a woman." Now that he saw the change harem, and that neither law nor public in her he was startled and shocked as she opinion can touch him there. I hare threw herself at his feet and begged him known English women married to Mosto put an end to her life if he would, but lems who, having in their own persons not to send her back.

experienced the reality of such a life, have The father's heart was awakened, and made it the one object of their lives to she was tenderly cared for, but a long and get their daughters out of the clutches of severe illness followed, in which all hope that religion, so baneful to women, before of life was given up by the doctors. they reached the age considered marriage

Her father took into consultation men able among Moslems. I could call witlearned in Moslem law, and sent deputa: nesses to the bitter tears and restless, tion after deputation to his son-in-law en- sleepless anxiety with which an English treating him to divorce her, and saying mother watched the innocent gambols of how utterly incapable she was of returning her infant daughter, although her own to be his wife. The unhappy father husband was a inan of education, of great offered not only to remit her dowry and wealth, and of a most influential position. give up all claims to any property which He had been often in England and France, she had left in the harem, but to pay any and spoke the languages of both those sum of money demanded within reason. countries with ease. He was as good a

Again and again the same answer came husband as his religion would allow him back, “I will not divorce her ; she is my to be, and after years of continued tears wife and must come back.” Cadis and and entreaty on the part of his wife he moollahs were sent to expostulate with actually was bold enough to wink at the him, but he laughed at all they said. mother's fleeing with the child to a place “He wanted her back, sick or well, and of refuge. For this amount of kindness he would bave her ; not because he loved he was called to account by the ulemas her, but to show her the consequences of and learned men of his religion, on the trying to escape him. He was a Moslem, plea that it was a heinous sin against the and would brook no interference between Koran to keep his daughter where she himself and the inmates of his harem. could not be married to a Moslem. He Mashalla ! They would laugh at his beard was ordered to command her return, but if they could get off so easily."

her mother hid ber and changed her own His fiendish looks as he said this fright- name. This was some years ago, and I ened even those hardened men, and they do not know what the sequel has been. advised her father to keep her carefully Having given an instance of a husband's hidden, lest she should fall a victim to cruelty as shielded by the Koran and the her husband's cruelty.

Mobammedan religion, I will now proceed Shall I–dare I-put on paper what his to show how a naturally amiable and next message was ? I did not see it done good hearted man is bid to look upon his myself. I was told-yes, I was told on wife by the light of that same Koran. good authority and in bated whispers-- On an Austrian steamer I met an Egypwhat it was. He took her two sons, who tian Effendi who seemed a man of intelliwere also his sons- s—those little darling gence and wealth. He had his wife with boys—he took them, wrung their necks, him, and had secured the ladies' cabin and sent their dead bodies still palpitating for her. There she remained with her to show her what he had in store for her! three little children and a black slave,

The young mother, not yet twenty, never coming out once for a breath of never raised her head after the one wild fresh air during the whole voyage. shriek she gave, and in a few days she too The Effendi spoke of her in a very patdied, the victim of despair.

ronizing, good-natured sort of way. He This is no exaggerated tale, no piece of told ine that he was just returning from sensational fiction. If I dared give names Europe, and that, having been obliged to and dates, I am not sure but what now at go there on business, he had taken bis the present moment there are some in wife with him, to have an operation perEngland who could corroborate my state- formed on her eyes for cataract, she being ment. But what need have I of wil- perfectly blind through that disease. nesses ? Every Moslem knows that his re- On my showing some surprise at his inligion gives him supreme control in his curring so much trouble and expense for a wife, this being an uncommon thing for This law demands no reason from the a Moslem to do, he said, “ It is sowab (a husband for divorcing his wife ; nor does meritorious action) that she should be en. it give her any claim or legal power by abled to look upon her children. It is which she may oppose his wishes in this sowab with God. To see a blind dog who respect ; and it is in the selfishness of cannot look upon her puppies is a painful human nature that the strong shall triumph sight. How much more a human being ! over the weak, and consider any and every for after all a woman is a human being. exercise of power, however subtle or cruel But now that she can see them she has it may be, as only the natural right and nothing more to wish for and is very due given to man by God. grateful to me.”

Man's will, capricious and fickle and All this and much more of the like na- totally unreasonable though it be, being ture was said with an air of great benevo- made, therefore, the pivot on which these lence and condescension, and although he marriages rest, surely we know enongh to looked and spoke as if he knew that he be sure, in spite of all that Philo-Moslems had done a very praiseworthy and humane may say, that the life of a Mohammedan action, which showed the goodness of his woman is by no means to be envied. nature, I was bound to give him his due. Much has been written about " woman's It was indeed, especially thirty years ago, rights,” and “women of to-day,” but a wonderful thing for a Moslem husband the old words uttered thousands of years to do. Perhaps the fact that the three ago by our Saviour Himself, What, children were all boys had something to therefore, God hath joined together let do with it, for most Moslems are very not man put asunder, have given woman fond and proud of their sons.

her real status in this world. That she It is said the Koran enjoins the kind takes her place as a helpmeet to man she treatment of the wife, and so it does after owes to the Christian religion, and never a fashion which yet clearly gives full in the Moslem's Koran will she find such Jicense to the way the Moslems treat their courage and strength as in the beautiful wives. It says, “ Treat them kindly ; words, written by an inspired Apostle, and if ye would leave them, may God or- “ Husbands, love your wives, even der it for the best.''

would Christ also loved the church, and gave change your wives for others, take not aught Himself for it.”-Nineteenth Century. back from what ye had given them.


If ye



My first residence in Sofia was the Hotel instructors, it has remained untenanted Imperial in the Rakovska Ulitza, histori- except by the cavasses and Russian setters. cally the principal street of the capital. Its shuttered windows and closed iron At the top right-hand corner stands the gates mark the continued protest of the Russian Legation, a solid, square-looking White Czar against the powers that now pile in gray stone looking out over the be in Sofia. Walking past one afternoon Balkans to the north, and Mount Vitosh with M. Stamboloff, he glanced at the to the south. Since the withdrawal of building and, struck with a sudden recolthe Imperial Commissioner and military lection, remarked* It would perhaps be more correct to style of Slivnitza was fought-a glorious sun,

" It was on just such a day that the battle the following pages extracts from a casual, since I have not trusted to memory

not a breath of wind, and the roar of the for the details of conversations, all of which cannon sounding as close as if they were were jotted down at the time, and may be not a kilometre distant. I had driven in taken as almost verbatim reports. Rather from the field in the morning with Major than change the speakers' words, I have pre; H4, and we both thought the Serbs ferred simply to reproduce them, which will explain and excuse their frequent bluntness must have made some flank movement, of style.

and be approaching from the opposite


direction to that by which we expected conspiracy, was expelled. It was a wellthem. It was, I suppose, some peculiar known rendezvous for revolutionaries, and echo from the Vitosh. After seeing M. is now closed awaiting better times. Tsanoff (Minister for Foreign Affairs), When the Russian Legation takes down I sent him to the Russian Agency for ad- its shutters, the Hotel Vitosh may follow vice, and then returned myself to the bat- suit. Going on, we have the Octroi Statle. Tsanoff was badly received, and all tion on the left, and the house of M. he got was a shrug of the shoulders, and Grékoff, Minister for Foreigu Affairs, on a curt rejoinder— Even if the Serbs were

the right.

Lower down, the new club already at the gates, as they will be soon, house of the “Slavianska Beséda,” where I will undertake to send them back if your a Bohemian opera troupe perforins on Ministry will depose Prince Alexander.' such nights as the great hall is not engaged This was not to be thought of, and he for public balls, and on the right the left at once in a rage.

At five o'clock he Union Club, of more modest appearance, received my telegram announcing our com- the daily resort of most of the diplomatic plete victory. He jumped into a carriage, corps and resident foreigners, with an and, with my message in his hand, went equal contingent of leading Bulgarians. straight to the Legation. There he found Next door lives M. Guesshoff, ex-Minister M. Koyander, with all his staff, and sev- of Finance and a brilliant scholar, and we eral ladies, taking their afternoon tea in pass the Italian Legation with its familiar the drawing-room. Congratulate us,' he tame eagle in the courtyard, to come to cried, as he entered, we have won the the Central Post and Telegraph Station. day.' 'Impossible ! What a shame !' Nearly opposite is the Utchastuk, or guardwas Koyander's reply. That was all the house, where Panitza was confined after sympathy we had from our Russian pro. his attempt to bribe the jailers of the tectors.

Black Mosque. It was here that by speThe next house to the Russian Legation cial favor I had an interview with him beis that of Madame Teneff, once Madaine fore the trial commenced, in order to obPanitza. It was the scene of the theatri- tain denial or confirmation of the stories cal arrest of the Major by the Prime Min- that were being circulated of his maltreatister himself in the dead of night. The ment. These he denied totally, and danger of the partially revealed plot was seemed in good health, with that confiimminent and of unknown proportions, dence in his own salvation which prisoners and Panitza's violent character made the in his case so often display. Lastly, at question of his seizure a difficult one. the right-hand bottom corner of the street There was no time to lose, and rather than proper, before it winds away to lose itself trust to subordinate officials who might be in the fields, lies the house of the Prime either in league with the culprit or cowed Minister himself. by his bluster, M. Stamboloif decided to It is a small unpretentious whitewashed act himself. Unarmed and alone he en- villa with green venetians and nothing to tered the bedroom, and bade Panitza fol. mark it from a hundred similar ones exlow him as his prisoner. A loaded re- cept the presence of the sentries who pa. volver was lying on a table beside the bed, trol the two sides open to the road. The but the desperado never thought of resist- visitor hands his card to one of these, who ing the cool command of a courage supe- rings and passes it through the door rior to his own. It would be hard to find opened just half-an-inch wide. In a mina better instance of the power of moral ute comes the answer, either “ cannot represtige. A friend of Panitza's afterward ceive'' walk in.' The short halt on asked his wife why she at least had not the doorstep represents the usual half seized the opportunity and “shot down hour or more cut to waste in a Salle des the ruffian,'i adding that it would have Pas perdus, and the guest enters forthbeen quite legitimate, since Stamboloff's with. If somebody is already engaged presence was burglarious.

But the same with the master of the house, he is shown supreme disregard of personal danger into a side room with a table and a couple which had paralyzed the man had also of chairs, looking out into the back garsubdued the woman. Then comes the der, where a peasant girl is hanging out Hotel Vitosh, once kept by Arnaoudoff, the clothes on the bushes to dry. There who, convicted of participation in the is never long to wait, though, before the



communicating door opens and a cheery we consider that the earlier years of his voice invites him to pass. After the usual life were passed as an artisan and an exile, handshake M. Stamboloff subsides into a and that they were called into requisition rocking chair, and if in a happy mood, and put to the supremest tests before he talks and rocks indefinitely till disturbed had reached the age when most of our by a fresh call. The study where he re- European statesmen had only begun their ceives is the cosey room of a worker. One training. Even now he is only five-andangle is crossed by the writing table under thirty, having already been in possession which a magnificent bearskin carpets the of alinost dictatorial powers for three years. floor, and a repeating rifle leans against For M. Stamboloff's policy and manner the wall ready to hand. The plain deal of carrying it out, I cannot do better than boards on trestles which take up another quote his own words from my note-book, side of the room are littered with maps where I find him saying on March 1st, and plans for the ports of Varna and 1890 :Bourgas, and various municipal schemes, “The story of our trying to dissemble together with a heterogeneous pile of the Russian participation in the Panitza plot day's letters and telegrams, which arrive is most ridiculous. Indeed I do not know every few moments, A buge cupboard what we could do that we have not done, full of State papers and surmounted by a and that we are not doing, to show our stuffed owl completes the furniture. In contempt for Russia, and our resolve not personal appearance M. Stamboloff is short to be bullied by her. We are a little and thick-set, with a rapidly growing ten- State, but we form an impenetrable bardency to stoutness. He was once very rier, so long as we subsist, to Russian adthin : “ before he married,” as he re

My own idea was, long before I marks with a twinkle in his eyes ; but came to power, and will be to the end, marriage and the quiet of home, in ex- though I may never see its realization, a change for the somewhat riotous living of Confederation of the Balkan States. Sinhis youth, have marvellously agreed with gly, it seems to me, they must inevitably him. His hair is thinning over his capa- fall

, and when they are out of the way cious forehead and is clipped close on his Russia can do what she likes with Concheeks, leaving a small imperial, and mus- stantinople. And just as we are necestache not thick enough to hide the mouth. sary to Constantinople, so are the Turks His eyes are small and set deep under necessary to us. Another power at Stamheavy brows, while he has a habit of half boul, Russia, England, Germany-any closing them, which makes them look other, -would mean the end of Balkan smaller still. It is only when angered nationalities. We are anxious to keep up that they open fully and blaze like flame. the bond with Turkey if she will only for His voice is low but clear, and his usual once shake off her lethargy and indecision delivery rapid. In ordinary talk, he sel- and help us. We want no material help, dom raises his monotone, but in public but merely the moral support of her recog speaking, or when animated, his organ is nition of our status. It has cost us enough Hexible, and, aided by look and gesture, to arrive at what we are, and it has cost very expressive.

Turkey nothing. I am urged to declare Such is a rough sketch of the outer the independence at once, but I may tell man on whose energy and self-control the you that we have appealed to the Porte fate of the Balkan Peninsula has really lately, within the last fortnight, to recogdepended for several years past. Any nize the Prince. We have no answer ; swerving from the policy he has upheld I do not suppose we shall get one. It is would quickly embroil Bulgaria with her the eternal shilly shally of Stamboul which neighbors ; any false step toward the ruins them and us. If, however, the Powers might bring about a general war. Porte refuses, I do not say that we shall It requires inexhaustible patience to deal not be forced to declare ourselves free. with provocations from Bulgaria's equals How would it be done! Not openly at among the nations, and no common firm- first, but merely by omitting to pay the ness to resist alike threats and promises tribute. This would open the door to from her superiors. These qualities M. official explanations, and we could, and Stamboloff possesses to an extraordinary should, say that if the parent threw off the degree, all the more extraordinary when child, the child would decline any longer

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to recognize the parent. I do not know ment was that a regency represented eswhat the result would be at first, but I am sentially, by its very nature, a temporary sure that all Bulgaria would be with us. and provisional rule, and it was not under The present situation is so intolerable that a regency that Bulgaria could ever hope it cannot last. Learing the Government to be free. We must have a prince, with out of the question, the strain on the a prospect of a dynasty, and it was not Prince is prodigious. It is not fair to him easy to find one. At first we wanted to have to run all the risks and bear all King Charles of Roumania. We offered 'the burdens of Prince of Bulgaria without him the throne, but he refused.

At one being recognized as such.

such. There are time we would even have taken King very few men who would do it. I may Milan, not knowing bis character, but frankly say that I doubt if I would my- after the Servian war it was impossible to self, but he has determined never to leave, put the king of the vanquished over us and you may be quite sure that he will the victors, and we were lucky to have die at Sofia, whether as recognized Prince been saved froin him.” And again, on

uncrowned ruler. And why, in another occasion—“As far as Bulgaria Heaven's name, should not the Powers internally is concerned everybody recog. agree to his recognition ? It is merely nizes the Prince, who was duly elected by the timidity of Turkey and the rage of ourselves in National Assembly. The Russia, both hypocritically backing them- only reason, in fact, I want him recogselves up by the Berlin Treaty. It has nized by the Porte, is to be able to shake been infringed often enough for us not to the people's belief in the prestige of Rushave any very delicate scruples about the sia. They have been accustomed to look letter of it. The spirit of the infraction on the power of Russia as next, and nearly -as far at least as Bulgaria is concerned equal, to that of God. Russia has said -was recognized years ago. The fact is, that Prince Ferdinand shall not be

recogthat Russia has been mistaken all through nized, and I wish to show that Russia's about Bulgaria. Her first idea was to get word is not infallible nor her will omniphold of Servia, but failing there, she otent. hoped to get a tool in a new State, which A few days after the despatch of the she created for no other purpose, quite first spring note M. Stamboloff said, forgetting that when once endowed with " When M. Vulkovitch handed my letter political shape and form and material to the Grand Vizier he was probably somestrength, Bulgaria had brains to see that what disturbed, and communicated his salvation lay, not with Russia, but rather feelings to the ambassadors. It was thus with Turkey. Russia has never yet been that it reached Berlin. Up till now no able to swallow this pill, but with idiotic notice has been taken of our request. I obstinacy continues to attempt to blind- remain entirely of the same opinions which fold and gag us, and to persuade all Eu- I have already expressed. Some Minisrope that we ought to be nothing else than ters inerely retain their portfolios for the an advanced guard for her.”

glory of sitting in the seat of office, but At this time things were wearing rather one who undertakes the duties with the a dispiriting aspect, and from the preced- will and determination of doing his best ing conversation it will be seen that the for the country, does not shrink from remind of the Premier was already more sponsibility. I have never shrunk from than half made up concerning the de- mine, and never will, and I repeat that spatch of the final note some months later unless the Porte makes concessions, we demanding the appointment of the Mace- will declare our independence. It promdonian bishops and the recognition of the ised three years ago to recognize the prince Prince, of which more

He has we should elect, and it has never done so. often been blamed for precipitancy in the I do not fear the consequences of declarelection of Prince Ferdinand against Rus- ing independence so much as those of insia's expressed disapproval, and on this action. If his Majesty the Sultan were to head I find him saying : “ We had im- write to me three hundred times that he mense difficulties in the past under the would declare war, I should not believe Regency, before electing a prince. All it. Because what could he gain? Merethe foreign diplomatic agents tried to dis- ly, at the very uttermost, the re-establishsuade me from the step. But my argu- ment of the status quoof the Treaty of


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