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progressive, it will be necessary to destroy with the rise of artificial liberty there are individual selfishness by widering the area signs of national trouble in the ballotof competition,-in opening all ports to box, the business of the nations, and freely ac That the adoption of Protection has incepting their goods. Even now it is evi- creased the spirit of selfishness, is evident dent, through the unequal diffusion of not alone in the United States. wealth, notwithstanding a broad average it everywhere in the national desire to of gain hitherto unparalleled, that the benefit at some other nation's expense, as rich are growing richer, and the poor if such a thing had never been shown to poorer. An oligarchy of the one rules a be impossible, by the laws of political democracy of the other. At the present economy. In America, however, this rate of procedure, and under the same spirit is beginning to make itself felt to fiscal system, it cannot be very long be- such an extent, that the people are before a line of demarcation will appear be- coming vaguely conscious, by the load of tween the two, and a return set in toward taxation they are compelled to bear, of the social state of ancient Rome. No the necessity for tariff reform. Unforother cause than the forcing of commerce tunately for themselves, it fell to the lot into unnatural channels, seems adequate of the republican party to endeavor to to explain the growing congestion ; for effect this end by promising a happy time only an eighth of the arable land is esti- to every one, and, per contra, a bad tirne mated to be under cultivation, no want of to the rest of mankind through the notoenterprise is shown by the people, nor rious M’Kinley bill. No measure could are there any internal checks on mercan- more clearly demonstrate the blindness tile transactions ; while in Great Britain which has fallen on political Americans, the late Trade Commission made clear owing to the cultivation of selfishness, that remuneration was almost even be- than the passing of this Act into law ; tween capital and work. Cobden discov- and it is undoubtedly a satisfactory thing ered long ago it was the interest of every that the recent elections have proved the country to arrange its finances on the nation at large to be more or less aware freest basis, so that imported articles of the fact. Still, the consequences aris. might enter into consumption at the cheap- ing internally out of national self-aggranest price. The Americans, however, hold dizement are seen at the bottom of nearly an opposite opinion, and have heavily every great question. Witness the action handicapped in foreign markets not only of President Cleveland, in rejecting the their farmers, but their manufacturers, by treaty negotiated by Mr. Chamberlain and the duties they levy on the introduction Sir C. Tupper, which was reported to the of raw materials. They broke the shackles Senate as fair and equitable ; and the of social despotism, but permitted the protracted negotiations over the right of politicians to reforge them under the guise fishing in Behring Sea, which has led Mr. of domestic welfare, and while glorying Blaine to trifle with the peculiarly Ameriin the delusion of an expression called can idea of arbitration. Both of these re
republican freedom," cling to class sults can be traced very clearly, as is genlegislation of the worst description. The erally believed, to the wish of securing a ancient boast of what democracy would party triumph, and yet in both the weldo for the United States and for the world fare of the country was overlooked ; for it has consequently become at the moment cannot be to the universal good that a little vain. The political liberation of strained relations should exist between the the individual, the great increase of mate two great branches of the Anglo-Saxon rial comfort, has not been followed up by race. a period of natural freedom, which would Not so very long ago there was pubhave carried the new conditions on into a lished at New York a small book called new era of progress, but with enormous “ Our Country,” which, although written possibilities lying at the hand of every from a theological standpoint, enjoyed, one, has been succeeded by years of arrest and still enjoys, a wide circulation. It -so far as the continuous amelioration of drew the attention of Americans to the the lot of the wage-earner is concerned - internal dangers menacing the Republic, that has created a false position, and en and struck a true note on the coming slaved the population as a whole, until supremacy of the West. It is granted by
every one that the builders of America American parentage may be nearly twowere men of deep conviction, and that thirds of the whole ; for the American the foundations of democracy were firmly franchise has been so easily obtained, laid. As their task proceeded, a unity sufficient time has not elapsed to allow of of purpose grew up which embraced the the absorption by the Anglo-Saxon Ameriimmigrants flying from European tyranny, can of the heterogeneous Europeans who, and who, according to Bancroft, “re- until that occurs, cannot be termed Ameri . nounced their nationality to claim the cans in the sense the original owners of rights of Englishmen.” With the achieve the country understand. The significance ment of independence, however, and the of all this has been so thoroughly grasped, cessation of all dread of outside interfer- that a new party is said to have been ence, local interests rose in prominence formed some time ago, “to uphold till the civil war became necessary to re American ideas of law, order, and educaassert harmony of action. Since then the tion," but into which no foreigner is admaterial progress of the country has been mitted. What, then, is in the future for so abnormal, so stimulated by the Pro- the American people, as viewed through tective spirit, that internal matters have the light of the present tendency ? been overlooked, and, as a natural result, The authors of the tariff are the capitalare once more coming to the front. They ists of the East, who, having had so far have taken their coloring from the policy the voting power in their hands, have been of the States, which, as we have said, has able to maintain exorbitant duties for pursued a course of selfishness toward the their own benefit. The West was opened commerce of the world, but in particular up at a ridiculous expense, the rate on to that of the United Kingdom, and are pig-iron, an article which most directly now so far developed as to render it al- affects the farmer, as it is the basis from most certain a real source of danger is at which all his tools are made, has been at hand. The " typical immigrant,” as the about $7, or 30s. a ton. A high cost of author of “Our Country” remarks,“ is production had therefore to be and still a European peasant whose horizon has is supported, which, as already declared, been narrow,
., and whose ideas of places the Western wheat grower in diffilife are low." He has migrated to such culties that have risen out of the competian extent, that there is now a large popu- tion of other nations, until it is almost a lation of foreign extraction ; but instead matter of existence to be able to produce of its being the means of concentrating cheaper. He is forced, however, by the experience, it furnishes the greatest per- tariff to supply his wants through the centage of crime.
Whole colonies of Eastern manufacturer, who cannot allow these immigrants annually go West, duties to be effectively reduced without where, in defiance of the example of their being satisfied to work in the light of wiser predecessors, they retain their na- competition at the minimuin of profit, a tionalities and free themselves from Ameri- thing he has not even brought hiinself to can influences. Already at Chicago, we think about. The M'Kinley bill shows, are told, the great majority of the people too, he will not allow them to be reduced. are foreign by birth or parentage ; and There is therefore to be seen, in the differ. even in the city of New York, if all for- ence between the interests of the East and eigners qualified themselves for the fran- the West, all the elements of political dischise, they could easily outvote the real cord and disruption, so that when ConAmericans ; while numbers scattered over gress is controlled by the West, a reversal the country are apparently under the of the policy of the East may be expected. impression that the ten commandments It is true a portion of the West has lately are not binding west of the Missouri.” favored the tariff, but it was only a part In the course of a few years, almost at of the political game, which will disappear present within view, as the centre of popu- as the centre of power is transferred, and sation advances, the West must dominate the inhabitants understand that developthe East, must "elect the executive and ment has been made at their expense, control legislation ;" for under manhood most notably in the matter of railway exsuffrage every man has an equal voting tension through the former monstrous value. It is of little moment that the price of steel rails. When this reversal population of American-born persons of takes place it can only lead to furious dis
sension, and the world will see enacted fostered, of dwelling on local consideraover again the spectacle of an assault on tions. Here, then, is the heart of the vested interests. The peril of the position matter. Ignorance and selfishness-the will then attain its height, and all will de- characteristics as we are told of a great pend on the temper of the people ; but part of the immigrant population, who we the drift of things to-day does not augar must not forget are mainly responsible well.
for the increase of crime-will add to the The folly of endeavoring to reconcile confusion of the moment, and these for. by Protection the wants of the New World eign Americans, still cherishing the tradiis thus painfully apparent, and the false tions and the language of their native stimulation of industry for a selfish end is homes, will snatch at the opportunity to working on to its natural conclusion, till obtain some advantage for their compresidential messages to Congress call for munities. The stupidity of having persuch changes as will prevent “financial mitted European nationalities to retain disturbance," the formation of their separate existences will be acknowl“schemes of public plunder.” It is a edged when too late to be easily remedied curious commentary, however, upon the -the recent Italian troubles at New Orhistory of manhood suffrage, to observe leans being a painful example ; while the how basely it has been used to subserve other interests, social and religious, will private interests to the detriment of the also strive for the mastery by endeavoring nation's, and 'what a capable instrument to guide the reins of government through of mischief it may become when worked the power of possessing the casting vote by a selfish democracy ; while having in Congress. În the general disorder that once gone persistently wrong on a funda- must everywhere follow, in the struggles mental question, it cannot recover itself for local ascendancy, the ultimate danger without giving rise to a period of even will be that of a federal nature, till, with unpremeditated retaliation. As it enables the exasperation of strife, party spirit will the East to maintain a tariff for its sole break loose and temporarily pass beyond benefit, it will hereafter be necessary for control, so that it would not be surprising the West, by the same power, to destroy if history should repeat itself and attempts that tariff and kill off the high-priced raw were made to form sınall independent material which is injurious to its develop- centres. Thus in a free state, selfishness, ment. Monopolies, cultivated by a free symbolized by Protection, turns on the democracy, will meet with their reward, heads of its worshippers. Without doubt but the democracy that encourages them the Anglo-Saxon may be trusted to secure is more imbued with the spirit of the his own salvation, as his instincts are those early Spaniard than with that of the Pil- of a conqueror ; but at the commencement grim Father. In the end, the sufferer he must be the chief loser from the liberty through it all will be the Eastern working that owes its origin to him, which he man, who upholds the present system in alone knows how to use with moderation, the belief it is his interest to do so ; for and that for the want of its natural exwhen capital has retired from the condi- pansion has reacted on himself to his tion it now occupies, as it certainly will great disadvantage. When, however, he do with the first breath of adversity, the finally reasserts his principles and levels artisan will be thrown on his resources. up democracy again to the point of prog: He does not see he is the tool of the capi- ress, the result, it is to be feared, will talist unless the question is one of wages, only have been arrived at over misery and and that the farmer will sacrifice him re- bloodshed, though with his victory would morselessly for the profits he has taken come that of Free Trade, and at the same out of the West. His notion of success time a true idea of unity. is centred in himself, the advancement of In the present day we hear a great deal his town or state, while the country at of the perfection of humanity, but little large is a geographical expression. The of that spirit of unselfishness which is the situation, however, having been created key-note of the Christian republic. The through the ballot-box, unity must suffer world, while full of experience, has hardly in the first instance, as Protection is the got beyond, in many respects, its primifather of provincialisms, and these will tive condition ; for though the stronger be called into play from the habit, long has ceased to make war upon the weaker,
in the literal meaning of the term, he sub- selfish view that the British people advojects him to its equivalent in an industrial cate the extension of free exchange. It is bondage which saps out existence by the only thing that can reconcile the inhopeless despair. Whatever inay be the terests of humanity all over the world, by military requisites of Europe, on which a distributing the inhabitants at the places justification of Protection is partially most suitable for their support, and thus based, there is no reason why the tariff deciding the position of each individual in should be maintained in America, save life on the basis of an unfettered comthe impossibility of reducing it without petition. In the chaining up of comcreating dissatisfaction, and, in some re. petition by Protection lies the secret of spects, disaster among the manufacturing half the industrial troubles, as over.proclasses. The evil, however, is working duction in the modern sense could not to the point when the heroic remedy must otherwise take place, but would be limited of necessity be soon applied or not at all. by the natural operation of the laws of Nor, in expressing this, are we without an Free Trade, when the interests of the historical parallel, as may be seen in the farmer and the artisan would remain idensecular history of the Jews just prior to tical. the commencement of the Christian era. With the destruction of Protection, The nation at the epoch was as full of in. therefore, in America, the condition of telligence as the America of to-day, and that country will be radically changed ; the people were, according to Dr. Geikie, and there cannot be a doubt that when it looking forward to a future as gross as occurs, a genuine impulse must be given Mahomet's paradise.” They were thirst- not only to the well-being of the people, ing in the same way as nations still are, but to the well-being of all peoples. The for all the blessings of material gain, to reason of the success so far of democracy obtain which the fulfilment of the law was lies in the fact that it promotes the greatthe ideal aim. This spiritual protection, est good of the greatest number ; but this which isolated them from the rest of man- cardinal principle is being forgotten in kind by drawing round Palestine a barrier America, and outside of the British Isles as effectual as a modern tariff, was a base or in portions of the empire has only a corruption of the Mosaic institutions, and semi-existence. The foolishness of stimucreated a spirit of hate that “embittered lating production in the United States and even private life.” Not only did they excluding the competition of the world, hate and injure one another, but “all is seen in the inability to lighten taxation alike hated whole classes of their own na- by reducing the annual surplus, which tion and the whole heathen races.” An- curtails the operations of business by cient exclusivism, adopted for the sake of causing a constant flow of currency to the worldly dominion and prosperity, became Treasury. The surplus is thus " a rock the means of annihilating a race, and, of offence” to every one engaged in agriwhatever way we may look at it, the culture and commerce, and cannot be most important race of antiquity. Under maintained to benefit the manufacturer. the new conditions of modern progress Already the farmers' alliances are multithe very same state of affairs is thus work- plying in every direction, all breathing ing up again, without, however, an atom bitter sectarianism and full of economical of spirituality as a redeeming feature, and fads for the begetting of a money millencalled by the name of
patriotism.” nium. There are, accordingly, some America, the nineteenth century“ land of hard times before democracy in the United promise," has consequently before her States ; but the strangest thing connected eyes the warning of the past ; but where, with it is the deliberate manner Ameriin the recurrence of the world to heathen cans have worked up trouble for themideals, and worse, in its denial of God selves in the very spirit of that Navigafor at least the belief in the guds was the tion Act they once so fiercely denounced. making of Greece and Rome-will arise If, in the land of its early development, the Spirit that rescued mankind from the democracy can make no advance on the chaos of their own forining, and inaugu- victory of the rights of man, its day is rated a bond of union known by the name done there, great and splendid as its serof “love"?
vice has been. The people of the United It is by no means, therefore, with a Kingdom bave improved upon it by the
addition to its triumph, so far as they are and glorying in the selfishness of the moconcerned, of free exchange, and the ment, but without the guidance of the hopes of the working men of all nations wise men when the way was uncertain ; must henceforth rest exclusively on the and as a consequence, if no halt is made, unfolding of British genius. It may be if the route is not retraced, all the magthat, owing to forgetfulness of her duty nificent possibilities before the New World toward humanity, American is at the may be closed indefinitely by the reaction length of her tether for the present, that of that very self-confidence which opened the impetus derived from the founders them up. This would be a great discan carry her no further. She has walked appointment for the Americans themselves, on the path marked out by her early his- and a sad ending to their own expectatory, gathering wealth at every step, tions.- Blackwood's Magazine. trusting to a rapidly developing continent,
PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY,
FROM THE GERMAN OF PAUL HEYSE.
BY COLLARD J. STOCK,
WIDER the world's delights are teeming,
lips that hung,
FROM SHADOW TO SUNLIGHT. By the Marquis AN OLD MAID's Love. By Maarten Maartens.
of Lorne. New York : D. Appleton & Co. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Mr. Maartens has been made known favorIN THE HEART OF THE STORM. By Maxwell ably to English and American readers in the
Gray, author of “ The Silence of Dean Mait. past. His " Joost Avelingh," published in land," "
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us has much of the same quality which disThe Maid of Honor. By the Hon. Lewis fidelity to nature, dramatic vigor, and severe
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fidelity of devotion shown by a narrow-minded (Town and Country Library.) New York :
woman to a brilliant and delightful young D. Appleton & Co.
scapegrace, her adopted nephew, Arnout CONSEQUENCES. A Novel By Egerton Castle. Oostrum. Seduced from his affection for his New York : D. Appleton & Co.
early sweetheart by the graces of a brilliant