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garian Atrocities." It is no exaggeration The hardships he blithely endured when indeed to aver that, for better or worse, men were frozen around him in their MacGahan was the virtual author of the wretched bivouacs among the snow, and Russo-Turkish war. His pen-pictures of when to write his letters he had to thaw the atrocities so excited the fury of the his frozen ink and chafe sensation into his Sclave population of Russia, that their numbed fingers, move admiration not less passionate demand for retribution on the than the brilliant quality of the work per
unspeakable Turk” compelled the Em- formed under conditions so arduous. peror Alexander to undertake the war. Lieutenant Greene, in his work on the MacGahan's work throughout the long campaign, which constitutes its history, campaign was singularly effective, and his remarks that of the seventy-five correphysical exertions quite stupendous, yet spondents who began the campaign, only he was suffering all through from a lame. three, and those all Americans–MacGahan ness that would have disabled altogether and Millet of the Daily News and Grant eleven out of twelve men. He had broken of the Times—followed its fortunes to the a bone in his ankle just before the declara- close. But this is not strictly correct; tion of war, and when I met him first the one other member of our profession-for joint was encased in plaster of Paris. He that profession surely includes the warinsisted on accompanying Gourko's raid artist-saw the war from beginning to across the Balkans ; and in the Hankioj end, Frederic Villiers, the artist and corPass his horse slid over a precipice and respondent of the Graphic. fell on its rider, so that the half-set bone The first serious fighting in the camwas broken again. But the indomitable paign occurred on that June morning when MacGahan refused to be invalided by this General Dragomiroff's division of the Rusmisfortune. He quietly had himself sian army forced the passage of the Danube hoisted on to a tumbril, and so went under the fire of the Turkish batteries through the whole adventurous expedition, about Sistova. Of that crossing it hapbeing involved thus helpless in several ac- pened that I was the only correspondent tions, and once all but falling into the who was a spectator. hands of the Turks. He kept the front It was about midnight when we threaded throughout, long after I had gone home our way through the chaos in the streets disabled by fever ; he chronicled the fall of Simnitza, and at length made our way of Plevna'; he crossed the Balkans with down into the willow grove on the Danube Skobeleff in the dead of the terrible win- side, where Yolchine's brigade was wait. ter; and finally, at the premature age of ing until the pontoon boats should be thirty-two, he died, characteristically, a ready for its embarkation. It was a martyr to duty and to friendship. When strange, weird time. The darkness was the Russian armies lay around Constanti- so dense that nothing could be seen pople waiting for the arrangement of the around one ; and the Turkish bank was treaty of Berlin, typhoid fever and camp only just to be discerned, looming black pestilences were slaying their thousands and dark up against the hardly less dark and their tens of thousands. Lieutenant and sullen sky. Stumbling forward, Greene, an American officer attached to through mud and over roots, I struck the Russian army, fell sick, and MacGahan against something like a wall, yet the devoted himself to the service of nursing wall was soft and warm. It was a column his countryman. His devotion cost him of soldiers, silent and motionless till the his life. As Greene was recovering, Mac- time should come to move. Not a light Gahan sickened of malignant typhus ; and was permitted—not even a cigarette was a few days later they laid him in his far-off allowed to be smoked. When men spoke foreign grave, around which stood weep- at all it was in whispers, and there was ing mourners of a dozen nationalities. only a soft hum of low talk, half drowned
Another colleague was Mr. Frank Mil- by the gurgle of the Danube, and broken let, who, still young, has forsaken the occasionally by the splash caused by the war-path, and appears to be on the high launching of a pontoon boat. The gray road to the inferior position of a Royal dawn faintly began to break. I could Academician. Millet, like MacGahan, is dimly discern Dragomiroff, mud almost an American. He accompanied Gourko to the waist, directing the marshalling of across the Balkans after the fall of Plevna. the pontoon boats, close to the water's
edge. Here come the “ Avengers," a getic gestures, to lie down. We fall stern, silent band, the cross in silver prone in the thick glutinous slime, under standing out from the sombre fur of their the cover of a little bank. Already dead caps. They have the place of honor in and wounded men lie here thick among the first boat. As it is pulling off, Lieg- the living. Boat after boat disembarks nitz, the gallant German attaché, darts for- its freight. At length Yolchine thinks he ward and leaps on board. The stalwart has men enough: He who, with young linesmen of Yolehine's brigade are man- Skobeleff, has never lain down, gives the ning the other boats. The strong strokes word, and the two spring up the ascent ; of the sailors shoot us into the stream, a billow of strong supple Russian soldiers, The gloom of the night is waning fast, released from restraint, surges with resistand now we can faintly discern, across the less rush up the steep bank. The detachbroad swirl of water, the crags of the ment of Turkish militiamen holding the Turkish bank and the steep slope above. post are overwhelmed, but they do not What if the Turks are there in force? A run. No; they die where they stand, grim precipice that, truly, to carry at the neither quailing nor asking for quarter. bayonet point, in the teeth of a determined For that brave band of Mustaphis, Abdul enemy! And an enemy is there, sure Kerim Pasha unconsciously furnished a enough, and on the alert. There is a noble epitaph. “ They have never been flash out of the gloom, and the near whis. heard of since," he wrote. No, nor will tle and scream of a shell thrills us, as it they, till the last trumpet sounds ! speeds over us and bursts among the men The day after the passage of the Danube in the willows behind us. There follows had been made good, the Emperor crossed shell after shell, from due opposite, from the river to congratulate and thank his higher up, and from the knoll still higher gallant soldiers. In front of the long, up, close to which the minarets of Sistova massive line formed on the slope below are now dimly visible. The shells are Sistova awaiting the coming of the Great falling and bursting on the surface of the White Czar, stood Dragomiroff, Yolchine, Danube ; they splash us with the spray and Skobeleff, the three generals who had they raise ; their jagged splinters fly yell- been the leaders of the successful attempt. ing by us. There is no shelter ; we must Dragomiroff, the divisional commander, stand here in the open boat, this densely the Emperor embraced, and gave him the packed mass of men, and take what for- Cross of St. George ; he shook hands tune Heaven may send us. The face of warmly with Yolchine, the brigade comthe Danube, pitted with falling shells, is mander, and gave him, too, a St. George flecked, too, with craft crowded to the to add to the decorations which this cheery gunwale. Hark to that crash, the splin- little warrior had been gathering from tering of wood, and the riving of iron, boyhood in the Caucasus and Central there on our starboard quarter ! A huge Asia. Then the Emperor strode to where pontoon, laden with guns and gunners, Skobeleff stood, and men watched the lithas been struck by a shell. It heaves tle scene with intent interest ; for it was heavily twice ; its stern rises ; there are notorious that Skobeleff was in disfavor wild cries—a confused turmoil of men and with his Sovereign, and yet of him the horses struggling in the water ; the guns camps were ringing with the story of his sink, and drowning men drift by us with conduct on the previous morning. Would the current down to their death. From Alexander maintain his umbrage, or would out the foliage, now, in the little cove for he make it manifest that it had been diswhich we are heading, belches forth vol- pelled by Skobeleff's heroism ? For at ley after volley of musketry fire, helping least a minute the Czar hesitated, as the the devilry of the shells. Several men of two tall
, proud, soldierly men confronted our company are down ere our craft each other : you could trace in his countouches the 'mud of the Danube shore. tenance the struggle between disapproval The “ Avengers” are already landed : so and appreciation. It was soon over-and is Yolchine, with a handful of his lines- the wrong way for Skobeleff. The Emmen. As we tumble out of the boats peror frowned, turned short on his heel, with the bullets whizzing about our heads, and strode abruptly away, without a word and swarm up on to the bank, we are bid- or a gesture of greeting or recognition. den, by energetic orders and not less ener- A man of strong prejudices, he was not
that fragment of the true cross which was that were showing in dense 'black masses given by Pope Leo the Third to Charle- all around. This point attained, the magne on his coronation, and which dy. whole force then halted. Already there nasty after dynasty of French monarchs had been ringing out around the moving have since worn as a talisman.
square the rattle of the musketry fire of Very sad and solemn was the scene as Buller's horsemen as they faced and stung we stood around, silent all, and with bared the ingathering impis. heads, looking down on the untimely The time had come. Buller's men, dead. An officer detached the necklet, having done their work, galloped back and placed it in an envelope, with several into the shelter of the square till their locks of the Prince's short dark hair, for time should come again. And lo! as transmission to his poor mother, who a they cleared the front, a living, concentric year later made so sad a pilgrimage to the wave of Zulus was disclosed. On the spot where we then stood over her dead slope toward Nodwengo the shells were son. Then the body, wrapped in a blan- crasbing into the black masses that were ket, was placed on lance-shafts, and on this rushing forward to the encounter. Into extemporized bier it was borne by officers the hordes in front the Gatlings, with up the slope to the ambulance that was in their measured volleys, were raining pitiwaiting. It was a miserable ending, less showers of death. Le Grice and truly, for him who had once been the Son Harness were pouring shell into the thickof France ! It was strange that it should ets of black forms showing on the left and have happened to me to have stood by the rear. But those Zulus could die—ay, first gun fired by the Germans from the they could dare and die with a valor and heights of Saarbrück on that August devotion unsurpassed by the soldiery of morning of 1870 when the Prince Imperial any age and of any nationality. They received what his father grandiloquently went down in numbers, but numbers stood styled the boy's " baptism of fire," and up and sped swiftly and steadily on. The to stand thus by the corpse of him un- sharper din of the musketry fire filled the timely slain in the obscure corner of a re intervals between the hoarse roar of the mote continent. I had seen the Emperor cannon and the scream of the speeding his father at the pinnacle of his Imperial shells. Still the Zulus would not stay the power ; I saw him in the hour of his bit- whirlwind of their converging attack. ter humiliation after the defeat of Sedan; They fired and rushed on, halting to fire, I saw him lying dead in the corridor of and then rushing on again. There were Camden Place, and witnessed his coffin those who had feared lest the sudden conlaid down in the little chapel under the front with the fierce Zulu rush should try elms of Chislehurst. And now I had the nerves of our beardless lads ; but the lived to see his only son lying dead in a British soldier was true to his inanly tradigrassy hollow of Zululand, pierced to tions when he found himself in the open, death by assegai stabs. It has been my and saw his enemy face to face in the lot to gaze on many dead who have died daylight. For half an hour the square of wounds at the hands of an enemy; stood grim and purposeful, doggedly but never have I stood by death with pro- pouring the sleet of death from erery founder emotion than when I looked down face. There was scarce any sound of huthat mournful morning on the corpse of man speech, save the quiet injunctions of the last heir of a splendid name.
the officers—"Fire low, men ; get your After many delays the day at length ain; no wildness!" The Zulus could came when, as our little army camped on not get to close quarters simply because the White Umfaloosi, there lay on the of the sheer weight of our fire. The canbosom of the wide plain over against us ister tore through them like a harrow the great circular kraal of Ulandi, King through weeds; the rockets ravaged their Cetewayo's capital. After two days' fu- zigzag path through the masses. One tile delay, on the third morning the force rush came within a few yards, but it was crossed the river and moved forward their last effort. Their noble ardor could across the plain, preserving on its march not endure in the face of the appliances of the formation of a great square, until a civilized warfare. They began to waver. suitable spot was reached whereon to halt The time for the cavalry bad at length and accept the assault of the Zulu hordes come. Lord Chelmsford caught the mo
mcnt. Drury Lowe was sitting on his against the blaze of the fires in the decharger watching with ears and eyes intent stroyed kraals to right and left of my for the word. It came tersely, “Off track, and their shouts came to me on the with you !" The infantrymen made a still night air. At length I altogether lost gap for the Lancers, and gave them, too, my way, and there was no resource but to a cheer as they galloped out into the open halt till the moon should rise and show -knees well into saddles, right hands with me my whereabouts. The longest twenty a firm grip of the lances down at the en minutes I ever spent in my
life was while gage. Drury Lowe collected his chest- sitting on my trembling horse in a little nut into a canter, and, glancing over his open glade of the bush, my hand on the shoulder, gave the commands—“At a butt of my revolver, waiting for the moon's gallop ; front form troops !” and then, rays to flash down into the hollow. At * Front forin line !"? You may swear length they came. I discerned the right there was no dallying over those evolu- direction, and in half an hour inore I was tions ; just one pull to make good the co- inside the reserve camp of Etonganeni, hesion, and then, with an eager quiver in and telling the news to a circle of eager the voice, “Now for it, my lads ! listeners. The great danger was past ; it Charge !” The Zulus strove to gain the was a comparatively remote chance that rough ground, but the Lancers were upon I should meet with molestation during the them and among them before they could rest of the journey, although Lieutenant clear the long grass of the plain. It did Scott-Elliott and Corporal Cotter were cut one good to see the glorious old “white up on the same road the same night. The weapon” reassert once again its pristine exertion was prolonged and arduous, but prestige.
the recompense was adequate. I had tbe Lord Chelmsford on the evening of the good fortune to be thanked for the tidbattle announced that he did not intend ings I brought by the General Commandto despatch a courier - until the following ing-in-Chief and by the Governor of South morning with the intelligence of that vic- Africa ; and it was something for a corretory, which was conclusive and virtually spondent to be proud of that it was his terminated the war. So I hardened my narrative of the combat and of the victory heart and determined to go myself, and which Her Majesty's Ministers read to that at once. The distance to Lands- both Houses of Parliament as the only inmann's Drift, where was the nearest tele- telligence that had been received up to graph office, was about 100 miles, and the date. route lay through a hostile region, with It may perhaps have occurred to some no road save that made on the grass by among those who have done me the honor our wagon wheels as the column had to read this and a previous article under
It was necessary to skirt the same heading that the profession of the sites of recently burned Zulu kraals, war correspondent is a somewhat wearing the dwellers in which were likely to have one, calculated to make a man old before returned. The dispersal of the Zula army his time, and not to be pursued with any by the defeat of the morning made it all satisfaction or credit by any one who is but certain that stragglers would be prowl- not in the full heyday of physical and ing in the bush through which lay the first mental vigor. My personal experience is part of my ride. Young Lysons offered that ten years of toil, exposure, hardship, to bit me even that I would not get anxiety, and brain-strain, such as the electhrough, and, when I accepted, genially tric fashion of war correspondence now insisted that I should put the money down, exacts, suffices to impair the toughest orsince he did not expect to see me alive ganization. But given health and strength, again. It was dreadfully gruesome work, it used to be an avocation of singular fasthat first long stretch through the sullen cination. I do not know whether this atgloom of the early night, as I groped my tribute in its fulness remains with it under way through the rugged bush trying to the limitations on freedom of action which keep the trail of the wagon-wheels. I now are in force. —Nineteenth Century. could see the dark figures of Zulus Cup
DIAMOND-DIGGING IN SOUTH AFRICA.
BY LIEUTENANT-COLONEL KNOLLYS, R. A.
“ COME, Mr. Joseph, do let us settle a gigantic, apparently almost bottomless this little matter. Write us a check for pit, compared with which the crater of £26,400 for this parcel of diamonds, and Vesuvius would be puny, and which marks let us have done with it." But the dia- the earlier scenes of open ground labor. mond-broker retorts that the sum deinand- In course of time buge masses of earth beed is a trifle of £400 above its fair price ; gan to slip down from the sides, entailing that he has recently been losing money by such peril, and—far more important to his “parcels ;” and when 1 departed he the eager owners-such a clogging of was still carrying on, with the agent of work, that the original process was abanthe De Beers Company, the sarcastic bick- doned in favor of sinking shafts and subering which is the very salt of that deteri- terraneous mining. Equipped in miner's orating avocation, material buying and slops, supplied with a bare candle, and selling. The subject in dispute consisted chaperoned by one of the superintendents, of about thirty little beaps of insignificant- I am shot down an ordinary incline to a looking white stones, rather more dull depth of 700 feet below the surface, than dirty bits of bottle-glass, practically whence we further descend another 90 of no intrinsic utility, but possessing the feet by means of slippery perpendicular attribute of exciting human vanity to such ladders, leading down piercings just large a pitch, that in order to grub for them a enough to admit the body. Here we host of able business men have exchanged reach a widened level at the very heart of English civilization for South African pri. the diamond-bearing earth, which is hot, vation ; have embarked enormous sums, stifling, and intensely dark. Long low erected wondrous machinery, and taken tunnels radiate through a scene of which into employment several thousands of hu- the principal features are rushing trucks, man beings.* I purpose describing in flickering lights, and shouting workmen, detail the various stages of digging for, common to all large mining operations, sifting, sorting, selling—and I may add, and calling for no special description. stealing—these stones, as illustrated by Only by degrees do I notice characteristhe “ De Beers,”' the principal mine in tics of detail so strange as to cause these Kimberley
mines to differ from all others. HunAlthough there is no secret whatever in dreds of Kaffirs are plying pick and shovel, any part of the operations, it is obvious wheeling barrows, and tilting trucks, with that the most stringent precautions are a might-and-main earnestness rare among necessary to prevent the easy theft of such natives. Although they differ greatly in multum" in parvo treasures as precious size and shades of darkness, owing to the stones ; and therefore it is reasonably re- variety of tribes gathered together from quired that all visitors shall be provided far-apart districts of South Africa, they with a permit to inspect the works. The are, on the whole, of fine physical develdiamondiferous area is enclosed and opment, with smooth lustrous skins and screened by means of high barbed wire- tense brawny muscles, and sweltering profencing and lofty corrugated-iron hoard- fusely under their tremendous exertions. ing, as skilfully disposed as one of Vau- Scantiness of clothing was to be anticiban's fortresses ; and is further safeguard- pated ; but in no part of the world, not ed externally at night by numerous armed even in Japan, have I seen a multitude of patrols, and by powerful electric lights human beings so perfectly nude, and at casting a glare on every spot otherwise the same time so perfectly unabashed as favorable to intending marauders. After to be suggestive of the unconsciousness of having been somewhat carefully scruti- the very beasts of the field. They work nized, I am admitted through a narrow in shifts of twelve hours' duration, Sangateway, and find myself confronted with day being a general rest day, and each
native receives about 5s. a-day-an enor* The Kimberley mines find work for 1500 mous sum for these aborigines, which gives white men and 12,000 natives,
rise to a keen competition for employ.