yearly average of 4,020 attendants, showed moderation observed in food and drink, the number of deaths during the period all tend to the preservation of health. mentioned to be 2,099. of these 1,320 They live in peace, free from the irreguwere caused by tuberculosis. In the larities of outside life, and their contentState, as a whole, the proportion of deaths ment and circumstances generally are calfrom this malady to the total number of culated rather to prolong their days than deaths is known to be very high, reaching to shorten them. from one-fifth to one-seventh of the whole. Cornet is very warm in his recognition In the hospitals this proportion was enor- of the devotion of these Catholic nurses, mously increased. It rose on the average two-thirds of whom are sacrificed in the to almost two-thirds, or close upon 63 per service which they render to suffering hucent. of the total number of deaths. In manity. And they are sacrificed for the nearly half the hospitals even this high most part in the blossom of their years ; proportion was surpassed, the deaths in for it is the younger nurses, engaged in these amounting to three-fourths of the the work of sweeping and dusting, whose whole. Scarcely any other occupation, occupation charges the air they breathe however injurious to health, shows a mor- with virulent bacilli. The statistics of tality equal to that found in these hospi. their mortality Cornet regards as a monu· tals.

mental record of their lofty self-denial, The following statistics furnish a picture their noble, beneficent, and modest fidelof the state of things prevalent during the ity to what they regard as the religious five-and-twenty years referred to. A duty of their lives. healthy girl of 17, devoting herself to But, he asks, is it necessary that this hospital nursing, dies on the average 217 sacrifice should continue ? His answer is years sooner than a girl of the same age an emphatic negative, to establish which moving among the general population. he again sums up the results which we A hospital nurse of the age of 25 has the have learned from his first memoir :-It same expectation of life as a person of the is universally recognized that tuberculosis age of 58 in the general community. The is caused by tubercle bacilli, which reach age of 33 years in the hospital is of the the lungs through the inhalation of air in same value as the age of 62 in common which the bacilli are diffused. They come life. The difference between life-value in almost exclusively from the dried sputum the hospital and life-value in the State in- of consumptive persons.

The moist creases from the age of 17 to the age of sputum, as also the expired breath of the 24 ; nurses of this latter age dying 22 consumptive patient is, for this mode of years sooner than girls of the same age in infection, without danger. If we can prethe outside population. The difference vent the drying of the expectorated matafterward becomes less. In the fifties it ter, we prevent in the same degree the amounts to only six or seven years, while possibility of infection. It is not, howlater on it vanishes altogether. The rea- ever, sufficient to place a spittoon at the son of this is that the older nurses are disposal of the patient. The strictest surgradually withdrawn from the heavier veillance must be exercised by both physiduties of their position and the attendant cians and attendants, to enforce the proper danger of infection.

nise of the spittoon, and to prevent the In these hospitals deaths from typhus reckless disposal of the infective phlegm. and other infectious disorders exhibit a Spitting on the floor or into pocket-handfrequency far beyond the normal ; l'ut the kerchiefs is the main source of peril. To enormous total augmentation is mainly to this must be added the soiling of the bedbe ascribed to the frequency of deaths clothes and the wiping of the patient's from tuberculosis. The excess of mor- mouth. The handkerchiefs used for this tality is to be referred to the vocation of purpose must be handled with care, and nursing, and the chances of infection in- boiled without delay. Various other volved in it. Curnet examines other as- sources of danger, kissing among them, sumptions that inight be made to account will occur to the physician. A phthisical for the mortality, and gives cogent reasons mother, by kissing her healthy child, may for dismissing them all. The tranquil seal its doom. Notices, impressing on lives led by the nurses, the freedom froin the patients the danger of not attending all anxiety in regard to subsistence, the to the precautions laid down in the hospi

tal, ought to be posted up in every sick- which, I am rejoiced to learn, has, after room, while all wilful infringement of the due consideration, been licensed by the rules ought to be sternly punished. Thus President of the Board of Trade. Whatmay the terrible mortality of hospital ever my illustrious friend, the late Mr. nurses be diminished, if not abolished ; Carlyle, may have said to the contrary, the wards where they are occupied being the English public, in its relation to the. rendered as salubrious as those surgical question now before us, are not mostly wards in which no bacilli could be found. fools ;” and if scientific men only exhibit

the courage and industry of their oppoReflecting on the two investigations nents, they will make clear to that public which I have here endeavored to bring the beneficence of their aims, and the before the readers of The Fortnightly Re- fatal delusions to which a narrow and perview, the question—" What, under the verted view of a great question has com. circumstances, is the duty of the English mitted the anti-vivisectionist. — Fortnightpublic and the English Government ?" ly Review. forces itself upon the attention. Will the former suffer themselves to be deluded, [While correcting the proof-sheets of and the latter frightened, by a number of this article, the Times of August 11th loud-tongued sentimentalists, who, in view reached my hands. Its leader on the of the researches they oppose, and the Congress of Hygiene and Demography fatal effects of their opposition, might be contains the following words, to which I fairly described as a crew of well-meaning heartily subscribe : The most pressing homicides. The only way of combating work of sanitary reformers is not now so this terrible scourge of tuberculosis and, much to legislate as to educate ; to make indeed, all other infectious diseases, is ex- the mass of the people, in some degree, perimental investigation ; and the most participators in the knowledge of the effectual mode of furthering such investi- causes of disease which is possessed by men gation, in England, is the establishment of of science."'] the “ Institute of Preventive Medicine,”



There are two phrases that are often spoken, whether the terms, “a man's used in common speech, but which for man” or“ a woman's woman,”'

are intend. some reason or other have rarely found ed to be complimentary or not; the only their way into print ; possibly because general rule that can be laid down with reevery one who uses or hears them attaches gard to them is, that they have a totally an understanding to them of his own, and different significance in the mouth of the in the case of different persons that under- different sexes, and that when a man instanding is not always identical. What tends a compliment, a woman intends the do people mean exactly when they speak reverse. There is no doubt whatever

a man's woman'' or“ a lady's man''? about the sense in which one of these exIn nearly every case, the words are ap- pressions is used in an article that has just parently intended to be slighting, and the appeared in the pages of an American pub. expressions may be taken more or less as lication, Literary Life, which has suggestterms of reproach ; and yet there is noth- ed to us the present inquiry. Miss Cleveing in the words themselves that reflect land, a sister of the late President, in writany particular discredit upon the persons ing an account of another well-known of whom they are spoken, and very often American lady, Mrs. Frank Leslie, deit is with an air of humility that members scribes her as being “ that most gracious of either sex disclaim any right to the pos- and attractive of all human beings, -a session of the titles. With regard, too, woman's woman." Now, that is, we beto the converse of these expressions, there lieve, the sense in which every woman seems to be even more confusion of mean- would read the words-indeed. we too ing, and it is impossible to be sure, with- would willingly confess that a woman who out knowing of whom the words are finds favor in the sight of other women NEW SERIES.-VOL, LIV., No. 4,




must of necessity be somewhat above the and very naturally, because in a woman average of womankind-why, then, do the same offence is hardly a failing ; but they apply the expression, a man's it does not follow, because a woman is man,” only to those of the other sex who merciful to a man who shows a want of are the least gracious and attractive of courage, that she prefers cowardice in the human beings, and the most uncouth of other sex, any more than it follows tha: their kind ? And why is it that they are because a man is most willing to excuse a so sure that the qualities that recommend certain recklessness of demeanor and free. themselves to a woman can never recom- doin of speech—which, after all, are but mend themselves to a man, and that a faint shadows of his own—he does not woman's woman and a man's woman can prefer ways that are more modest and never be found in the same person? As guarded. The apparent divergence of a matter of fact, the expressions, wherever opinion on this subject arises, not from and however they may be used, will near- the fact that the two sexes admire different ly always be found to be based upon the qualities, but that they do not attach the contempt that one sex has for the judg- same amount of blame to the want of those ment and powers of discrimination of the qualities ; and the misunderstanding which other, when the character of one of them- results is almost entirely upon the woman's selves is in question. When one side. With a woman, condonation always speaks of another as being a ladies' man, means approval. Any man wbo ventures he means to imply that he is a poor crea- to condone, or find excuses for, what seems ture, deficient in both body and spirit, to her to be unseemly, must of necessity, who is better fitted to adorn a lady's draw- in her eyes, not only approve it but ading-room than to fight in the rough battle mire it. She never applies the same rule of life. When, on the other hand, a to herself. And why? Because she says woman says of another woman that she that she is a woman, and ought not to be “ gets on very well with gentlemen,” or expected to be logical. A man, apparentthat she is the kind of girl that men ad- ly, is expected not only to be logical, but mire, she means that she is a flaunting, to be capable of no half-way feelings. flirting young person whose manners are is for this reason that the expression, " a as free as her speech. It is merely the woman's woman,” as it is used by Miss way in which one sex is accustomed to Cleveland, rankles in the manly breast. libel the other ; and yet, just as there is In calling Mrs. Leslie by that name, she hardly any libel that does not contain some intended not only to give the highest measure of truth, and the greater the praise that was possible to her subject, measure of truth the more cruel the libel, but also to deal a back-banded blow at so there is a certain amount of reason in the other sex. “ This is a woman,” she this mutual accusation, and it is only when seems to say,

of such rare excellence the reason is apparently just that the ac- as only another woman can appreciate, cusation is resented.

a woman's woman, not such as men adWe honestly believe that, as a general mire, whose eyes are proverbially blind rule, the qualities that stand highest in a to what is really beautiful, but such a woman's estimation of her own sex, are woman as we ourselves know to be best those that also stand highest in a man's and most desirable,-in fact, the most estimation, and vice versâ ; that no wom- gracious and attractive of all human an, for instance, can have more regard for beings.' Why should Miss Cleveland, modesty and tenderness than a man has, or any other woman, assume this dulness and that no man puts a higher value upon and shortsightedness on the part of men, courage and honesty than a woman does. or suppose that they cannot be attracted And yet, although both sexes seem thor- by real grace? Is not the supposition a oughly agreed as to what is desirable in little unfair upon the part of the fair sex ? the other, they still continue to show a In common justice to the male sex, we curious perversity, not in admiring, but in would ask if any one has ever heard a man excusing and condoning the want of what use the expression, “a man's man," in is desirable, even the actual existence of the same invidious sense, or, indeed, bas what is undesirable. The failing which in ever heard a man make use of that expresa man's eyes is the unpardonable sin, ission at all? That, too, is a woman's one which a woman most readily forgives, phrase, and means generally something the reverse of complimentary,—an unconth to answer for. The persistent way in being, savage, and devoid of gentle merits. which they have decried man's judgment, We have already admitted that the term, and misrepresented his feelings, is enough

a lady's man,” is used by men to de- by itself to have demoralized their readnote something that does not seem to them ers’ ideas. No great novelist of the other to be altogether admirable ; but we hun- sex has ever ventured to make his heroine bly submit that no man would ever have anything but most womanly. Perhaps the

arrogance to suppose that woman is in- “ Diana of the Crossways" may be cited capable of appreciating his highest quali- as a woman who, in woman's parlance, ties, however much he may be perplexed “got on very well with gentlemen,” and to account for the toleration which she dis- who did not get on very well with her own plays toward qualities which he considers sex ; but Mr. George Meredith has been detestable. However, inasmuch as wom- careful to endow Diana with graces and ankind is most to blame in bringing about failings that make her the most feminine this misapprehension of man's ideal of of women, and prove that either result feminine graces, so upon their heads have was rather her misfortune than her fault. fallen the deplorable consequence. Proba- We cannot honestly say that we should bly there is hardly one man in a hundred have fallen in love with Amelia Sedley, who bas such a mistaken idea of what a whose womanly virtues have been rather woman likes and dislikes, that he would caricatured in Thackeray's hands, but at deliberately try to ingratiate himself with least we should have preferred her to her by pretending to qualities that are Becky Sharp, who was the very opposite more proper to her sex than to his. There to what Miss Cleveland and others term a are many men, it is true, who incur the

woman's woman. It is necessary in the reproach of effeminacy, and whose lack of commerce between men and women, that manliness succeeds in procuring them that one side should attempt to meet the other pity which is but one step toward the half-way ; but if the meeting is impracaffection of womankind ; but the rôle that ticable at that distance, it is better that it they play is not the outcome of premedi- should never take place at all. The man tation, but the unfortunate result of their or the woman who crosses that mark, who own temperament. On the other hand, goes a greater distance to meet a member there are very many women who, victims of the other sex upon their own ground, to their own fond imaginings, deliberately only suffers a loss of dignity, and justly discard their most womanly characteristics incurs the reproach that is contained in for the purpose of seeking man's favor, the contemptuous phrases which we have and really believe that by assuining a man- quoted. For if Miss Cleveland, and other nish swagger and—want of delicacy, we ladies who write, would only believe it, will say—they more easily commend them- we would respectfully assure them that it selves to his good graces. They may per- is not by man's wish or invitation that haps attract the attention and favor of cer

cross the line. They really are tain men of the baser sort ; but we will do most to blame for keeping alive a delusion them the charity to believe that it is not which is perfectly unfounded, and which the baser sort that they wish to attract. cruelly misrepresents the humbler sex.

Really, some lady-novelists have much Spectator.



[blocks in formation]

My most prominent colleague in the that wonderful lonely ride through the Russo-Turkish war was Mr. Januarius Great Desert of Central Asia, to overtake Aloysius MacGahan, by extraction an Irish- Kaufmann's Russian army on its march to man, by birth an American. Of all the Khiva. Be it was who stirred Europe to men who have earned reputation in this its inmost heart by the terrible, and not profession of ours, I regard MacGahan as less truthful than terrible, pictures of what ihe most brilliant. He was the hero of have passed into history as the “ Bul


garian Atrocities." It is no exaggeration The hardships he blithely endured when indeed to aver that, for better or worse, were frozen around him in their MacGahan was the virtual author of the wretched bivouacs among the snow, and Russo-Turkish war. His pen-pictures of when to write his letters he had to thaw the atrocities so excited the fury of the his frozen ink and chafe sensation into bis Sclave population of Russia, that their numbed fingers, move admiration not less passionate demand for retribution on the than the brilliant quality of the work per

unspeakable Turk” compelled the Em- formed under conditions so arduous. peror Alexander to undertake the war. Lieutenant Greene, in his work on the MacGahan's work throughout the long campaign, which constitutes its history, campaign was singularly effective, and his remarks that of the seventy-five correphysical exertions quite stupendous, yet spondents who began the campaign, only he was suffering all through from a lame- three, and those all Americans-MacGahan ness tbat would have disabled altogether and Millet of the Daily News and Grant eleven out of twelve men. He had broken of the Times followed its fortunes to the a bone in his ankle just before the declara- close. But tbis is not strictly correct; tion of war, and when I met him first the one other member of our profession—for joint was encased in plaster of Paris. He that profession surely includes the warinsisted on accompanying Gourko's raid artist-saw the war from beginning to across the Balkans ; and in the Hankioj end, Frederic Villiers, the artist and corPass his horse slid over a precipice and respondent of the Graphic. fell on its rider, so that the half-set bone The first serious fighting in the camwas broken again. But the indomitable paign occurred on that June morning when MacGaban refused to be invalided by this General Dragomiroff's division of the Rusmisfortune. He quietly bad bimself sian army forced the passage of the Danube hoisted on to a tumbril, and so went under the fire of the Turkish batteries through the whole adventurous expedition, about Sistova. Of that crossing it hapbeing involved thus helpless in several ac- 'pened that I was the only correspondent tions, and once all but falling into the who was a spectator. hands of the Turks. He kept the front It was about midnight when we threaded throughout, long after I had gone home our way through the chaos in the streets disabled by fever ; he chronicled the fall of Simnitza, and at length made our way of Plevna ; he crossed the Balkans with down into the willow grove on the Danube Skobeleff in the dead of the terrible win- side, where Yolchine's brigade was wait. ter; and finally, at the premature age of ing until the pontoon boats should be thirty-two, he died, characteristically, a ready for its embarkation. It martyr to duty and to friendship. When strange, weird time. The darkness was the Russian armies lay around Constanti- so dense that nothing could be seen nople waiting for the arrangement of the around one ; and the Turkish bank was treaty of Berlin, typhoid fever and camp only just to be discerned, looming black pestilences were slaying their thousands and dark up against the hardly less dark and their tens of thousands. Lieutenant and sullen sky. Stumbling forward, Greene, an American officer attached to through mud and over roots, I struck the Russian army, fell sick, and MacGahan against sometbing like a wall, yet the devoted himself to the service of nursing wall was soft and warm. It was a column his countryman. His devotion cost him of soldiers, silent and motionless till the his life. As Greene was recovering, Mac- time should come to move. Not a light Gahan sickened of malignant typhus ; and was permitted—not even a cigarette was a few days later they laid him in his far-off allowed to be smoked. When men spoke foreign grave, around which stood weep- at all it was in whispers, and there was ing mourners of a dozen nationalities. only a soft hum of low talk, half drowned

Another colleague was Mr. Frank Mil- by the gurgle of the Danube, and broken let, who, still young, has forsaken the occasionally by the splash caused by the war-path, and appears to be on the high launching of a pontoon boat. The gray road to the inferior position of a Rogal dawn faintly began to break. I could Academician. Millet, like MacGahan, is dimly discern Dragomiroff, mud almost an American. He accompanied Gourko to the waist, directing the marshalling of across the Balkans after the fall of Plevna. the pontoon boats, close to the water's



« VorigeDoorgaan »