He pre


As entertainer-in-chief to the distin- looked on their Emperor as a true chip of guisbed crowd, the Emperor of Austria the old Hapsburg block; and the unthinkfirst demands a brief notice. There was ing multitude vociferously saluted him little in the appearance of Francis to arouse with the title of Father Francis. interest or inspire loyalty. In figure he served his indifferent attitude through all was small and spare with stooping shoul- the excitement of the congress. Metter. ders ; his face was very long, with shrunk- nich could be trusted to do his best for en features and cold blue eyes surmounted the Austrian interests ; and Francis conby a narrow forehead. His expression, tented himself with acting the part of a which never changed, was one of listless figure-head, a sort of incarnation of patriindifference. The man's nature was too archal virtue, before which all men might dull, his consciousness of rank too ever bow down in grateful adoration, present to allow disaster or success to draw Very different to Francis was the Emfrom him a sign of emotion. Francis had peror of Russia, Alexander I. The tall, been badly educated, and his intellectual strong figure ; the broad, handsome face ; capacities were very low. He took no in- the kindly, smiling eyes made up a perterest in the work of government or the sonality as charming as it was noble. In details of policy. Of art, literature, phi- social intercourse Alexander's manners losophy, he knew nothing. Admirers have were perfection. fondly recounted how this lord of many nations spent his leisure time in making temporary observer, Count Lagarde,

" The Emperor Alexander,” says a con. varnished boxes and bird - cages. He adored by those who enjoyed the honor of his liked mechanical toys, and in his model of intimacy ; and the simplicity of his manners, a feudal castle at Laxenburg were dummy together with bis easy politeness and galsentinels and dungeons, the mimic prison- lantry, won all hearts in Vienna." ers in which wrung their hands and groaned

It is to be feared that Alexander's perby He was fond of garden- sonal graces were more to be commended ing, and would work for hours at favorite than his political character. On his acflower-beds; and he had some slight prac- cession men had hailed him as a knighttical knowledge of natural history.His errant ; before he had been long on the one political idea was a fanatical belief in throne they had learned to revile him as a the virtnies of absolute monarchy. “The Greek of the Lower Empire. people,” he used to say, “I know noth

“ Alexander's assistance," wrote the Prusing of the people, I only know of sub- sian Gneisenau after the treaty of Tilsit, '. is jects !" Lenient in other cases, he never as ruinous to the country he affects to protect, pardoned a political offender. But, though by sharing in the spoil taken from his un

as the attack of the enemy, and he winds up the whole policy of the Austrian Govern

fortunate ally." ment during his reign was one of blind repression, there was nothing in the manner In fact, the Muscovite Bayard was of Francis that bespoke the tyrant. With quite ready to break the most solemn enthe cunning that frequently marks very gagements if his own advantage could be dull men, in his relations with his people thereby secured. Moreover, though he on he affected the extremes of simplicity and certain occasions showed a bias toward good nature, One day in every week he generosity and enlightenment, this was received private petitions from any of his only in cases where his own interests were lieges who chose to present themselves. not concerned. On the entry of the allies He talked to them familiarly about their into Paris in 1814 he restrained the fury private affairs, instructed one how to deal with a scapegrace son, advised another considering his wealth, his want of a career of about the marriage of a flighty daughter. honorable ambition, and his dignity, wbich This sham geniality gained its object to the enables him to trample with impunity upon full. The Austrian nobility, intellectually those decencies which are held indispensable the most backward class in Europe, *

in a better regulated society.” The women, says Lord Dudley, were very superior to the

“ Prince Metternich's daughter, who * See, among other witnesses to this effect, was a year or two ago married to Count EsterLord Dudley's Letters to the Bishop of Llan- hazy, very properly began his education by daff.” “A great nobleman here (at Vienna) destrrying his numerous and valuable collec. is in general a dull, ill.informed, and very de tion of tobacco pipes and by teaching him to bauched person, which is all natural enough, read.”


of Blücher and compelled Louis XVIII. Paul compels me to go to war, it shall be to grant a liberal constitution to his sub- only against himself."'. But the doom jects. But he never introduced any re came in 1806, and with the disaster of forms into his own dominions, and his Jena the glory of Prussia seemed departed foreign policy was one of consistent ag- forever. Frederick William had to fly gression. At the congress Alexander, to from Berlin and take up his residence at the secret amusement of those who had Königsberg for three gloomy years. But found him out, tried hard to maintain his the worst was still to come. In 1809 his favorite character of protector of the op- beloved Louise, whose pure bright figure pressed. The German patriot Stein and shines like a star through that


of brutal the Greek patriot lypsilanti were both to force and barefaced selfishness, was taken be counted among his intimates. Notic- from him ; and in spite of the great ing also that Eugène Beauharnais, ex- change subsequent events made in his viceroy of Italy, stepson of Napoleon, was political fortunes there was a shadow on rather coldly received at Vienna, he spe- his life for all time. A tall, grave figure cially attached himself to that person, rode with a solemn face rarely lightening with with him in public and singled bim out a smile, he was out of place amid the gayefor conversation at dinners or receptions. ties of the congress. Men of the world

Alexander caine to Vienna with the Rus- made cruel sport of his attempts at sociasian Empress Elizabeth, the Grand Duke bility. The King of Prussia's disposiConstantine and the Grand Duchesses tion,” says the satirical Nostitz, “ is rather Maria and Catherine ; he was attended by tender and sensitive, and he shows a very an enormous suite and a full military staff romantic feeling for Julie Zichy. The of nine generals and a host of minor offi- lady now knows by heart in what manner cers. He plunged with delight into all the troops are drawn up on parade at the amusements of the congress. To the Potsdam, how the Prussian army was ladies especially be paid great attention. formerly dressed, and how it is dressed at They with one accord dubbed him “ The present ; in return for which she regales handsome Emperor,” in return for which her royal admirer with sublinity and recompliment he drew up an amusing list ligion. These conversations often last of the reigning branches of the congress. whole evenings, in confidential but ap“ La beauté coquette” was represented by parently very gloomy tête-à-têtes.Caroline Szechenyi ; "la beauté triviale, Of the other monarchs present little by Sophie Zichy; la beauté étonnante, need be said. The King of Denmark, the by Rosina Esterhazy ; “ la beauté céleste, wit of the congress, was a small pale man, by Julie Zichy ; " la beauté du diable,” with fair hair and aquiline features. His Countess Sauerma ; and “ la beauté qui cheerful manners and amusing conversainspire seule du vrai sentiment,'' by Gabri- tion made bim a universal favorite. The ella Auersperg.

elderly King of Bavaria, of heavy build, The third great European sovereign with a dull, surly face, looked like a stout present at Vienna was Frederick William, German farmer. The King of WürtemKing of Prussia. A simple - minded, burg made up for the smallness of his dopeace-loving, conscientious man, he had minions by the colossal bulk of bis perthe misfortune to be born in an age in son. His stay at Vienna was cut short which his good qualities could only prove owing to an unfortunate incident. So his ruin. Married when young to the enormous was his development that in all beautiful Louise of Mecklenburg Strelitz, the dining-tables at home he had a semifor the first nine years of his reign he had circular space cut out, to enable him to lived a life of ideal happiness. The young sit down to his meals with comfort. It king and his lovely wife, we are told, used seems that no preparation had been made to spend the most delightful days together for him in the Austrian court dinnerreading sentimental novels. Énbowered tables. One night a great banquet was in a romantic paradise, intrigue and war given to which he was invited. In the had no attraction for Frederick William. course of the meal some remark was made Once when the Tsar Paul pressed him which the king construed as a slight on very hard to join a coalition against France himself. Wild with rage he jumped up he quite !ost his temper. “I will be and with such suddenness that the table, will remain neutral," he said ; " and if caught by his protuberant bulk, was over



turned, and all the dishes, plate, glass and feature in social life ; and there was a decorations were huiled upon the foor great deal of it at the congress. with a fearful crash. His majesty tled But the chief amusement of the great from the room pursued by shouts of laugh- world, the chief business of the congress, ter, and left Vienna that very night. was dancing. People danced on every

All the royal personages, with their occasion and at every place. Every court families and most important officials, were dinner, concert or reception ended with a lodged in the Imperial palace. Francis ba'l. Private balls, both plain and fancy also provided each of his guests with a dress, took place every night. On these superb state carriage, drawn by from two occasions the monarchs themselves danced, to eight horses, according to the rank of not in the luxurious waltz, which would the visitor. No less than three hundred have been too familiar, but in more slow of these equipages, painted green and and stately measures, such as the polorichly decorated with gold or silver de naise. It became the fashion also for the signs, had been specially built for the oc most exalted personages to patronize the casion. To every carriage were attached great public balls given in the Apollo Saal, outriders, guards of honor, and the neces and attended sometimes by 10,000 persary servants.

No wonder serious people looked The native nobility, the foreign ambas. grave, and when they thought of the utter sadors, and the leaders of the financial stagnation of public business in the midst world vied with one another in the splen- of all this revelry, murmured with the dor of their receptions. At an entertain- Prince de Ligne : "Le congrès danse, ment given by the Jewish banker, Baron mais il ne marche pas. Arnstein, in the middle of winter, the re Owing to the season of the year, openception rooms were lined with fruit trees, air fêtes rarely took place. On the 18th specially imported for the occasion from of October, however, the anniversary of the most distant countries, so that the the battle of Leipzig, a great banquet was guests might pluck their dessert from the given in the Prater to 16,000 soldiers. branches. Every kind of amusement was The Emperor Francis presided at a special devised to enliven the monotony of these table and proposed three toasts, entertainments. Tableaux vivants were


the Generals," and the very popular. Isabey, attached as court Allied Armies." Each toast was accompainter to the French legation, gave his panied by salvoes of cannon and tremenadvice regarding the details of costume dous cheering from an immense crowd of and the disposal of light and shade. An- spectators. Occasionally the whole court other form of recreation much in vogue drove out on sledges to the emperor's was the charade. A ludicrous description villa at Laxenburg. The sledges, many of one of these is given by Dr. Bright, an of them carved into fantastic shapes, were independent visitor to Vienna during the drawn by richly caparisoned steeds, their congress. * The word which was deter- heads surmounted by nodding plunies. mined on was jumeaux.' Some of the They were preceded by a band of music actors, coming from their retirement, and escorted by the emperor's guards. At began to squeeze a lemon into a glass, nightfall the whole party returned in simcalling the attention of the company very ilar state by torchlight, the procession particularly to it by their action, thus being much appreciated by the loyal representing the syllable ‘ju.' Others Viennese. Great court battues also took came forward imitating the various mala- place on the neighboring imperial estates. dies and misfortunes of life, thus acting These, however, were very tame fairs. the syllable ' meaux.' Then, finally, tot. The members of the imperial family and tered forward into the circle au Italian a few exalted guests sat in a semicircle duke and a Prussian general, neither less with attendants behind them to load their than six feet in height, dressed in sheets guns. The game, which mainly consisted and leading strings, a fine bouncing em of hares, rabbits, foxes, and occasionally a blem of jumeaux !" Gambling, though wild boar, was then driven in front of not pursued with such frenzy as in the then. The general body of spectators sat decade immediately preceding the French on a platform behind the shooting party Revolution, was still a very prominent to applaud their prowess. The ladies of NEW SERIES.- VOL, LIV., No. 4,


to the

the imperial family always took part in of the period had been wealthy French the battues, the empress's skill with her nobles were now penniless adventurers, gun being very remarkable.

earning a precarious living as underlings All the chroniclers of the time are full in the sei vice of some foreign state. of a wonderful entertainment—"the most Others, especially military men, had prosextraordinary spectacle ever witnessed in pered beyond their wildest dreams. Genmodern times," a friend of Lagarde called eral Tettenborn, of the Russian staff, was it-styled a “carrousel,'' which took place an example of the latter. In 1809, after in the beginning of December. It was a the marriage of Napoleon with Marie sort of assault-at-arms held in the imperial Louise, he had been sent to the Austrian riding-school. The number of spectators embassy in Paris as military attaché. “I was limited to a thousand, all specially in- need not enter into any detail of the gay vited by the court. The seats at one end life I led in Paris,” said he in a naïf conof the building were reserved for the royal- fession to Lagarde, “ France was then in ties. Those at the other, for the patron- the zenith of her prosperity and glory, and esses of the fête, twenty-four young ladies the Austrian embassy enjoyed the marked of the highest families in Vienua, chosen favor of the court. Amid the universal specially for their beauty. They were revelry, I unfortunately neglected to baldivided into four companies, distinguished ance my expenditure with my receipts. by the color of their mantles, one being My creditors became impatient, and I soon black, a second scarlet, a third crimson, found that the only means of extricating and a fourth blue. The competitors, at- myself was to quit the scene of temptatired in antiqire Spanish dress, were sim- tion.” However, this proved to be the ilarly divided into corresponding bands. beginning of greatness. Tettenborn reThe main body of spectators consisted of turned for a time to his regiment, then the chief members of the Austrian aris- stationed in an Austrian village, where life tocracy and the corps diplomatique. was very dull. When therefore war broke Among those who attracted most attention out between France and Russia, the young were Prince Esterhazy, in a hussar uni- soldier, like a true condottiere, offered his form entirely embroidered with the finest sword to the Tsar. He distinguished himpearls and diamonds, valued at four mill- self greatly in the campaign of Moscow. ion florins ; and Lady Castlereagh, tre- His first stroke of luck was the capture of mendous as usual in tawdry finery, but Napoleon's military chest, “a considerspecially conspicuous on this occasion with able part of its contents falling to his lot her husband's Order of the Garter worn as by way of reward." He was given the an ornament in her hair. The entertain- command of Hamburg after the expulsion ment resembled the military tournaments of Davoust ; and so high was the value of our own day, and consisted of tent-peg- set on his services that at the end of the ging, lemon-slicing, and riding at the ring. war he was raised to the rank of general, It concluded with a quadrille on horseback, and received an estate in Westphalia in which all the competitors took part, valued at 40,000 florins a year. It is accompanied by their equires. Every one pleasant to notice that Tettenborn's first then proceeded to the palace, where a act on coming into his good fortune was great banquet and ball took place.

to pay his creditors in Paris to the full. Besides those officially concerned there Few of those present at Vienna had in, the congress attracted crowds of visit- gone through such a strange career as the ors from every country. Vienna during Countess Rosalie Rezewoffski. Her moththe winter of 1814 became a sort of ren- er, Princess Lubomirski, had at the time dezvous for the European aristocracy. They of the French Revolution been resident in thronged to the Austrian capital, partly to Paris. Rashly remaining there during the share in the gayeties of the congress, Reign of Terror, she had been arrested as partly to congratulate one another that the a spy and placed in the Conciergerie. bid times were over at last. Owing to After a basty trial she was condemned and the extraordinary changes of the last executed, leaving behind her, alone in the twenty-five years, friends who had been French metropolis, a daughter, Rosalie, separated for many a long day were now aged five. The orphan found a protectress able to meet again and talk over their in the kind-hearted Citoyenne Bertot, the vicissitudes. Some who at the beginning prison laundress.

At last peace came in 1801. Nuiner- Prince de Ligne. Born in 1735, of an ous foreign visitors began to appear at old and wealthy Belgian family, Charles Paris, and among them was Count Re- Joseph, Prince de Ligne, had entered the zewoffski, brother of Princess Lubomirski, Austrian army in 1752. He served with eager to discover the secret of his sister's great credit through the Seven Years' fate. He obtained full information as to War, and was made a major-general at the her arrest, imprisonment, and execution. coronation of Joseph II. in 1780. He But the authorities of the Conciergerie then entered the Russian service, and held had lost sight of Madame Bertot, and he a command at the storming of Oczakoff in was unable to discover the slightest trace 1788. He was a great favorite with the of his niece Rosalie. One morning, how- Tsarina, Catherine II., and accompanied ever, while crossing the courtyard of his her in her celebrated journey through the hotel, he met a young girl carrying a bas- Crimea. In 1789 he resumed his duties ket of linen. She bore such a striking in the Austrian army. He received the resemblance to his dead sister that the rank of field-marshal in 1808, and was also count was amazed. He hurriedly demand- colonel of the regiment of Trabans. The ed her name, and was delighted to receive Prince de Ligne was one of those persons the hoped-for answer-Rosalie. He then who, though of independent character, accompanied her to the dwelling of the have a natural genius for winning the esBertots, where he thanked the astonished teem of sovereigns. A great traveller, he laundress for her kindness to his niece. was equally welcome at Versailles, Vienna, On returning to Poland with Rosalie, he and St. Petersburg. To a noble bearing took Madame Bertot and her children with and unsullied reputation he added the poshim. The boys were educated at Wilna session of great literary abilities. His at his expense and received commissions ín mélanges littéraires are as conspicuous for the Polish army. The girls, richly dow- extent of knowledge as for perfection of ered by the count, were wedded to Polish style. According to Madame de Stäel, gentlemen. Rosalie herself, on coming to he is the only foreigner who has ever beyears of discretion, married her cousin, the come a model to French writers in their younger Count Rezewoffski.

own language. Though in his eightieth Perhaps the most significant examples year, he was still remarkable for his fondof capricious fortune were to he found in ness for society. He assiduously attendthe ex-empress of the French, Marie ed all the festivities of the congress, and Louise, and her little son, the young was much in request owing to his knowlNapoleon, or, as he was styled in Vienna, edge of the world, and his skill as a raconthe Prince of Parma. Having placed her- teur. He loved the companionship of self under the protection of her father young men, and used to give them much after Napoleon's abdication, Marie Louise advice, of the kind that would now be had come to Vienna with her child. She termed fin de siècle. Enjoy your youth lived very quietly in the suburbs, at Schön- while it lasts," he used to tell them, and brunn, and took no part in the festivities adopt as your maxim, carelessness till of the congress.

Marie Louise bad in- twenty-five, gayety till forty, and philosoherited her father's cold heart and apathetic phy to the end of life.” mind. She seemed in no way upset by In the beginning of December, while the sudden change in her position, and was the congress was still in full swing, he quite content to sit at home playing duets caught a chill which confined him to his with Baron Neipperg, with whom she sub- room. Erysipelas set in, and the doctors sequently contracted a morganatic mar were compelled to inform him that his riage. Her little son was naturally an ob- time was come. The Prince de Ligne reject of intense interest. Visitors to the ceived the dread summons as gayly as he congress crowded to Schönbrunn to see would have accepted an invitation to a him. He was a lovely child, with fair dance or a challenge to a duel. “No one complexion, and silky golden hair falling will be sorry,” he remarked, “ to relieve in carls upon his shoulders, and charmed the monotony of pleasure by the funeral everybody by his gentle ways and artless of a field-marshal.” He drew up a disprattle.

sertation in which fourteen reasons were One of the best-known characters in given for not fearing death. He spoke Vienna at this time was Field-Marshal the approvingly of Petronius Arbiter who,

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