals of his own house ; and it ise of his filling up as large and luminous was, therefore, no wonder that last winter a page in the annals of his nation. he seized the 250th anniversary of Freder William II. bas only occupied the throne ick William's accession to the throne to for a little over three years, and it cannot celebrate the occasion with gorgeous mili- be said that during this period his charactary pomp, and to eulogize, in the most ter has been slow of development. Since glowing terms, the extraordinary virtues General Boulanger's beclouded star sank of bis favorite ancestor. Ancestor-wor- —seemingly forever-beneath the politiship is certainly a very marked note in the cal horizon, that of the young German Emperor's character ; nor does he ever Emperor has been the cynosure of all speak with grcater force and enthusiasm eyes. Society must have a saviour of some than when pointing a moral by reference kind ; and at present His Majesty is the to the deeds done by his predecessors. only candidate in the field for this honor, The jus imaginum is the private right in among the occupants of thrones at least. the exercise of which His Majesty takes It is, therefore, only natural that all eyes. most delight; and every statue or portrait should be bent upon him, and that his of his sires seems to apostrophize and in- claims-unmistakable enough, if unexspire him, in the words of Burns : pressed—to be regarded as the leading

Sovereign of his time should be closely “ Remember, sons, the deeds I've done,

scrutinized by the light of everything he And in your deeds I Il live again."

says and does. It might be argued that The Emperor has confessed that when hitherto his sayings, on the whole, have at school, in Cassel, his historical educa- rather preponderated over his doings, and tion, as far as his own country was con that he is thus incurring a very grave recerned, was shamefully neglected in favor sponsibility by flying so many drafts on of useless classical lore, and that at this the future. But it must be remembered period, consequently, the Great Elector that youth is the period of impetuosity, was to him a

very nebulous personage;" and, therefore, of privilege. Within the but he has by this time rectified with a brief period of his reign, the Emperor has vengeance all those errors of his upbring- certainly spoken a great deal-nearly as ing, and, moreover, taken care that none much, indeed, as his grandfather did durof his subjects shall henceforth labor un- ing all bis life-time ;—but then it must be der a similar disadvantage, directing that admitted that, though his speeches are in future the youth of Germany shall learn often very bold and startling, they are their world-history by a process the re never witless or absurd.

Bismarck once verse of that hitherto pursued—namely, said that, when first introduced among by working their studious way back from the dull old diplomatists at the Diet in Sedan and Gravelotte, via Rossbach, Frankfort, he acted among ther, with his Leuthen, and Fehrbellin, to Mantinea and unconventional and audacious ways, like Thermopylæ. Wildenbruch's portrait of so much cayenne pepper ; and a similar the “Neue Herr” soliloquizing on the effect has now been produced by the presduties and responsibilities of his sovereign ent Emperor in the circle of his fellowoffice, and registering pious vows in re- sovereigns, who still cling to the old tradigard to the future, was really copied from tions as to the nature and uses of a throne.


a skilful touch, and the pictures of contem- by the Jubilee Celebration Committee, in poraneous English society are excellent. Al whose proceedings the late Postmaster-Gen. together it is an English novel of the better eral took so active and kindly an interest. class and a clever though by no means a great Amid much that is merely formal and ephem. book. It fills one of the necessary conditions eral, the volume contains not a little matter of a good modern novel. The characters of permanent interest in connection with the seem to be drawn naturally and truthfully recent history of the Post-Office and its pres. from life ; and the impression is that of a ent organization, and these sources of interest genuine picture, without being hampered with are enhanced by the portraits and sketches the unnecessary details of the so-called real. with which it is illustrated. istic fiction. A GOOD BOY'S BOOK.

DR. FURNIVALL is spending his holidays at FOUR AND FIVE. A Story of a Lend-a-Hand Norwich and copying the earliest English

Club. By Edward E. Hale, author of "Ten wills, those of the Consistory Court, for a Times One is Ten, Mrs. Merriam's Schol.

volume in the Early English Text Society. “ How to Do It," " In His Name,”

He hoped to find many instances of dialect ars,"

and local trade and custom, but very few ocand other stories. Boston : Roberts Brothers. Mr. Hale's new story is a charming contribu. Somerset House, 1397, Norwich can show only

As against the earliest English will at tion to the pleasures of boys, and is of a piece

a short English proviso, in a Latin will of with those which have already made him so

1427, shifting the testator's estate from one well known to the young people of America. nephew to another, in case the first is not The lessons taught are of the most bracing and stimulating sort-lessons of courage, help- the word, and marie bym self bi the avys of

" of good gouernaunce and lycly persone to fulness, self-reliance, and self forgetfulness, the feoffees, the executors the forn seyd." but all set in a narrative of much interest, told

The first complete English will was made in with great raciness. A club of four boys, who 1429, that of Sir Andrew Botiller, knight, and Lad spent a summer camping in the Catskills,

after this others came slowly till 1464. The are joined by four others the next summer,

first two registers have no English wills. and they elect a quaint and delightful old Ind.

Surflete," the third register (1427–35), has ian half-breed woman, living in the mountains,

the proviso mentioned above, and five English the ninth member. Gradually, as the lads re

wills ; " Doke," the fourth register (1436-42), turn year after year to the camp for their sum

thirteen such wills ; “ Wylbey," the fifth regis. mer vacation, they bring others, till at last

ter (1444-48), only one Englisb will ; “ Aleyn, the club numbers forty. It is the doings and

the sixth register (1448–55), only four, though sayings of these lads, ranging from those al.

a Latin will of Robert Martham recites word most men to little boys, which, treated in Dr.

for word a marriage settlement of 22 Henry Hale's delightful manner, constitute the in. VI., made by the testator on the wedding of terest of the book. They hunt, fish, build

one of his two daughters. The seventh regis. bridges, reservoirs, and irrigating canals, tell

ter, “ Brosiard" (1454-64), contains eight stories, and do all sorts of things dear to the English wills, some of Norwich citizens, and hearts of healthy and hearty youngsters. It

among them one of John Goos, no doubt the is thoroughly a boy's book, charmingly writ.

ancestor of A. Goose, the publisher lately reten, and stimulating to all that is best in boy's tired who issued Mr. Walter Rye's “ Book of nature. Such books as these make a refresh

Nonsense." A pretty “qwethe-word" for ing contrast to the goody-goody artificialities

"devise or bequest' occurs in 1457 ; "be in. which were the current pabulum of lads a quarter of a century since. Dr. Hale's genius În 1452 John Bulston bequeathed to the

gate and outegate into ye gardine" in 1458. shines not less brightly in books of this kind Church of Hempstede “j pyxte, to patte owre than in the more pretentious works bearing lord god in ;” and there are several gifts of his name.

altarcloths, vestments, etc. For “shall' or " should,'

" " xal" and "xulde" occasionally FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES.

occur ; “qwceh'' is sometimes found for The unexpected death of Mr. Raikes lends “ which," and wh for qu: "ye whech xul be a melancholy interest to the acconnt of the seld to a-whytt (acquit, pay) my dettis” (1437). celebration of the jubilee of uniform inland A few words seem special to the Eastern coun. penny postage, which has jast been published ties : " iij cadys of heryng, and xx orgeys''

(1437), “ fyve Rasers barly" (1434). Gifts of We learn from German sources that the a combe of barly, etc., to the “plowlot" publication of a new Latin dictionary, at the (1435) were probably to the “plowlight.” expense of the Prussian state, is in contemA farindell of elys" (1435),“ xij last of trufys, plation. The work, which is designed to sur. ij Sahures and a dydale(1438) are puzzles at pass in magnitude and completeness all Latin present. When enough material is got to lexicons hitherto published, is to be carried gether for a volume, it will be edited by Mr. out under the direction of that distinguished Walter Rye and Dr. Furnivall.

classical scholar Professor Martin Hertz, of Miss AMELIA B. EDWARDS has, we are glad Breslau, with the assistance of a host of to learn, so far recovered her health as to be philologists, and will comprise not only clas. enabled to return to England after her length. sical, but also low and late Latin. The Acadened sojourn in Italy. Her new volume, en

emy of Sciences of Berlin is said to have aptitled Pharaohs, Fellabs, and Explorers," proved of the plan, the execution of which will be published in this country by Messrs.

will occupy full eighteen years and cost be. Osgood, McIlvaine & Co., and in America by tween 500,000 and 1,000,000 marks. Messrs. Harper Brothers early in November. The death is announced of M. J. Nerudo, THE Dumfries Standard describes a manu

the Czech journalist and poet, at the age of script volume, purchased at an auction sale, fifty-three. which contains some unpublished poems by With regard to the investigations contem. Buras. It is said to comprise “a very re plated by the India Office authorities among markable and most valuable collection." The the archives at Lisbon for documents and effusions are mostly of a satirical character,

records throwing light on the period of the some of them being couched in coarse lan. Portuguese ascendancy in India, “A Portuguage. The then Duke of Queensberry is guese” points out in a letter to The Times somewhat severely handled in some of the

that a very complete and interesting collecpoems.

tion of official documents has been published The expected edition of a Patrologia for some years at Lisbon, which embraces Syriaca," under the direction of the Abbé R. from the period of the conquest of India by Graffin, of the Catholic Institute, Paris, seems the Portuguese in 1498 until the end of the likely to become a reality. The first and sec eighteenth century, under the title “ Col. ond volumes of Aphrates's works will soon lecçao de Tratados e Concertos de pazes que leave the press.

They will contain the o Estado da India Portugueza fez com os Reis homilies, according to the lamented Dr. W. e Senhores com quem teve relações nas partes Wright's edition, but collated with all the da Asia e Africa Oriental," por J. F. Judice known mss. which furnish good variations. Biker, Lisbon. A Latin translation will be added by Dom J.

MESSRS, HENRY & Co, have in preparation a Parisot, of Solesmes. The size of the Syriac

new series, entitled “ The Victoria Library collection will be the same as that of Migno’s for Gentlewomen,” which will be written and “Patrology," and each volume will contain a

illustrated exclusively by gentlewomen. The vocabulary of special words used by the differ.

Queen has ordered two copies of each volume ent authors.

for the royal library, and the Princess of A FESTIVE gathering has been held at Mel.

Wales is also a subscriber. The first volume bourne of the Melbourne Booksellers and

of the series, which will be ready in SeptemStationers' Association, at which the trades ber, will be by Lady Violet Greville on “ The were largely represented, the chair being oc

Gentlewoman in Society," and she will be cupied by Mr. L. Hutchinson, the president followed by Dr. Kate Mitchell, who will write of the Association. Among the toasts given

on “ Hygiene for Gentlewomen." The claims were “Success to Literature” and “ Aus- of fiction will not be disregarded, arrangetralian Authors.”

ments having been made for new novels by, The museum of postage-stamps which has among others, Mrs. E. Lynn-Linton, Mrs. recently been opened at Vienna comprises Alexander, Miss M. Betham-Edwards, Miss more than 100,000 examples, arranged in Iza Duffus-Hardy, and the author of the “ An. three large rooms, and includes among its glo-Maniacs." Besides writing the first vol. greatest rarities the stamps made for and used ume, Lady Greville will also edit two volumes in the balloon and pigeon despatches of the devoted to “Gentlewomen's Sports," the Franco-German war of 1870-71.

contributors to which will comprise, among

others, the Marchioness of Bredalbane, Lady sonnet in a note-book of S. T. Coleridge Colin Campbell, and Miss Leale. Other vol. kindly lent to me by its present possessor, uines include The Home," by Mrs. Talbot his grandson, Mr. Ernest Hartley Coleridge. Coke,“ Culture for Gentlewomen," by Miss The verses are in the poet's handwriting, and Emily Faithfull, also works on painting, the composition is certainly his, for the us, music, gardening, etc.

has many corrections ; indeed, I have had no The monument to Christopher Marlowe,

little difficulty in piecing out the text as the first of the great dramatic line of English finally settled. The style, however, is so unpoets in priority of time, and only second in like that of any original composition known genius to Shakespeare, which was executed to be Coleridge's that I am much disposed to by Mr. E. Onslow Ford, A.R.A., was unveiled believe this sonnet to be a translation, probat Canterbury, on September 16th, by Mr. ably from the Italian or Spanish. If you will Henry Irving.

be good enough to print it, some reader of

the Athenceum may recognize the original." By arrangement with the American pub.

J, D, C. lishers, Messrs. Macmillan & Co. will issue in the course of the autumn an edition of Mr. Lady, to Death we're doom'd, our crime the

same! Lowell's poems complete in one volume, ani. Thou, that in me thou kindled'st such fierce form with their one volume editions of Tenny

Heat ; son, Wordsworth and Shelley. Mr. Thomas I, that my Heart did of a Sun so sweet Hughes will contribute an introduction to the 1, fascinated by an Adder's Eye

The Rays concentre to so hot a flame. volume, which should be welcome to many Deaf as an Adder thou to all my Pain ; admirers of the poet who have not cared to Thou obstinate in Scorn, in passion Iprovide themselves with the recently com

I lov'd too much, too much didst thou dis

dain, pleted library edition of his works.

Hear then our doom in Hell as just as stern, One of our English contemporaries, remark. Our sentence equal as our crimes conspireing upon the growing difficulty in finding Who living bask'd at Beauty's earthly Fire,

In living flames eternal there must burnnew subjects of interest for the exhibitions

Hell for us both fit places too suppliesthat are becoming an annual institution among In my Heart Thou wilt burn, I roast before us—now that fishermen inventors, health

thine eyes. conservators and restorers, Colonials, Americans, Spaniards, French, Italians, Danes, and Germans, together with our own army and

MISCELLANY. navy, have all had their innings-urges the MODERN WAR.-If, in their general char. claims of literature to have an exhibition in its

acter, the nature of battles and the circum. turn. It is pointed out, no doubt with con. stances under which battles have to be fought siderable truth, that the vast stores of the

change very materially, that in itself involves British Museum are practically closed to the a further change in the combinations which casual sight seer, “ Nor," it is naïvely added, are open for mancuvres in the field of which “would our national storehouses stand any the ultimate object is to lead up to battle. chance of rivalry with a vastly inferior show The size of the armies which will enter into that was accompanied by the more sensuous the next great campaign in Europe will be so delights of the exhibition à la mode." Of vastly different from those wbich fought out course such a scheme would include graphic the great wars of the past, that their mancuillustrations of the entire process of book and vring in campaigns must necessarily be very newspaper production, the details of typog.

different from anything that Napoleon underraphy, the entire processes of printing and took. Now, even during the later wars of binding, the manufacture of paper, with other

Napoleon, Jomini was obliged to admit that kindred and subsidiary industries. many of the experiences of the past must be writer of the article will, no doubt, have the

materially modified as armies increased in publisher and printer on his side ; if he can size. One of the most familiar forms in which show any benefit likely to result to the au.

Napoleon exercised his strategic skill lay in thor, he may perhaps secure Mr. Walter Be.

defeating with his own entire army a fraetion sant, and other literary champions, for his of the forces opposed to him, before it could scheme.

be reinforced by the remainder of the enemy. THE Athenæum prints the following com Thus the el of time essentially entered munication : "I have found the following into the question. Even during the great


campaign of 1813, when Napoleon, holding a frequently embody their whole conception of central position on the Elbe, endeavored to strategy in a phrase which to a reader, taking strike from thence against the masses of allies it in its simple form, is apt to seem like a formed in a great circle around him at Berlin, mere truism—that the great principle of in Silesia, and in Bohemia, experience showed strategy is to concentrate the largest possible that it was by no means easy to crush with force at the right moment at the decisive sufficient rapidity armies of 120,000 men 80 point. So stated, strategy may seem to have as to prevent them from being supported in nothing exceptional in its nature, and to in. time by others. As the allies gradually closed volve no study of the nature of the great orin on him, and the distances between their ganizations of men with which it is concerned. different forces diminished, this became con. But, in fact, this study and this knowledge tinually more and more apparent. In fact, it are presupposed by those who thus explain became clear, if it had been doubtful before- their art. It is because armies are not mere hand, that the question was altogether a mat- gatherings of armed men, but have a vitality ter of proportion between time, distance, and of their own, that some very heavy blows may the resisting-power of the several armies con- be struck against them without affecting & cerned. On the other hand, in 1814, when vital point, while a more skilfully directed the nature of the country invaded caused a stroke may destroy their whole future power reduction in the size of the armies moving of action. An army then, as it stands in the forward separately, Napoleon was able as of field, is of this character, that while the tightold to strike his blows right and left with tell. ing force directly opposed to the enemy is an ing effect. Now, if it were possible for an organism which depends for its vitality upon army of our day, supplied with all the imple- the trained spirit of order, discipline, and ments with which modern science has pro. enthusiasm or devotion which holds it to. vided it, to meet any army of equal numbers gether, and on the trained capacity for mutual equipped as Napoleon's armies were equipped, and effective fighting co-operation which the difference in power of the modern army makes it act like one man, it has also, reachwould be such that it would almost be able to ing far behind it, a long and weak tail, on the deal with its enemy as civilized armies pro. safety of which its very existence depends.vided with fire-arms were at first able to deal From “ War," by Colonel Maurice. with savages possessed only of bows and arrows. The artillery of the days of Napoleon TOBACCO FERMENTATION.--A very essential would not be able to act at all, for our modern process is brought about by firmly packing infantry can fire with effect at a distance ripe tobacco in large quantities. It had been greater than could Napoleon's big guns. Our generally supposed that the fermentation is artillery would be able to destroy Napoleon's of purely chemical nature, but Herr Suchsarmy before either his artillery or infantry land, of the German Botanical Society, finds could act against us. Thus an army of 50,000 that a fungus is concerned in it. In all the men of our own time must be reckoned as tobaccos he examined, he found large quanti. possessing, at least, the resisting power of ties of fungi, though of only two or three 100,000 of the days of Napoleon. It is obvi- species. Bacteriaceas were predominant, but ous, therefore, that the relationship between Coccaceæ also occurred. When they were time, distance, and the resisting power of taken and increased by pure cultivation, and armies has been greatly affected by the change added to other kinds of tobacco, they proin the character of weapons, and that calcu- duced changes of taste and smell which relations as to what a superior army can do in called those of their original nutritive base. a given time to break up the force of an army In cultivation of tobacco in Germany it has opposing it, and to be free to deal with an- been sought to get a good quality, chiefly by other army, are greatly modified.

ground cultivation, and introduction of the In modern war the effort of the general is best kinds of tobacco. But it is pointed out directed to maintaining in its full efficiency that failure of the best success may be due to “the vast and complicated machine' which the fact that the more active fermenting fungi he handles, and to breaking up and destroy- of the original country are not brought with ing the efficiency of that to which he is op- the seeds, and the ferments here cannot give posed. This is the central fact to be kept in such good results. Experiments made with a mind. Generals and soldiers, long accus view to improvemerit on the lines suggested tomed to look at war from this point of view, have apparently proved successful. - Nature.

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