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Canaria. At that time, it is said, the trayed and had been led here to die, upon fighting men of the island numbered which they warmly upbraided the Cana14,000, and an old prophecy gave tenacity rians for their breach of faith. Indignato their determination to defend to the tion was rife at this false accusation, but, utmost their country from the invaders. saying nothing in reply, the Guanaiteme The Spanish commander landed his troops stepped forward to Diego de Sylva, and at the port of Gando, but the natives, who said, “ Take hold of the skirt of my garhad been constantly on the lookout from ment, and I will lead you down,'' and the battlemented heights of the island, de- thus each Canarian led a Spaniard safely scended and drove them with slaughter to to the bottom of the cliffs, and to their the shore. In this extremity Diego sent ships. On parting the Guanches had bnt a detachment of his troops to the other one complaint to make, and that was that side of the island in order to inake a diver- they should have been thought capable of sion and divide the forces of the natives. telling a lie or breaking faith. They landed safely, and proceeded to as- De Sylva's gratitude was fervid but cend inland without meeting the enemy; it short-lived, for though he sent a scarlet was not till they had reached the top of the cloak and a sword and musket to the pass that they discerned that their move- Guanarteme, he returned shortly with fresh ments had been quietly watched, and that troops and defeated the Canarians in a retreat was cut off. They marched on, pitched battle with great slaughter. Still, hoping to be able to descend on the other however, the island remained unconquered. side of the mountain, but presently they The aid of the Church and of falsehood found that the path led to an open place was next called into requisition. The surrounded by a high stone wall, a kind of Bishop Don Diego Lopez de Yllescas was fortress which was used by the Canarians summoned to select a site for a chapel, and for security in time of war. With a shout the Canarians were humbly asked to give of victory the natives surrounded and held permission for a chapel to be built on the the Spanish fast prisoners, and thus they seashore, in which, as the Spaniards said, were kept for two days without meat or they might worship their God after their drink. Death was inevitable, and the own fashion. The simple Guanches, scornslaughter of the Spaniards had been de- ing a lie themselves and hence not suscided upon, when deliverance came in the pecting it in others, gladly gave consent, person of a woman called Maria Lafeiga, and even helped in its construction ; but, a niece of the Prince or Guanarteme of when completed, they discovered to their Galdar. This young woman had been a cost that the chapel was a fort, and that prisoner at Lancerote, and had learned to the god the Spaniards worship ped was the speak Castilian. She remembered having god of battles. Delighted at the success seen the Spanish captain at Lancerote, of their stratagem, the Spanish comand was moved with compassion at his im- mander and the bishop sailed away and. pending fate: She urged the Spaniards to left a strong garrison for the first time on give theinselves up unreservedly to her Canarian soil. The natives watched their uncle, and to trust to his generosity. The opportunity, and having cleverly one day Guanarteme was on his part not loath to decoyed the garrison out, they slew some. do a magnanimous act. Maria became of them and took others prisoners, and the mediator, and the result was that razed the fort to the ground.

A great Diego de Sylva, the Spanish captain, and expedition from Spain was then fitted out. his followers gave up their arms and left and sent against the recalcitrant islanders, the fortress. The Guanarteme and the who were defeated in a pitched battle Gayrer, or chiefs, showed the Spaniards after the most determined resistance. every kindness and hospitality, after which Courage is not proof against the deadly they undertook to conduct them to their bullet, and the Spaniards were beginning ships. On their way they came to a very to use fire-arms. high precipitous cliff, where the path of The happy, the innocent days of the. descent was so narrow that only one per- Canarians were now gone forever : no son could pass at a time. The Spaniards, more did they rejoice in feats of strength unused to treat others and to be treated and agility, no more did they dance and with the simple generosity of the Cana- sing, and sit tranquil under a safe and hon-rians, concluded that they had been be- ored government; discord had succeeded

Now SERIES. – VOL. LIV., No. 3. 21

ous,

nesses,

to peace, famine and pestilence to plenty, story of a marvellous and miracle-working and pomp and religious duplicity to the image of the Virgin secreted in Teneriffe simple worship of God and goodness. induced the Spaniards to make a descent The Spanish conquerors built themselves a on the island with a view to rescue this city at Las Palmas, on the level lands of holy relic froin the hands of barbarians. the shore, where they quarrelled among The story of this wonderful image is curitnemselves and inade raids for cattle to the One day toward the end of the mountains, to which the natives had re- fourteenth century, two Guanche sheptired. For twenty years the war was car- herds were driving their flocks down a ried on, but one by one the Canarians barrancho, when they noticed that at a were driven out of their mountain fast- certain spot their flucks turned back and

showed signs of fear. Unable to compel Many are the stories told of courage and the sheep to proceed, one of the shepherds magnanimity among the Canarians and of went forward to ascertain the cause of daring among the Spaniards in this dying alarm, and saw what appeared to him to struggle of a brave and noble race. The be a woman dressed in strange and beautilast stand was made in 1783. All the ful garments standing in front of a cave. fighting men of the Guanches, now num- He made signs to her to get out of the bering only 600, about 1000 women, and way, for it was against the custom of the the remaining nobles, were collected at a Guanches for a man to speak to a wonian fortified place called Ausite, and were if he met her in a lonely place. As she under the command of the youthful did not move, he became angry at what Guanarteme of Telde. The old chief or he considered the immodest behavior of Guanarteme of Galdar had in a previous the woman, and took up a stone to throw battle been taken prisoner and sent to at her, when his arm becaine immovable Spain, where he had been graciously re- in the position of throwing, and was in ceived by the king and queen. The splen- great pain. The other shepherd, seeing dor and power of Spain, and the pomp of what had happened, went up to the supthe Romish Church, made so profound an posed woman, and found her to be an impression on his mind, that he was bap- image, the band of which he tried to cut tized and returned to Gran Canaria deter- off with a sharp stone ; but, instead of mined to preach to his countrymen the succeeding, he wounded his own hand futility of further resistance. Ile mount- severely. Much alarmed, the shepherds ed to the fortress which contained all the repaired without delay to the king, and shrunken strength of Gran Canaria, the told him what had happened. He assemremnant of the army of 14,000 fighting bled his council, and with them and a men after seventy-eight years' struggle great concourse of people he went to the with sticks and stones against the arms, spot where the shepherds declared they the ships, and the resources of Europe. would see the image, and they found it He was received with respect, silence, and standing as before at the mouth of the tears. He urged his point, and he gained cave. No one, however, durst touch it, it. The Canarians laid down their arms but the king commanded the two shepand surrendered. Not so, however, the herds to take it up reverently, and immeyoung Guanarteme of Telde, who was be- diately they did so they were cured. At trothed to the daughter of the chief of this the king declared that the image was Galdar. Going to the edge of the preci- divine and that no one should carry it but pice with the old faycar, or high priest, himself, and he took it up and set it in a they embraced each other, and, calling cave, where it remained and became an upon

their God, “ Atirtisma ! Atirtisma !" object of adoration. A hundred years they perished together by leaping into the later Diego de Herrara became anxious to abyss. Shortly afterward the disconsolate possess this sacred image, and, landing bride was baptized and married to a Span- from Lancerote with a party of Guanches ish grandee, Don Ferdinando de Guzman, who knew where the image was, he secretand thus was consummated the conquest ly conveyed it away and placed it in the of Gran Canaria.

cathedral at Rubicon. The Peak of El Teyde, constantly But the Virgin was faithful to her vomiting forth fames and lava, long pro- Guanches of Teneriffe, and to the dismay tected Teneriffe from invasion ; but the of Diego de Herrara and his wife, Donna Innes Peraza, the image was found every turning with his booty when, in crossing morning with its face turned to the wall, a deep defile or barrancho, the King of though it was daily replaced. They de- Taora fell upon him with 300 Guanches cided at last to restore it to Teneriffe, and and put him to rout, massacring 700 of with this purpose set sail with a fleet of his troops. The place is called now Manvesse's and anchored in a port of Tene- tanza de Centejo (the slaughter of Cenriffe. Diego was met by the King of tejo) in memory of this battle. Broken Guiamar with an armed force, but when and discouraged, Alonzo set sail from he found that Diego had only come to re- Teneriffe, and landed in Gran Canaria, turn the sacred image le loaded him with whence he sent to Spain for funds and gifts and gave him free permission to send men. In a short time he returned to vessels to trade with Teneriffe. Acting Teneriffe with an army of 1000 foot and on this treaty of commerce, Sancho Her- 70 horse. He landed at Santa Cruz and rara, the son of Diego, was allowed to marched to Laguna. At Taora he met the land and build a fort at what is now known armed and united forces of the Guanches, as Santa Cruz. Disputes presently arose with whom he had several fights. The between the two peoples, but it was agreed Guanches were, however, so deeply imthat when such occurred the delinquent pressed with the order, fighting qualities, should be delivered to the offended party and seemingly endless resources of the to be punished as thought fit. On a com- Spaniards, that they concluded that it was plaint of sheep-stealing being made against useless to contend with them, and assemsome Spaniards they were delivered to the bling all the chief men of the island, they Guanches, who, after reprimanding them, demanded a conference with Alonzo. sent them back to their own people ; soon They asked him what had induced the afterward a complaint of injury was made Spaniards to invade the island, to plunder against the Guanches, who were accord- the Guanches of their cattle, and to carry ingly given over to the mercy of Sancho the people into captivity ? To which Herrara ; but he, forgetting the example Alonzo replied that his sole motive was of clemency shown him by the Guanches, his desire to convert them to Christianity. had all the accused hanged. The Guanches After due consideration the Guanches dewere so enraged at this want of generosity cided to accede to Alonzo's wish and to that they rose up and drove the Spaniards become Christians, and within a few days out of the island, and razed the fort to the the whole of the inhabitants of Teneriffe ground.

were baptized. So rejoiced was Alonzo In 1493 Alonzo de Lugo arrived at at this peaceable termination of the war Teneriffe with fleet of ships and 1000 that he founded a hermitage on the spot, armed men, determined to effect the con- and called it Nuestra Señora de la Vicquest of the island. There were five toria. kings of Teneriffe, and of these four at once submitted and made terms with the Umbrageous Palma had long been a invader. The statues of these traitor coveted possession by the Spaniards, but kings adorn the market-place of Santa excepting numerous marauding expediCruz to this day. But the King of Taorations in search of slaves, its conquest was refused to submit; he rallied his fighting not seriously attempted until Alonzo de men to the nuinber of 300, and demanded Lugo took it in hand in 1490. Having of Alonzo what he wanted ; to which the borne his part in the conquest of Gran Spanish captain replied that he came only Canaria, Alonzo grew tired of inactivity, to court his friendship, to convert him to and returned to Spain to obtain funds for Christianity, and to make him a vassal of a fresh adventure, and received from the the King of Spain. To this the King of king a grant of the conquest of Palma and Taora replied that he despised no man's Teneriffe. He landed at Tassacorta in friendship, that he knew nothing of Chris- Palma, and marched inland. The only tianity, and that as to becoming a vassal difficulty met with was at the Caldera, a of the King of Spain, he was born free vast extinct crater with its rugged sides and he would die free. Alonzo continued clothed with forest trees and seamed by to press forward with his troops, and pene- streams. Here the king and his followers trated into the island as far as Oratavo, made a final stand against the invaders, where he looted the country and was re- who were unable to dislodge them. The

a

next morning Alonzo proposed a confer- fighting Gomerans prisoners, and having ence and promised the king that if he and induced the mutineers to surrender on the his followers would submit to the King of promise that they should pass out unSpain, their liberties and properties would harmed, he put all above fifteen years of be respected and preserved to them. To age to death, " some being hanged, others this the king replied that if Alonzo would drowned, and others drawn asunder by return to the foot of the mountain he horses, and the women and children would come next day and make his sub. were sold as slaves. On hearing that the mission. But treachery was found Gomerans in Gran Canaria had declared quicker remedy than treaties, and the un- that they would treat any one who offered suspecting natives were, on approaching an insult to their wives and daughters as the Spanish troops, attacked and cut to Hernand Peraza had been treated, he pieces and their king taken prisoner. The seized in one night about 200 Gomerans ; anniversary of this day is celebrated in the men he put to death, and the women Palma as that on which the whole island and children he sold as slaves Thus sadly submitted to the King of Spain and the the Guanches learned the lessons of civHoly Cburch.

ilization.

Of this interesting race scarcely any The end of the story of the Guanches is trace now remains. In Teneriffe, where soon told. Their conquerors forgot as the resistance had been less determined, soon as convenient the precepts of the the natives intermarried with their Spanish holy religion in the name of which the conquerors, and the type of the modern conquest had been made, and the cruelties Teneriffian is obviously that of a mixed and oppressions practised by them on the race ; the Spanish character is also molliremaining inbabitants of the once Happy fied by Guanche blood, and the Teneriffe Islands are as horrible as any recorded of people are known as being peculiarly genthe sixteenth century. In Gomera, the ile and docile. Gran Canaria was so degovernor, Hernand Peraza, being detected populated by the long struggle that it was in an intrigue with a native woman, was colonized from Spain, and the lands were killed by one of her relations in the act of divided among the colonists. Hierro bequitting her cave. Goaded into rebellion, came so bare that it was colonized from and encouraged by the murder of their Flanders. Palma had the same fate. In tyrant, the Gomerans rose and imprisoned Gomera the conquerors boasted that in a bis widow, the beautiful and cruel Donna few years they had reduced the populaBeatrix Bobadilla, in the castle of the tion to 1000 natives, who were driven into port, which was closely invested. Donna the mountains. Of pure-blooded Guanches Beatrix sent word to Don Pedro de Vera, none remain.

Sold into slavery, masgovernor of Gran Canaria, to come and sacred, robbed of their possessions and help her, which he did with men and degraded, thus perished miserably a race ships; he raised the siege, released Donna who, though uncultured, had learned the beatrix, and marched against the rebels, secret of happiness and good government. who had retired to a mountain fastness. - Cornhill Magazine. By a stratagem he first made all the non

TELEPATHY.

BY REGINALD COURTENAY.

The term telepathy must not be intro- transference” has much too limited a meanduced without explanation. Some term ing: And“ telepathy” is already in use. not yet in common use must be employed It has been adopted by the Society for when mental phenomena, -intluences of Psychical Research, and among other writ. mind on mind, -not generally seen to be ers, especially by Mr. Edmund Gurney in closely related, have to be classed to- his very remarkable work, “ The Phangether, and, if possible, brought under tasms of the Living." The well-estab- . one law. The familiar term thought lished facts there recorded are more than sufficient to demonstrate, by cumulative is good reason to believe that the same evidence of the strongest kind, the reality laws are at work in regions widely disof the influences called telepathic. But I similar. One may even suspect that, like dispense with his cases. For my own sat- electricity in the material universe, so this isfaction, at least, I have enough of my mysterious agent in the region of the own.

human mind, whether perceptible or not, In Mr. Gurney's book telepathy is not is still of universal operation, manifesting defined exactly as I would define it here. itself sometimes naturally, sometimes under With him it is “ the ability of one mind artificially produced conditions. to impress or be impressed by another With me this suspicion has gradually mind otherwise than through the recog- strengthened, until I have scarcely any nized channels of sense. Preferring the doubt that this agency is truly universal. actual to the possible, I would say that I find it certainly at work in the land of “telepathy is an impression or effect pro- dreams, for one may dream of that which duced by one mind upon another other

another person

is doing, or has lately wise than through the recognized channels done, or thought of ; and if I give comof sense,”

or

through no known me- monplace instances of this, they are nó dium." That such effects sometimes more to be despised on tbat account than occur, under conditions known or un- are the electric movements of a straw. Inknown, is as certain as it is at present un- deed they are all the more valuable, as accountable. When, for instance, I awake being further removed from the apparentany one out of deep mesmeric sleep, so ly supernatural. To give, first of all, the called, which I have myself produced, by simplest. a few transverse passes of the hand at the Many years ago, when residing in the distance of several yards, and so slight West Indies, two young children of mine that they could not be felt or heard by were allowed to amuse themselves with a him, with, it must be added, a full inten- set of red and white ivory chess-men, but tion to awake him, and confidence in my

not to take them into their nursery. One power to do so, while similar movements morning, just before waking, their mother made by a bystander, with whatever ac- dreamed that she received a letter from companying mental effort on his part, England, enclosing the head or upper half would have no effect at all, I exercise a of a red ivory knight, from a friend, who telepathic influence - I produce a tele- supposed that the piece must belong to pathic effect. Of the reality of this mys- her. On entering her nursery not many terious influence the proofs are innumer- minutes afterward, a little boy ran up to able ; but even from a single well-estab. her, crying, “See what I have found !" lished fact of the kind, one might not and holding up the identical piece dreanut unreasonably suspect the existence of a law of -- the knight's head. The chances of nature formerly unknown, and of the against this, considered as a mere coincidiscoverable operation of which who shall dence, are enormous. Supposing it not predict the range !

improbable that there should be some It was at first seemingly a slight thing dream relating to one of the pieces used that a straw or other light body is attract- in the gaine of chess, and not improbable ed to, and will for a time adhere to, amber even that it should be the prominent feator sealing-wax or glass which has under- ure in the dream, still it might with equal gone brisk friction ; yet this was one of probability have occurred on any day the first stepping-stones toward the dis- within a certain period of three years. covery of the mysterious agent which we And even supposing it not improbable, term electricity, -an agent operating though in fact it was an isolated case, throughout all matter, animate and inani- that a piece should get into the nursery, mate, reaching from the earth to the sun, the coincidence in time remains to be acand probably to the utmost bounds of the counted for, and also the identity of the seemingly infinite ether, and yet not in- piece found with that dreamed of. I caltractable, but lending itself in most vari- culate the chances at more than one hunous ways to the service of man.

dred thousand to one. So with each new telepathic fact, how- On the telepathic theory of a mental ever seemingly trivial ; a higher standpoint sympathy between the mother and her is attained, the horizon widens, and there child, all is perfectly simple. The child,

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