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plain situation come naturally in place. dare to be so strange as truth. And the But where it is sought to stir pity and cleverest disciples of perhaps the greatest fear and sympathy with the sufferings and master of legitimate naturalism in fiction heroisms of men and women ; where, as have recently admitted that the realists in tragedy, self-conscious observation of should rather call themselves illusionists, the writer's art should be lost in over- and must abstain from reproducing what whelming feeling for the hero's destiny, is startling in reality. In George Eliot's there, so far as I know, such names have case the explanation would seem to be, never been adopted. Ben Jonson, much that she adopted significant names just for of whose work is, as Mr. Swinburne has the smallest parts, to serve instead of the recently said, a study not of humanity but long description which they would not of humors, uses significant names almost bear ; just as at the end of the list of exclusively in his coinedies. Shakespeare, dramatis persona, instead of " servingon the other hand, is sparing in his use of men,

sheriff's officers," or a more them. Justices Shallow, Slender, and unsavory retinue, the playwright someSilence, with Fang and Snare the sheriff's times puts “ Fang, Snare, sheriff's offiofficers—the majesty of the law always cers. But, however legitimate for the fares badly in the hands of satire ; the playwrights, it is a practice really inadconstable, Du!! ; Froth, a foolish gentle- missible in works like “ Middlemarch” or man ; Martext, a vicar; and that ragged Trollope's novels. There, small as the regiment of Falstaff's recruits, Mouldy, point is, it is a flaw. It makes the art Shadow, Wart, Feeble, and Bullcalf, – obtrusive just where it should remain conalmost exhaust the list.

cealed ; it wakes the reader's suspicious llave we not here the explanation of criticism, just where such criticism should the instinctive shock which we feel on be lulled to sleep.

It is a reappearance being introduced by George Eliot or Trol- in the least naïve of the arts of those lope to the doctors, Wrench and Filgrave ? scrolls, which issue so naïvely out of the We are taking Middlemarch and the Mid- months of the personages in old pictures. dlemarchers in perfect seriousness and It is not difficult to see with how much good faith. We know the people well, more of natural ease Dickens can introand understand their life ; we need no duce his Jingles and Veneerings. The prompting to divine the jar between the art of Dickens is often the art of caricaold humdrum practitioners and Lydgate ture, often it is the art of farce. His with his modern science. To be told ihat world is a grotesque, pathetic, lurid, ludi. the humdrum practitioner is named crous world of his own. lle has brought Wrench or Filgrave is like receiving a together a teeming population of quacks slap in the face. We are rudely awa- and mountebanks, and waifs and strays, kened, the illusion of reality is brusquely and monstrosities, for whom his most exdispelled. The names are so glaringly travagant names are accepted as the only made up ; it is too unnatural to find these natural and proper ones.

Another reason, names crying in the wilderness, preparing no doubt, that many of his names fit the in the medical desert of Middlemarch à people with such convincing exactitude is highway for a truer science. Where the simply that the people theinselves have as aim is to produce by art an illusion of little of a third dimension as the names. every-day reality, where the artist desires In his wonderful art Dickens found room to keep himself and his artistic scaffolding for characters that are hardly characters at entirely ont of sight, or only presents him- all-not men and women, self for the purpose of commenting on

but rather phantasms, admirably suited to people and things which are supposed to heighten the effect of his mise-en-scène ; exist independently of him, then the fling- phantasms that crack their finger-joints ing in the reader's face of palpably manu- like Newman Noggs, or play some other factured names is the unpardonable sin of pantomime which will add just the ghastly, art, inconsistency. It is not to be plead- or droll, or bizarre tone which he needs ed that names of this kind do actually for his effect. occur in real life, sometimes with startling But what shall we say of Thackeray and appropriateness. That truth is stranger his Deuceaces and Bareacres and the rest ? than fiction, it has been said, is but an- Thackeray is verily as great a realist as a other way of saying that fiction may not great artist can be. He prides himself on

that is to say,

presenting life as it is, unseasoned by the hand to underline the snobbery or laugh hot spices of artificial romance. Nay, be off the pathos. There is a strong strain employs devices to entrap the credulity of of the satirist in him, and satire is akin to the reader—the device, for example, of allegory; there is even a strain of the making Arthur Pendennis, whom we know caricaturist ready to emerge in the midst independently, tell the story of his young of his poblest art. He is especially fond friend Clive Newcome, and the noble of putting on the airs and graces of the meek-hearted gentleman with whom he showman. His preface to “ Vanity Fair” had seen the boy at the Cave of Harmony. is headed, “Before the Curtain ;” and Yes, Thackeray is a great realist, if ever this great novel of real life concludes with there was one. His characters are no "Come, children, let us shut up the box decorative figments to amuse our fancy; and the puppets, for our play is played They have become some of the men and out.” And we accept Thackeray's showwomen we know best, personal friends or man's humor. He chooses to treat a charfoes of our own. It consoles us for living acter as a puppet and call it Deuceacein these late days of a reformed Parlia- that is his wbim ; we know the man, and ment, that we have lived late enough to believe in him none the less. We are not have known Colonel Newcome. They to be taken in with the made-up name. were no tears of unreal sentiment that we “ The famous little Becky puppet," he wept over his martyrdom ; it was a very wrote, " has been pronounced to be ungenuine itch we felt to, kick Barnes. In commonly flexible in the joints and lively Thackeray's case the justification of the on the wire.No : for my part, I cannot artificial names, if it be right to speak of allow Thackeray himself to treat Mrs. justification, lies in this, that with all the Rawdon Crawley as a mere puppet ; and solid reality of the life portrayed, we are that, I think, is why I resent her artificial never allowed to lose sight of the author maiden name.Blackwood's Magazine. and his art in portraiture. He is ever at



Après une longue guerre,

tria and Russia; the Kings of Prussia, L'enfant ailé de Cythere

Denmark, Bavaria, and Würtemburg ; fifVoulut en donnant la paix

teen other sovereigns and six mediatized Venir à Vienne au congrès, Il conroque en diligence

princes from the smaller States of GerLes dieux qu'on put réunir,

many. All the other European States, Et par une contredanse

save Turkey, which took no part in the On vit le congrès s'ouvrir !"

congress, were represented by their inost

eminent statesmen. Among the non-royal The graceful lines with which the visitors were the two most celebrated dipFrince de Ligne welcomed the opening lomatists of the time, Talleyrand and Metof the congress of 1814 well express the ternich ; Pozzo di Borgo, the bitterest of nature and spirit of that assembly. It Napoleon's enemies, so well known later was not merely a convention for the settle- on as Russian ambassador at Paris ; Capo ment of certain political questions. It d' Istrias, subsequently President of was rather a grand united display of exulta- Greece ; and the great and good man, tion on the part of the old European dynas- whose work has had such an influence on ties at the downfall of Napoleon ; a kind the history of Germany, Karl von Stein. of saturnalia in which the votaries of reac- But the above list conveys little idea of tion met together to celebrate their return the galaxy of rank and talent then assemto power. The Congress of Vienna there- bled at Vienna. Nearly all the sovereigns fore surpassed all previous international and statesmen present were accompanied gatherings, not only in the rank and num- by their wives, families, and official suites ; ber of its members, but in the gayety and and it was to the presence of these latter splendor that attended their deliberations. that the social brilliancy of the congress There were present the Emperors of Aus- was mainly due.

He pre


As entertainer-in-chief to the distin- looked on their Emperor as a true chip of guisbed crowd, the Emperor of Austria the old Hapsburg block; and the unthinkfirst demands a brief notice. There was ing multitude vociferously saluted him little in the appearance of Francis to arouse with the title of Father Francis. interest or inspire loyalty. In figure he served his indifferent attitude through all was small and spare with stooping shoul- the excitement of the congress. Metter. ders ; his face was very long, with shrunk- nich could be trusted to do his best for en features and cold blue eyes surmounted the Austrian interests ; and Francis conby a narrow forehead. His expression, tented himself with acting the part of a which never changed, was one of listless figure-head, a sort of incarnation of patriindifference. The man's nature was too archal virtue, before which all men might dull, his consciousness of rank too ever bow down in grateful adoration. present to allow disaster or success to draw Very different to Francis was the Emfrom him a sign of emotion. Francis had peror of Russia, Alexander I. The tall, been badly educated, and his intellectual strong figure ; the broad, handsome face ; capacities were very low. He took no in- the kindly, smiling eyes made up a perterest in the work of government or the sonality as charming as it was noble. * In details of policy. Of art, literature, phi- social intercourse Alexander's manners losophy, he knew nothing. Admirers have were perfection. fondly recounted how this lord of many nations spent his leisure time in making temporary observer, Count Lagarde,

"The Emperor Alexander,” says a con. varnished boxes and bird - cages. He adored by those who enjoyed the honor of his liked mechanical toys, and in his model of intimacy ; and the simplicity of his manners, a feudal castle at Laxenburg were dummy together with his easy politeness and galsentinels and dungeons, the mimic prison- lantry, won all hearts in Vienna.' ers in which wrung their hands and groaned It is to be feared that Alexander's perby clock-work. He was fond of garden- sonal graces were more to be commended ing, and would work for hours at favorite than his political character. On his acflower. beds ; and he had some slight prac- cession men had hailed him as a knighttical knowledge of natural history. His errant ; before he had been long on the one political idea was a fanatical belief in throne they had learned to revile him as a the virtues of absolute monarchy. “ The Greek of the Lower Empire. people,” he used to say, “I know noth

Alexander's assistance," wrote the Prusing of the people, I only know of sub- sian Gneisenau after the treaty of Tilsit, ' is jects !” Lenient in other cases, he never as ruinous to the country he affects to protect, pardoned a political offender. But, though by sharing in the spoil taken from his un

as the attack of the enemy, and he winds up the whole policy of the Austrian Govern.

fortunate ally." ment during his reign was one of blind repression, there was nothing in the manner

In fact, the Muscovite Bayard was of Francis that bespoke the tyrant. With quite ready to break the most solemn enthe cunning that frequently marks very gagements if his own advantage could be dull men, in his relations with his people thereby secured. Moreover, though he on he affected the extremes of simplicity and certain occasions showed a bias toward good nature. One day in every week he generosity and enlightenment, this was received private petitions from any of his only in cases where his own interests were lieges who chose to present themselves. not concerned. On the entry of the allies He talked to them familiarly about their into Paris in 1814 he restrained the fury private affairs, instructed one how to deal with a scapegrace son, advised another considering his wealth, his want of a career of about the marriage of a flighty daughter. honorable ambition, and his dignity, wbich This sham geniality gained its object to the enables him to trample with impunity upon full. The Austrian nobility, intellectually in a better regulated society.” The women,

those decencies which are held indispensable the most backward class in Europe, *

says Lord Dudley, were very superior to the

· Prince Metternich's daughter, who * See, among other witnesses to this effect, was a year or two ago married to Count EsterLord Dudley's "Letters to the Bishop of Llan. hazy, very properly began his education by datf.” “A great nobleman here (at Vienna) destrrying his numerous and valuable collec. is in general a dull, ill.informed, and very de- tion of tobacco pipes and by teaching him to bauched person, which is all natural enough, read.”



of Blücher and compelled Louis XVIII. Paul compels me to go to war, it shall be to grant a liberal constitution to his sub- only against himself." But the doom jects. But he never introduced any re- came in 1806, and with the disaster of forms into his own dominions, and his Jena the glory of Prussia seemed departed foreign policy was one of consistent ag- forever. Frederick William had to fly gression. At the congress Alexander, to from Berlin and take up his residence at the secret amusement of those who had Königsberg for three gloomy years. But found him out, tried hard to maintain his the worst was still to come. In 1809 his favorite character of protector of the op- beloved Louise, whose pure bright figure pressed. The German patriot Stein and shines like a star through that age of brutal the Greek patriot Hypsilanti were both to force and barefaced selfishness, was taken be counted among his intiinates. Notic- from him ; and in spite of the great ing also that Eugène Beauharnais, ex- change subsequent events made in his viceroy of Italy, stepson of Napoleon, was political fortunes there was a shadow on rather coldly received at Vienna, he spe- his life for all time. A tall, grave figure cially attached himself to that person, rode with a solemn face rarely lightening with with him in public and singled bim out a smile, he was out of place amid the gayefor conversation at dinners or receptions.

ties of the congress.

Men of the world Alexander caine to Vienna with the Rus- made cruel sport of his attempts at sociasian Empress Elizabeth, the Grand Duke bility. “The King of Prussia's disposiConstantine and the Grand Duchesses tion,” says the satirical Nostitz, “ is rather Maria and Catherine ; he was attended by tender and sensitive, and he shows a very an enormous suite and a full military staff romantic feeling for Julie Zichy. The of nine generals and a host of minor offi- lady now knows by heart in what manner

He plunged with delight into all the troops are drawn up on parade at the amusements of the congress. To the Potsdam, how the Prussian army was ladies especially be paid great attention. formerly dressed, and how it is dressed at They with one accord dubbed him “ The present; in return for which she regales handsome Emperor," in return for which her royal admirer with sublinity and recompliment he drew up an amusing list ligion. These conversations often last of the reigning branches of the congress. whole evenings, in confidential but ap“ La beauté coquette” was represented by parently very gloomy tête-à-têtes." Caroline Szechenyi ; “ la beauté triviale, Of the other monarchs present little by Sophie Zichy ; “ la beauté étonnante,' need be said. The King of Denmark, the by Rosina Esterhazy ;

"la beauté céleste, wit of the congress, was a small pale man, by Julie Zichy ; “ la beauté du diable,” with fair hair and aquiline features. His Countess Sauerma ; and “la beauté qui cheerful manners and amusing conversainspire seule du vrai sentiment,'' by Gabri- tion made him a universal favorite. ella Auersperg.

elderly King of Bavaria, of heavy build, The third great European sovereign with a dull, surly face, looked like a stout present at Vienna was Frederick William, German farmer. The King of WürtemKing of Prussia. A simple - minded, burg made up for the smallness of his dopeace-loving, conscientious man, he had minions by the colossal bulk of bis perthe misfortune to be born in an age in His stay at Vienna was cut short which his good qualities conld only prove owing to an unfortunate incident.

So bis ruin. Married when young to the enormous was his development that in all beautiful Louise of Mecklenburg Strelitz, the dining-tables at home he had a semifor the first nine years of his reign he had circular space cut out, to enable him to lived a life of ideal happiness. The young sit down to his meals with comfort. It king and his lovely wife, we are told, used seems that no preparation had been made to spend the most delightful days together for him in the Austrian court dinnerreading sentimental novels. Enıbowered tables. One night a great banquet was in a romantic paradise, intrigue and war given to which he was invited. In the had no attraction for Frederick William, course of the meal some remark was made Once when the Tsar Paul pressed him which the king construed as a slight on very hard to join a coalition against France himself. Wild with rage he jumped up he quite !ost his temper. “I will be and with such suddenness that the table, will remain neutral,” he said ; " and if caught by his protuberant bulk, was over.



turned, and all the dishes, plate, glass and feature in social life ; and there was a decorations were huiled upon the foor great deal of it at the congress. with a fearful crash. His majesty Hled But the chief amusement of the great from the room pursued by shouts of laugh- world, the chief business of the congress, ter, and left Vienna that very night. was dancing. People danced on every

All the royal personages, with their occasion and at every place. Every court families and inost important officials, were dinner, concert or reception ended with a lodged in the Imperial palace. Francis ba'l. Private balls, both plain and fancy also provided each of his guests with a dress, took place every night. On these superb state carriage, drawn by from two occasions the monarchs themselves danced, to eight horses, according to the rank of not in the luxurious waltz, which would the visitor. No less than three hundred have been too familiar, but in more slow of these equipages, painted green and and stately measures, such as the polorichly decorated with gold or silver de naise. It became the fashion also for the signs, had been specially built for the oc- most exalted personages to patronize the casion. To every carriage were attached great public balls given in the Apollo Saal, outriders, guards of honor, and the neces- and attended sometimes by 10,000 persary servants.

No wonder serious people looked The native nobility, the foreign ambas. grave, and when they thought of the utter sadors, and the leaders of the financial stagnation of public business in the midst world vied with one another in the splen- of all this revelry, murmured with the dor of their receptions. At an entertain- Prince de Ligne : “ Le congrès danse, ment given by the Jewish banker, Baron mais il ne marche pas. Arnstein, in the middle of winter, the re- Owing to the season of the year, openception rooms were lined with fruit trees, air fêtes rarely took place. On the 18th specially imported for the occasion from of October, however, the anniversary of the most distant countries, so that the the battle of Leipzig, a great banquet was guests might pluck their dessert from the given in the Prater to 16,000 soldiers. branches. Every kind of amusement was The Emperor Francis presided at a special devised to enliven the monotony of these table and proposed three toasts, entertainments. Tableaux vivants were


the Generals," and the very popular. Isabey, attached as court Allied Armies." Each toast was accompainter to the French legation, gave his panied by salvoes of cannon and tremenadvice regarding the details of costume dous cheering from an immense crowd of and the disposal of light and shade. An- spectators. Occasionally the whole court other form of recreation much in vogue drove out on sledges to the emperor's was the charade. A ludicrous description villa at Laxenburg. The sledges, many of one of these is given by Dr. Bright, an of them carved into fantastic shapes, were independent visitor to Vienna during the drawn by richly caparisoned steeds, their congress. * The word which was deter- heads surmounted by nodding plunies. mined on was ‘jumeaux.' Some of the They were preceded by a band of music actors, coming from their retirement, and escorted by the emperor's guards. At began to squeeze a lemon into a glass, nightfall the whole party returned in simcalling the attention of the company very ilar state by torchlight, the procession particularly to it by their action, thus being much appreciated by the loyal representing the syllable ‘ju.' Others Viennese. Great court battues also took came forward imitating the various inala- place on the neighboring imperial estates. dies and misfortunes of life, thus acting These, however, were very tame fairs. the syllable ' meaux.' Then, finally, tot. The members of the imperial family and tered forward into the circle au Italian a few exalted guests sat in a semicircle duke and a Prussian general, neither less with attendants behind them to load their than six feet in height, dressed in sheets guns. The game, which mainly consisted and leading strings, a fine bouncing em- of hares, rabbits, foxes, and occasionally a blem of jumeaux !" Gambling, though wild boar, was then driven in front of not pursued with such frenzy as in the them. The general body of spectators sat decade immediately preceding the French on a platform behind the shooting party Revolution, was still a very prominent to applaud their prowess. The ladies of NEW SERIES.- VOL, LIV., No. 4,


to the

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