catenation of conditions could have tended touroff and myself had to ride through a more to give a man an aspect of grotesque belt of Turkish skirmishers to escape being absurdity. But Malet did not in the least cut off. look like a guy.

He had no conscious- Anyhow the game was up, and Servia ness of being ludicrous, and even at the lay at the mercy of the Turks. I was the first blush he was not ludicrous. On the only correspondent on the spot, and it contrary he was self-possessed, easily dig- behooved me to make the most of this nified, and gave the impression that this advantage. At five in the afternoon, was precisely the mode of progression when I rode away from the blazing huts which he deliberately preferred over all of Deligrad, more than 140 miles lay beother modes.

tween me and my point, the telegraph I imagine that people at home took but office at Semlin, the Hungarian town on faint interest in the litile war which in the the other side of the Save from Belgrade ; summer and autumn of 1876 the petty telegraphing was not permitted from the principality of Servia was waging against latter place. I had an order for postits Turkish suzerain. It was nevertheless horses along the road, and galloped hard an interesting struggle, both in itself and for Paratchin, the nearest post-station. as virtually the prelude to the great Russo. When I got there the postmaster had Turkish war of the following year. Up at horses, but no vehicle. Now, if I had Deligrad, about 140 miles from Belgrade, sent a messenger, this obstacle would have the capital of Servia, General Tchernaieff, effectually stopped him. But it was apwith his Russian volunteers and rough parent to me, being my own messenger, Servian levies, for three months con- that although I could not drive I might fronted the Turksh army commanded by ride. True, the Servian post-nags were that venal old impostor Abdul Kerim not saddle-horses, but sharp spurs and the Pasha. Our life with Tchernaieff was al- handling of an old dragoon might be remost comically squalid. His headquar- lied on to make them travel somehow. ters were in a ruined school-house ; and All night long I rode that weary journey, his staff lived in holes dug out in the changing horses every fifteen miles, and ground and thatched over with reeds. We forcing the vile brutes along at the best of Jay on straw all round a great fire which their speed. Soon after noon of the folwas maintained in the centre, and which lowing day, sore froin head to foot, I occasionally set a light to the roof and was clattering over the stones of the Belburnt us temporarily out of house and grade main street. The field telegraph home. One morning the Turks woke up wires had conveyed but a curt, fragmen. from their lethargy, and carried with à tary intimation of disaster; and all Belrush the defences of the bill of Djunis, grade, feverish for further news, rushed which Tchernaieff had been holding so out into the streets as I powdered along. long on the swagger. I have a shrewd But I had ridden hard all night, not to suspicion that Abdul Kerim and Tcher- gossip in Belgrade, but to get to the Semnaieff understood each other extremely lin telegraph wire, and I never drew rein well; that the foriner for a price con- till I reached the ferry. At Semlin, one tentedly allowed himself to be amused by long drink of beer, and then to the task the latter during the summer months, and of writing hour after hour against time that when the order came from the Seras- the tidings which I had carried down kierate that the immobility so long allowed country. After I bad written my story to last must at length peremptorily be and put it on the wires, I lay down in my ended, Tchernaieff was complaisant enough clothes and slept twenty hours without so to make not much more than a brisk show much as turning. I had meant to start

The scheme, however, was back for Deligrad on the evening of the in a measure thwarted by the honest and day of my arrival at Belgrade, but fatigue zealous fighting of Dochtouroff and the caused me to lose twenty-four hours. It Russian volunteers, who died very freely seemed to me when I recovered from my in their trenches, and who had sent many chagrin at this delay, that perhaps, after Turkish souls to Hades before they ac- all, I was entitled to a good long sleep; cepted defeat. The Servians behaved for I had seen a battle that lasted six badly ; their resistance fell to pieces in hours, ridden a hundred and forty miles, half a dozen hours ; and in the end Doch- and written to the Daily News a telegraphic message four columns long--all in day I called on him at the headquarters the space of thirty hours.

in Ploesti, and found him seated in a At the beginning of the Russo-Turkish bower in a garden, resolutely confronted war, in the spring of 1877, the first great by a gaunt man in a red beard and a desideratum with the correspondents who tweed suit. “Mon Dieu !'' exclaimed were detailed to follow the Russian for the Colonel, “ will you oblige me by taktunes was to obtain an authorization to ac- ing that man away and killing him! He company the armies in the field. With- is a Scotsman and I don't understand the out such an authorization the correspond- Scottish language : he knows none other ent, if he gets forward at all, is liable to than his native tongue. He comes here be treated as a spy, and soon finds him. daily, and looms over me obstinately for self in trouble. I


there is no war an hour at a time, firing off at intervals correspondent of any considerable general the single word “ Permission !" and tenexperience who has not been in custody dering nie, as if he would hold a pistol at over and over again on suspicion of being my head, a letter in English from a pera spy. I have been a prisoner myself in son whom he calls the Duke of Argyll—a France (made so both by Germans and by noble, I suppose, of this wild man's counFrench), Spain, Servia, Germany, Aus- try!" It is needless to say, since the tria, Hungary, Russia, Roumania, and “ wild man" was a Scot, that he achieved Bulgaria ; and I cannot conscientiously his permission and did very good work as recommend any of those countries from a correspondent. this point of view. The authorities of We were all numbered like so many the Russian army were very fair and cour- ticket porters, and at first carried on the teous about the authorization of correspon- arm a huge brass badge, which heightened dents. On principle they accepted all our resemblance to members of tbat rewho presented themselves accredited by spectable avocation. The French correrespectable papers, and bringing a recom- spondents' sense of the beautiful was, mendation from any Russian ambassador. however, outraged by this neat and ornaThere was to be no field-censorship ; you mental distinguishing mark; so at their gave your word of honor not to reveal instance there was substituted a more impending movements, concentrations, dainty style of brassard, with the doubleand intentions. You might, with this ex- headed eagle in silver lace on a yellow silk ception, write and despatch just what you ground. The permission was written on chose ; only a file of your paper had to be the back of a photograph of the corresent to the headquarters, and a polyglot spondert to whom it was granted, which officer—Colonel Hausenkampf by name, photograph was duly stamped on the was appointed to read all those newspapers, breast of the subject with the great seal and to be down upon you if you trans- of the headquarters. A duplicate of this gressed what he considered fair comment. photograph was stuck in a "CorrespondThen you got a warning, or if you were ents' Album” kept by the commandant held to have gravely and spitefully trans- of the headquarters. When I last saw gressed, you were expelled.

this book, there were some eighty-two I always pitied the unfortunate Colonel portraits in it; and I am bound to admit Hausenkampf from the very bottom of that it was not an overwhelming testimony my heart. He had to read all the letters to the good looks of the profession. I published in all the newspapers of all the got, I remember, into several messes correspondents, and I predicted for him through having incautiously shaved off either speedy suicide or hopeless madness. some hair from my chin which was there But he remained alive and moderately when the photograph was taken. In vain sane, spite of this arduous duty, and of I argued that it is not the beard that the task which at the outset devolved makes the man ; the sentries were stiffupon him of listening to every correspond-necked on the point of identity, and I bad ent who made application for a permis- to cultivate a new imperial with all speed.

He was fearfully badgered. One-Nineteenth Century.


Dis moi que tu manges, et je te dirai fruit in Paradise, just as it tempted Perce que tu es''--tell me what you eat, and sephone to eat the pomegranate in Hades. I will tell you what you are-says

Brillat This, at least, is the opinion of M. AlexSavarin, the high-priest of gastronomy. andre Dumas“; and he further tells us that Such a doctrine, if it could be carried the destinies of the chosen people were into practice, would doubtless be a most entirely changed by the insatiable appetite useful one ; but it must be coufessed that of Jacob's elder brother. With such it is at least as difficult to tell a man's authorities to support him, our historian character from his favorite dish as from would go boldly on to show how time his handwriting, and requires an experi- after time the fate of nations has been deence in the science of the table which is cided by the gastronomic failings of the rarely given to ordinary diners-out. master-spirit of the age ; how the progress What conclusions, for instance, would be of great conquerors has been checked by drawn from the fact that Queen Elizabeth their ignorance or violation of the first liked roast goose ; that James I. preferred principles of cookery ; how the career of cock-a-leekie, and Williarn III, asparagus ; Alexander was cut short by his inordinate or that Lord Eldon's favorite dish was love of the table ; and how Napoleon I: liver and bacon ; or that George III., lost the decisive battle of Leipsic owing again, loved boiled mutton and turnips to a fit of indigestion caused by his dining beyond all other dishes ; or that the Duke off a shoulder of mutton and onion sauce. of Wellington was so utterly indifferent After all, it may be further argued, what to what he ate and drank that his cook is Diplomacy itself, the great peace-pre-one of the best in Europe-resigned bis serving machine of modern times? Nothoffice in despair ?

ing but a series of good dinners, judiBrillat Savarin, however, is not alone in cionsly blended with the delights of mine his opinion ; for a famous bon vivant of and conversation. Tenez bonne table et the time of the First Empire, the Marquis soignez les femmes," was Napoleon's partde Cussy, went even further, and main- ing advice to his ambassador-advice as tained that the genius and character not sound as it was successful. History, in only of a man, but of a nation, could be fact, shows that the triumphs of diplomacy learned from a study of its cookery, and fall to the ambassador who has the strongthat history might thus be rewritten on est head, the largest appetite, and the best strictly gastronomical principles. From cook. Talleyrand's dinners at the beginthis point of view characteristic dishes- ning of this century were the best in such as sauerkraut, caviare, maccaroni, Europe ; Prince Metternich's cellars and pillau, and roast beef-would each of cuisine were equally admirable ; while them have their separate historical value ; Prince Bismarck is almost as famous for and inportant conclusions might be drawn his gastronomic performances as for his from the familiar pot au feu, which is, we political successes. " It is the manner of suppose (though M. de Cussy does not the great Chancellor,” says Dr. Russell, tell us so), the national dish of France. " ridendo dicere-fumando, too, the very

This ingenious theory opens out for us largest and strongest cigars, and to sit up an almost boundless fied of inquiry and till and after all hours. conjecture ; and some historian of the diplomatists with weak constitutions had future—the Niebuhr or Mommsen of gas

little chance with him in protracted negotronomy -will no doubt trace the close

tiations." connection of cause and effect between Leaving, however, these theories to take cookery and history, from Belshazzar's care of themselves, let us pass to the feast to a modern Lord Mayor's banquet. proper history of what has been called the Nay, he might begin his work from the master-art. Of Greek cookery we know, time of Adam ; for, after all, what caused perhaps fortunately, very little beyond the fall of man? It was not, as people what can be gathered from scattered novainly suppose, mere feminine curiosity tices in Athenæus, the Deipnosophist ; on the part of Eve, but la gourmandise, while of Roman cookery we know almost which tempted her to eat the forbidden too much, for the long work attributed to

So that average



Apicius (said by some to be the most use- into the coarse though abundant banquets ful thing the Romans have left us, next of the Anglo-Saxons ; and in the time of to the Pandects of Justinian) gives us Richard II. appeared the first English ample opportunity for judging of its mer- cookery-book, known as the “Forme of its. But after giving it all the attention Cury,” which gives us considerable insight it deserves—which is not a great deal— into mediæval dishes. It is observable what can be thought of the culinary taste that there is a great use of vegetables, of of a nation who put sugar on their oysters, honey and saffron as condiments (probably preferred roast parrot to pheasant, stuffed a vicious relic of Roman cookery), of geese with rue and assafætida, and whose strongly seasoned soups and broths, and favorite sauce was a detestable compound every variety of minces, hashes, stews, of wine, saffron, and rotten shellfish ? and pasties. The dinner usually consisted Those, however, who are curious on the of three courses, each of which included subject might refer to Trimalchio's ban- on State occasions some eight or ten quet in Petronius Arbiter, where a dinner dishes, varied by such royal joints as a given by a rich parvenu is described in the haunch of venison, a peacock, or fullest detail, and in the most amusing sturgeon. style. The dishes, which were many and Fish-dinners were a feature of these various, would hardly find favor in the Catholic times ; for all throngh Lent, as eyes of a modern epicure, though he well on Wednesdays and Fridays might have appreciated the “Opimian throughout the year, the use of meat was Falernian, a hundred years old,” which forbidden by the Church. There does not was produced toward the end of the even- appear to have been much

penance involved ing.

in this, for the menus of fast-days, Fortunately for mankind, the Roman although they consist wholly of fish, are in cuisine, with all its strange dishes and every respect as abundant as those on fesrecipes, perished with the Empire. It tivals ; in fact, there is no other form of was from Italy, however, that the revival food which lends itself to such infinite vaof cookery came with the rest of the arts riety in the hands of a good cook, and sciences in the middle ages, and passed especially of a mediæval chef, who apparthereon to France with Catherine de ently made use of everything that had fins Medici ; but even before her time French or swam in sea or river and did not scruple cooks had made considerable progress in to serve up powdered lampreys, bashed their art, if we may trust the picture given porpoise, and fried leeches. Certainly, us by Sir Walter Scott of the meal set be- one of the best dinners ever eaten by fore Quentin Durward by Maitre Pierre in the writer of these pages was on Ashthe Hôtel de Fleur-de-lys at Tours. Wednesday at a Roman Catholic club in “ There was a pâté de Perigord over which a

Savile Row some years since, and he has gastronome would have wished to live and even now a pleasant remembrance of the die, like Homer's lotus-eaters, forgetful of bisque, the filets de sole aux truffes, the kin, native country, and all social obligations

omelette, the beignets d abricot, the tomates whatever. Its vast walls of magnificent crust seemed raised like the bulwarks of some rich

ou gratin, and the “ Roederer '68,” which metropolitan city, an omblem of the wealth formed part of this penitential feast. One they are destined to protect. There was a of the longest and most elaborate menus in delicate ragoût with just that petit point de l'ail existence is that composed by the late Mr. which Gascong love and Scottishmen do not

Hayward for a fish-dinner that might be hate. There was, besides, a delicate ham, which had once supported a noble wild boar in

given to the Pope in case his Holiness the forest of Mountrichart. There was the most should ever visit England, and which will exquisite white bread made into little round be found in the Appendix to the “ Art of loaves called boules, of which the crust was so Dining.” inviting that even with water alone it would have been a delicacy. But the water was not

In the Tudor period dinners seem to alone, for there was a flask of leather called

have become more substantial : large joints bottrine, which held about a quart of exquisite appear more frequently in the bills of fare, vin de Beaulne. So many good things might and table decorations come into favor, as have created an appetite under the ribs of

well as cunning devices in the way of death."

pastry and confectionery. Pepys' Diary Meantime, in England, the French con

gives us frequent glimpses of middle-class querors had introduced many refinements cookery in the time of the Stuarts ; and the Admiralty clerk was himself no mean Dubarry ; “I demand a reward worthy judge of good cheer. Here, for example, of your Majesty. You have made my is a dinner which he considers an unusually negro a governor, and I cannot accept less good one : “Fricassee of rabbits and chick- than a cordon bleu for my cuisinière. ens, a leg of mutton boiled, three carps in In the next reign came the Revolution, a dish, a great dish of a side of lamb, and there seemed some danger of the sciroasted pigeons, four lobsters, three tarts, ence of cookery being swept away with a lamprey-pie (a most rare pie), a dish of the nobles and chefs of the old régime ; anchovies, good wine of several sorts, and but it survived the storm, and gained fresh all things mighty noble, and to my great life and vitality under the Republic and the content.”* Sir Walter Scott, again, gives First Empire. Napoleon himself was no us an account of a little dinner prepared great epicure, eating hurriedly at all times, by " M. Chaubert" for two epicures of the and whenever his appetite prompted him ; Court, on their way to Martindale Cas. but his Chancellor, Cambacérès, kept a tle, the refinements of which were wasted splendid table, and was fortunate in havon the unsophisticated Julian Peveril : ing the illustrious Caréme as his chef de

Squab pigeons, wild-fowl, young chick- cuisine. ens, venison cutlets, and a space in the Like others of his class, Caréme has centre wet, alas ! by a gentle tear from left his memoirs behind him-an amusing Chaubert's eye, where should have been record of his vanity and caprices. In one the soupe aux écrivisses."

passage he complains bitterly of the meanIn France, cookery took a new depart- ness of Cambacérès, who took careful ure under Louis XIV., who had in his notes during dinner of such entrées as had younger days at least) a prodigious appe- not been touched by his guests, and intite." I have often,” writes Madame de sisted on their reappearance in the menu Bavière, “ seen the king eat four plates of of the following day. “Quel diner ! juste different soups, a whole pheasant, a par- ciel !” writes the indignant chef. Je ne tridge, a large plate of salad, two good veux pas dire que la déserte” (i.e., the reslices of ham, a plate of pastry, and then mains of the dinner) ne puisse être be helped more than once to fruits and utilisée, mais qu'elle ne peut pas donner: sweet meats.” The expenses of the royal un diner de prince et de gastronome émikitchen in those days were almost fabulous, nent. Quel parcimonie ! Quel pitié !.. and the courtiers seem to have vied with Quel maison ! And he contrasts such the king in the extravagance of their ban- conduct with that of M. de Talleyrand, quets. Some of the most famous sauces, —“un grand seigneur dans la plus belle such as Béchamel and Soubise, date from accepte,”—who was on the most cordial this reign ; and one of Madame de terms with his cook, and devoted inore Sévigné's most eloquent letters describes time to the consideration of entrées and. how Vatel, the Prince of Condé's cook, soufflés than to the affairs of Europe. killed himself in despair at the non-arrival It is to be feared that such base econoof the fish on which he had been depend- mies as those on which Caréme is so justly ing—a contretemps which a modern female severe are not unknown in modern kitchcook would probably be more likely to ac- ens, especially where the pâtés and jellies , centuate by first going into hysterics, and are supplied by a neighboring pastry-cook, then spoiling the rest of the dinner.

and probably (if untouched) do duty at. Louis XV. inherited his grandfather's several dinners in succession.

Words are taste, if not his appetite ; and his petits not strong enough to condemn the prac. soupers, tables volantes, and silver kitchen tice—for such réchauffés destroy the origapparatus are all historical. It was he, inal flavor and quality of the dish, howtoo, who first gave the distinction of cordon ever excellent, and, what is worse, they bleu to a female cook,—for this title, the destroy a guest's confidence in the good. blue ribbon of the kitchen, is never prop- faith of his host. No man likes to be erly applied to a chef. It was on the oc- asked to dine off the remains of yestercasion of a dinner of superlative excellence day's banquet, and he probably feels, if being served up by an unknown artist. he does not express, the same indignation as “Come now, France !" said Madame Mr. Osborne after a dinner at his married

daughter's house.

So Russell Square is * Diary, April 4, 1665.

not good enough for Mrs. Maria, hey ?!” NEW SERIES.-VOL, LIV., No. ?.


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