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formation. The parents of the children were and adds at the end of the paragraph, “We mostly agricultural laborers. The examiner can only suggest that the wants of the read. was dealing with grammatical “diminutives,” ing public are becoming more and more and particularly with the force of the sufix satisfied with newspapers, reviews, and magakine.g., mannikin, a little man, etc. On his zines, and that authors consequently find asking the lads to give him a few examples of their own best market in the same field." such“ diminutives," a number of eager hands This view is confirmed by the classified table was soon raised. The gentleman, much grati. . of publications during 1890. The decrease fied at such a ready response to his question, in the number of new books and new editions pointed to one of the lads for an answer, is very nearly the same as that recorded for “ Lambkin, a little lamb," was the reply. 1889. In educational works and books for the “ Very good indeed," said the inspector ; and amusement of the young, we find higher fig. he pointed to another lad. “ Tomkin, a little ures. Of novels there are not quite so many as Tom,'' was the answer. The gentleman some- in 1889, and yet the reader of fiction has had what demurred at this, but finally accepted it. provided for him almost three new novels per He then pointed to a further lad. “ Buskin, diem, besides one in a new edition for each a little 'bus !" was the response. The in- week-day. Perhaps the most striking fact to spector's countenance fell. Now, my lads,'' note is that artistic works, whether new or in he pleaded, “do take time to think before you new editions, have dropped to about half the speak. The last answer was altogether wrong.” number put forth in the preceding year. And he pointed to a little yokel behind who, Poetry at first sight seems to be idler, but the in his desperate eagerness to catch the in. increased number of new editions shows that spector's eye, had ventured to half mount at all events public taste does not flag in that upon the form.

'Well, you, my lad ?" said direction. Belles-lettres, too, as a class, does the inspector, pointing at last to this young not suffer by comparison with the production hopeful. Pumpkin, sir, a little pump !" of 1889. Here, too, the number of reprints

“ The Irish are so called because they live is also in excess, showing that interest in pure in the island of Ireland. It is a beautiful literature or standard works is not on the decountry as is chiefly noted for three prinsipal cline. Lastly, books which have to be ranged classes of things, which is namely, its great under miscellaneous" are greater in num. greenness, its big bogness, and its little sham. ber than those of 1889.-Publishers' Circular, rocks. It says in our lesson books as green is the favorite color with all the Irish great and “ LIEUTENANT GRANT OF THOBAL" seems quite small classes. Shamrock is nothing but a lit- indisposed to look upon his gallant achieve. tle bit of green clover. But the Irish love it. ment as a final attempt to win glory at the They cant manyfacture things in Ireland same cannon's mouth, or, indeed, as anything beas we can in England, from a trackion ingin yond a mere incident or accident of a sol. to a sowing needle. But still the Irish many. dier's career. When telegraphed to by the facture the follering classes of things very ex- Viceroy in terms of congratulation and praise, seedingly, namely, Linin, bacon, shop eggs, he modestly replied that, with such men as and whisky. The Irish are nearly as fond of he had with him, the work was easy. An anbacon as they are of potatos ; and as for that swer worthy of a good soldier and a brave there whisky, the Irish love it. The hearts of

man, And only on Wednesday [week] the the Irish, the book says, are all very warm. public read, to its sorrow, that one of those If you was walking out in the country and wounded in the attack on the Manipuris near you met a pore man, you could easily tell Palel was young Grant, who probably was whether he was an Irishman ; for if he was an given a place in the expedition almost by proIrishman, he would perhaps be in a pashion scriptive right. Our sincere sympathy is with and have a pig with him."

Lieutenant Grant's father, Lieutenant-Gen.

eral Grant, to whom this untoward occurrence ANALYTICAL TABLE OF BOOKS PUBLISHED IN must be a great blow. We earnestly hope 1890.–The Academy remarks that the sta- that the hardy young Scot, who held a little tistics of books published in the United army in check for days with a mere handful States during 1889 show the same decrease, of natives, will soon get over his wound, and as compared with the figures for the pre- once more resume the war-path, to which he ceding year, as the corresponding figures of seems to take with hereditary readiness. – the tables issued by the Publishers' Circular, Broad Arrow.

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We all recognize, more or less, the ex- to atrophy by long disuse of the divers istence and raison d'être of the moral con- qualities of which it is composed, or we science, that factor which guides man's have rendered it tough and unimpressionaction, and bids him control his desires able with the cicatrices of many wounds on the borderland, a little to one or other we have torn in its once delicate surface. side, of his neighbor's interests. This Whatsoever we may do in practice, therestraining sense, which impels him to oretically we are all agreed as to the imconsider himself, not only in relation with portance of developing to the full

, and his fellows, but likewise in his relation maintaining the vitality of this principle, toward that higher man whom evolution which subtends our moral growth and sets before him as his model, and in whose progress. It is curious that equally with shadowy presence he is ashamed, this re- the existence of a moral conscience there straining sense we allow to be a symptom has not also been discovered and described of the healthy sensitiveness of the moral a physical conscience, whose duty toward nature, and according to its degree of de- the body is precisely the same as is that of velopinent and its condition of sensitive- the moral conscience toward the mind. ness we consider the particular mind to The healthy moral conscience, with its which it belongs as being highly organized vanguard the moral imagination, is ever and in a state of health.

aspiring to a higher level of action ; and Some of us are born without any very has not the body likewise a conscience great possessions in ti tion. Some which, in exactly the same way, strives to of us have permitt ealthy faculty maintain the normal level, and, moreover, Now SERIES

So, 2


aspires according to its ability to get higher wrongs it was its own inherent duty to planes of physical health ? If we do a redress. dishonorable deed, we suffer from shame Physiologically speaking, an important and repentance ; if we do some injury to duty of each tissue is to reproduce tissue the body, our physical conscience cries similar exactly in character and equal in out in pain at the wrong inflicted. If our quality to itself. Existence goes on with moral consciousness be properly indignant the continued destruction and renewal of at our wrong-doing, it will not content those minute microscopic cells of which itself with mere remorseful imaginings, the body is composed. The body to-day nor is our bodily consciousness content is not the body of yesterday ; the wear with stoarting under the sense of injury, and tear of twenty-four bours' living has but sooner or later sets in motion a repar- resulted in the disintegration and reconative process to rectify the results of acci- struction of more or less of its cell condent.

stituents. We might imagine that the physical is A change of air will stimulate a flagging superior to the inoral conscience in that it conscience to a higher sense of duty, and seems generally to repair its wrongs; but, it will fulfil its better possibilities by putunfortunately, this is too often only seem ting in material of healthier type. The ing ; it unites the gaping wound, heals result is a sense of renewed life, a raising the patent injury, but in how few cases is of the vitality, a quickening of the nervous it so sensitive and efficient that it rests not powers. We come back from a holiday until the wrong has been fully rectified ! literally another person. But presently But too frequently it scamps its work, and the conscience falls into old lax ways, old puts in inferior material wherewith to indolent shiftless babits, and reconstructs unite the breach. The old scar breaks the body, not on its original lines of out afresh, after pretence for years of health, not according to its better possi. being healed ; just as a man's sin, of bilities, but on the slipshod methods of a which his smarting conscience bad pro- former defalcation. The benefit derived fessed to cure him, breaks out anew in is only temporary ; we sink back soon on wrong-doing.

to the same low health levels as heretoIn how many cases of rheumatic fever, fore. The fault lies largely with ourselves for example, does the body heal the in- in having ever tolerated these levels, in Hamed joints, and so renew them that the not having brought the conscience to book, victim does not suffer life-long miseries in not baving demanded from the first the from his ill. repaired tissues ? The chronic strict observance of its duty. rheumatism which is an almost invariable Recognizing the obligations and duty sequela of the acute illness is nature's life of this conscience, we should not permit long outery against inferior material which its temporary aberrations to become habits. has bern put in by an unworthy physical But how few of us ever give a thonght to conscience. Cancer very frequently takes the conservation of our health and its its starting point from the cicatrix of an maintenance at its bighest possibilities unold wound, a striking proof of the degen- til the demoralization of our physical conerate tissue which has been used for the science and its degraded levels are materepair of the wound, tissue which is not rially perilling the comfort of existence. only greatly inferior to the material it And then it is too late. The relaxed tone simulates, but is such an alien that it out of which health's elasticity is more or turns and rends the body which nurtures less gone cannot be strung to its normal .

pitch, the bad habit has become the sysIn all cases, and these are legion, in tem's chronic condition. Not only has which acute discase passes into chronic, the power of aspiration perished, but it the physical conscience has failed in its has lost footing even on the platforin duty ; it has failed to keep up the physi- whence it should have aspired. cal standard, whose guardian it is ; it has In many cases of acute illness the blame failed to supply, in the place of cells de- of this degeneration is not unshared by streyed by disease, cells equal to these in art, which steps in to incommode an alcharacter and vitality ; like many a guilty ready inefficient agent. Like the majesty moral consciousness, it spends the rest of of the law, which stretches out its mighty its days in bemoaning and bewailing the band and incarcerates the transgressor, who, repentant of his sins, was beginning thereupon experiencing no further inconto right the wrongs he had perpetrated, venience from its importunities, exclaims so also the majesty of medicine too often “I am well ;" just as we, having drugged lays its mighty hand upon the tardy physi- our war-correspondents and put our telecal conscience, soothes its remorse with graphic apparatus out of order, might, on sedatives, dulls its sensitiveness with opi- opening our morning paper, remark, ates, demands that it fulfil its repairing “Peace is restored, I see, because there contract to time, and so impels it to fill in is no news from the seat of war !" the breach with rough, unfinished mate- It sounds paradoxical to say that disease rial. There is no doubt but that we do is a normal healthy process, but this is harm by our indiscriminate relief of symp- strictly true. The phenomena of illness toms. Pain is a symptom of the sensitive- are the symptoms of a struggle which the ness of the nerves on guard at the seat of system is making in order to throw off disease, and this very pain,

66 wbich mis- some injurious influence, or to give rest likes us much,” acts as a never-failing to some disabled organ. The sufferer sentinel stimulating the brain to send its who, without even temporarily losing his armament of healthy blood, its quantum composure, can digest the bacillus taken of nutritive plasma, in order that the into his stomach, calmly converting it into bodily structure be rightly and properly his own substance, and so turning it to restored, restored on the plan of its orig- his own uses, or in his lungs can comfortinal construction, so delicately, minutely, ably oxygenate it into heat-producing and perfectly, that no man may detect a fuel, is in a better state of health than is weakened spot.

he who flies into a state of excitement, Medicine does well when she busies her- loses his head, and frets and fumes hinnself in stimulating and assisting a tardy, self into a fever in bringing his forces to inefficient physical conscience ; but she resist the attack ; but this latter is immust surely do injury when she opposes mensely superior in health to another the operations of a conscience which is whose physical morale is at so low an ebb healthily sensitive and active, and knows that it does not object to the noxious conbest along which lines the reparative proc- tact, but permits the entry of disease ess should proceed. We cannot blame germs into its citadel, and their free adthe doctor because his patient ignorantly mixture with and demoralization of its appeals to his sympathies against his own citizens. interests, but we must blame the art of Scarlet fever is the terrificd


of the medicine which does not teach both pa- childish physical conscience at the contact tient and doctor that the temporary incon- of the baleful germ ; the innocent compovenience of a symptom must not be con- sure is startled, the sensitive balance oversidered before the permanent interests of thrown. The tender skin glows with a a life. The patient's query to his phy- vivid blush at the touch of the intruder ; sician is not “ How long should I remain the scarlet rash is the danger signal mountin bed in order to restore my health to its ed by the sentinels of health, and at all original integrity ?” but “ How long, O, these outposts a vigorous attempt is made you Æsculapian tyrant, do you mean to to rout the foe. keep me here ?" He will not spare time Measles, diphtheria, typhoid, typhus, for an absolute and perfect recovery ; he small-pox, all these are phenomena of rehas so little consideration for his body, sistance made by the constitution against upon the condition of which his future some element of evil introduced into its well-being depends, that instead of grate- midst ; the various symptoms of these fully and religiously regarding its needs, several affections arising from the action he requires its warning cries to be stifled of the particular organs or glands to which in order that he may work out his own the body deputes the task of dealing with further wreckage unhindered.

The natural outcome of this demand is In scarlet fever the skin and throat are that the doctor must perforce use all his made the points of exit of the foe, and in art in so dulling the physical conscience forcibly thrusting bim through these gateand so blunting its sense of duty, that it ways friction and congestion and damage no longer cries out at its wrongs and asks result on the threshold. According to for restitution. The patient so treated the speed with which he can be ejected,

the enemy.

is the limit of his time and opportunity to of the body and its needs they must suf. deteriorate and injure the general health ; fer, even though they do not complain. according to the denseness and violence A man may sin and sin again, but we of his pumbers is the injury done on the cannot argue that because he feels no rethreshold of his expulsion. The special norse, because his blunted moral sense bas garrison whose duty it was to get rid of ceased to warn him of and struggle against him, may do so at the expense of its own his soul's contamination, that therefore existence. The foe may be thrust forth his evil-doing does not harm him. On while the garrison is left blocked by the the contrary, we look upon him as in a dead and dying, whose putrefaction and far lower depth of moral ill-health than is disintegration may poison the city it died he who sins and repents, and sins and rein defending. This is according to the pents, even though he sin unto seventy force and deadliness of the enemy, accord- times seven. ing to the quick sensitiveness of the con- Hospital nurses, just after return from science in perceiving his presence, its a holiday, more frequently than any other power of promptly and properly arraying time succumb to infectious disease. So its forces against him, and, last of all, of long as they remain in the germ-laden, dethe healthy integrity and efficiency of the pressing hospital air, they are far less liaforces so arrayed.

ble to infection. A rest and change to In considering the question philosophi- fresh, pure atmosphere raises the tone of cally, we can but regard a large class of the physical consciousness, makes it more diseases as symptoms of a reactionary appreciative of unwholesome influences, effort of health to throw out of the system and it rises at once in healthy rebellion some material or element inimical to it. against these ; whereas, in the deteriorated The capacity for sickness is, therefore, in condition which hospitalism induces, the a degree, a test of health, in that it is a system tolerates and makes no protest measure of the sensitiveness of the physi- against the germs which assail it. Such cal conscience. There are, cf course, per- possibilities of tolerance are, of course, a sons whose health is so perfect that their sacrifice of individual welfare to general physical, like their moral, conscience is expediency, but let us recognize them as able to dispose calmly of the evils which being only this ; do not let us flatter ourthreaten it; but there are more who only selves that the victims of such necessities by a temporary uprising and loss of bal- enjoy all life's advantages, and let us in ance can so bring their strength to resist justice to them lessen to the utmost the the ills that assail them. In still greater disadvantages of such necessitous circumnumber are they whose physical, like their stances. moral, consciences are not fastidious and Taking into consideration these facts, do not trouble to fight the shadowy foes we cannot but wonder if the “ protecof ideal life, moral or physical.

tion" offered us by the inoculators is not Men who work in sewers but rarely obtained by destroying the healthy innosuffer from typhoid fever and other simi- cence of the physical conscience. We lar diseases, to which noxious gases and must remember that the inoculator cannot noxious germs render other persons

liable. offer us freedom from attack; he promThey get used to it, and so it does not ises only to blunt the conscience so that its harm them, we say ; but if we properly composure shall not be disturbed when explain ourselves, we shall say that it is the attack is made. We must remember not because it does not harm them, but also that the reason for such disturbance because their physical sense is so blunted of our composure, the reason we are so by use that it is dumb under its injuries. prostrated that we must take to our beds For there can be no doubt but that the and suffer pain and thirst and fever, is behealth must suffer. It is impossible to cause onr forces are being used to vanquish continually breathe poison into the lungs a foe, because there is a struggle going on without suffering therefrom. The nega- within us, real and intense, in order that tive condition of not breathing in pure this foe shall not injure the perfect citadel fresh supplies of oxygen is perverted into of our health, an absolute injurious position of contam- But if no cry warn us that the invasion inating the blood with fætid gases. These is made, if no gathering of our forces men must suffer ; by the very constitution drain our strength, if no prostration allow

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